AP Bio: AP Biology - Study Guide
AP Bio: AP Biology - Study Guide AP Bio
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lis Waldo on Tuesday October 21, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to AP Bio at a university taught by Ullrey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 209 views.
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Date Created: 10/21/14
membrane ribosome organelles mitochondrion rough ER osmosis nuclear envelope selectively permeable passive transport nuclear pore smooth ER phagocytosis phospholipid exocytosis surface areavoume ratio pinocytosis eukaryotic cell transmembrane protein plasma membrane facilitated diffusion turgor plasmolysis flagella vacuole prokaryotic cell fluid mosaic model resolution nucleus Questions and Practice 1 How do the unique chemical and physical properties of water make life on earth possible Because water is polar it makes for a good solvent which allows for the creation of solutions Water is also less dense as a solid than liquid allowing animals and plants to live in water during the winter Water has a high specific heat which causes large bodies of water to be resistant to changes in temperature and stabilizes the environment s temperature 2 What is the role of carbon in the diversity of life Carbon has the ability to form diverse molecules with other atoms Carbon is responsible for the existence of vital macromolecules like proteins carbohydrates nucleic acids 3 How do cells synthesize and breakdown macromolecules Cells break down macromolecules in catabolic pathways For example proteins can be broken down into amino acids by dehydration synthesis or the removal of H20 Proteins carbohydrates and lipids from the food we eat are broken down into amino acids and sugars 4 How do structures of biological molecules account for their function carbs proteins lipids DNA Proteins like enzymes can only function with a specific shape Enzymes will only allow certain molecules to collide to and bond with its active site If the enzyme were to denature the enzyme loses its shape and cannot function properly Lipids make up our cells membrane which divides the cell from its environment Phospholipids have a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head which creates the phospholipid bilayer This structure allows small nonpolar molecules into and out of the cell easily while larger charged molecules must be diffused into or out of the cell through the use of channels and pumps DNA is made of nucleic acids wrapped around histone proteins The nucleic acids when interacted with phosphates form a stable backbone 5 What are the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells both have DNA cell membranes cytoplasm and cytoskeleton However prokaryotic cells have no membranebound organelles are less complex are typically smaller are singlecelled and have a nucleoid while eukaryotic cells have membranebound organelles are more complex are larger are usually multicelluler and have nuclei 6 What the evolutionary relationships between proka ryotic and euka ryotic cells The endosymbiotic theory states that prokaryotes came first in the world and that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes According to the theory cells like mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free living prokaryotic cells until larger prokaryotic cells engulfed them As these larger prokaryotic cells reproduced the mitochondria and chloroplasts continued to live inside them because they provided energy for the prokaryotic cells and the prokaryotic cell provided them nutrients and a home This theory is supported by mitochondria and chloroplasts both having circular DNA similar to prokaryotes reproduce through binary fission and have double membranes 7 How does compartmentalization organize a cell39s functions Compartmentalization allows for organelles to perform specific functions without interfering on another organelle s function For example lysosomes will break down waste and dead cells but will not break down the cell its living in 8 How are the structures of the various subcellular organelles related to their functions Structures of organelles are directly related to their function For example the cristae of the mitochondrion has a high surface area meaning there is more ETC on the surface to make ATP in cellular respiration The phospholipid bilayer allows small nonpolar molecules across the membrane while larger polar molecules cannot enter or leave without channels or pumps Cilia and flagella act as legs to help the cell move due to their thin taillike structure The plant s cell wall is sturdy and provides the plant cell structure 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 How do organelles function together in cellular processes The nucleus acts as the cell s command center and contains the genetic code DNA that coordinates the growth and cuntion of the cell mRNA copies the coding from the DNA and is used to make polypeptides when attached to a ribosome or rRNA on the rough ER The polypeptide is is shipped from the rough ER in a vesicle made by the smooth ER to the golgi body where a carbohydrate is added to the polypeptide and a protein is formed The protein is then shipped in another vesicle to wherever it is needed What IS the current model of molecular archltectu re of membranes Membranes are considered to be a fluid mosaic model because they contain proteins that are able to move around A cell s membrane is called a phospholipid bilayer because the phospholipids arrange themselves in two layers with their hydrophilic heads on the outside and hydrophobic tails on the inside This model allows for small nonpolar molecules to enter easily through the membrane and for larger charged molecules to enter and exit only through a channel or pump Proteins like integral proteins are partially inserted into the membrane while peripheral protein are only on the surface of the membrane Cholesterol glycolipids and glycoproteins are on the surface of the membrane and maintain fluidity and act as antigens respectively How do variations in this structure account for functional differences among membranes Membranes contain proteins scattered around These different proteins with different structures all have different functions Membranes with channel proteins let large charged particles diffuse through the membrane while other membranes with glycoproteins and glycolipids assist in cell identification How does the structure of membranes provide for transport and recognition The phospholipid bilayer only allows small nonpolar molecules to easily enter and exit the cell Other charged particles can pass through the membrane with the assistance of a pump or channel The cell membrane also houses glycoproteins and glycolipids that act as antigens and assist in cell identification What are various mechanisms by which substances can cross the membrane Substances can pass the membrane through protein channels down a concentration gradient without requiring ATP or protein pumps against a concentration gradient which does require ATP In osmosis and diffusion lab how was osmosis measured in both living and artificial Substances can pass the membrane through protein channels down a concentration gradient without requiring ATP or protein pumps against a concentration gradient which does require ATP What was the IV in the dialysis bag part of the lab DV Control Controlled variables The independent variable in this lab was the molarity The dependent variable was the percent change in mass What was the IV in the potato part of the lab DV Control Controlled variables The independent variable in this lab was the molarity of the sucrose solutions The dependent variable was the percent change in mass Draw concept map showing the connections between the following terms Atom Compound Carbohydrate Lipid Protein Nucleic Acid Organelles Nucleus Mitochondria Cell membrane Golgi Apparatus ER prokaryotic cell eukaryotic cell Atom Compounds like carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids Organelles like nucleus mitochondria cell membrane golgi body ER Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell
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