Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
Media, Culture, & Society Exam II
Sound & Radio (Chapter 4-5)
∙ Music first achieved mass popularity through the sale of piano sheet music ∙ Most of this was early jazz or theatrical music...
o But people still thought it was going to destroy America
∙ In the 1940's, pop vocalists like Frank Sinatra helped stabilize the record industry The History of Recorded Sound
∙ In 1857, a French inventor (de Martinville) recorded sound mechanically (phonautograph)
o He could record it but could not play it back.
∙ In 1877 Thomas Edison learned how to reproduce sound to record it AND play it back. ∙ In 1887, Emile Berliner learned how to mass produce records.
∙ In the early 1990's, American companies produced basic record players. o Record players were like pieces of furniture.
∙ Stereo sound wasn't wildly available until the late 1950's.
∙ Digital recording was invented in 1978.
∙ Compact discs were available in the early 1980's.
∙ The Apple iTunes store debuted in 2001.
∙ Digital sales now account for 64% of the U.S. market.
∙ The telegraph was invented in the 1840's.
∙ Radio was put to similar uses as the telegraph (like communicating with ships at sea). ∙ Marconi (an Italian) sent the first radio message in 1895.
o There is some question whether he invented the first radio device - both Loomis and Tesla have also been credited.
∙ An American (De Forest) helped popularize radio by demonstrating the potential of voice transmissions. If you want to learn more check out What are the chemical preservatives used for food preservation?
∙ The radio coverage of the sinking of the Titanic helped popularize the medium. ∙ The idea of using radio to generate advertising revenue did not come about until the 1920's.
∙ Not coincidentally, this is when publicly accessible radio stations started to appear. ∙ Radio grew quickly. The number of stations went from 5 to 600 in two years. ∙ This caused a problem: too many stations, and not enough frequencies. ∙ The government stepped in to regulate radio.
Records v. Radio
∙ Radio cut record sales in half in the first year of its existence.
∙ The record industry then required radio stations to pay for playing songs ∙ This largely failed, and record sales crashed
∙ The end of prohibition increased record sales, because of bars and jukeboxes. ∙ Radio didn't start cooperating with the recording industry until TV started cutting into its audience and its profits. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the socio-cultural causes of sexual dysfunction?
∙ Now, record companies sometimes "pay" radio stations to play specific songs. o pay = bribes
Radio: The Broadcast Medium
∙ Radio was actually the first medium to use networks:
o groups of linked broadcast stations that share programming produced at a central location
∙ Most modern TV networks actually started as radio networks (NBC, ABC, CBS) ∙ Because early radio was dominated by news, it helped create modern news organizations.
Advertising (Chapter 11)
The History of Advertising
∙ Advertising has existed throughout almost all of recorded history (since at least 3000 B.C.E.)
∙ Historically, the technology Don't forget about the age old question of Who was the biggest proponent of black power?
∙ to print very large numbers of ads arrived at about the same time as the technology to transport products and ads large distances. We also discuss several other topics like Why is russia referred to as the third rome?
∙ At the same time, factory technology made it possible to mass-produce things to advertise.
∙ In the early 1840's, space brokers became a new form of business in the U.S.: o Buying space in newspapers and selling it to people who wanted advertisements ∙ In 1869, the first modern full-service advertising agency opened in the U.S. o This meant, in part, that the agency worked for the client and not for the newspaper.
∙ National brands were relatively uncommon in the U.S. before the middle-to-late 1800's. Why?
o Brands weren't able to be national. There wasn't any national transportation. ∙ Brand names encourage consumers to believe in the idea of "product differentiation": o The idea that there are significant differences among products even if there are very few.
∙ "Product differentiation associated with name-brand packaged goods represents the single biggest triumph of advertising.'
o Most ads aren't effective in the short term, but...
o Over time, they create demand through associating some products with quality. ∙ National brands were important for two reasons
o They created "brand loyalty" that allowed companies to charge higher prices. o They helped create the high demand for specific products that was necessary for actory production. We also discuss several other topics like How important were naval battles during wwii?
∙ Famous-person testimonial
∙ Plain-folks pitch
o Associates a product with simplicity
∙ Snob appeal approach
o Suggests that using a product will elevate your social status
∙ Bandwagon effect
o Plays on the desire to be popular or part of the crowd
∙ Hidden fear appeal
o Plays on consumers' insecurities
∙ Irritation advertising
o Creating name recognition by being annoying
∙ Association principle
o Associating a product with a positive value or image even if it has little to no connection to the product.
∙ Stereotyping We also discuss several other topics like What happens when there is radioactive decay?
o The process of assigning people to abstract groups whose members are assumed to act as a single entity.
o Early ads were tended to be negatively stereotypical of women and racial minorities because ad executives were predominantly white, male, and ignorant. o Negative stereotyping is now used in ads to attract people who enjoy seeing other groups being stereotyped.
∙ Viral marketing
o The creation of ads or other marketing materials that are so attractive to consumers that they voluntarily distribute them to their own social networks. Other Stuff from the book you should study:
∙ Subliminal advertising – a 1950s term that refers to hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register on the subconscious, creating false needs and seducing people into buying products
∙ Psychographics – in market research, the study of audience or consumer attitudes, beliefs, interests, and motivations
∙ VALS – (Values and Lifestyles) a market research strategy that divides consumers into types and measures psychological factors, including how consumers think and feel about products and how they achieve the lifestyles to which they aspire
∙ Saturation advertising – the strategy of inundating a variety of print and visual media with ads aimed at target audiences
∙ Interstitials – advertisements that pop up in a screen window as a user attempts to access a new web page
Motion Picture (Chapter 7)
The History of Motion Pictures
∙ The basic principle of silver nitrate photography (still photographs) was discovered in 1727.
∙ Actual motion was not captured on film until 1872 (Muybridge).
o IN 1878, Muybridge produced his first famous series of horse pictures. o practical film technology wasn't developed until 1888.
∙ The French were the first to show a film for entertainment (and monetary) value in 1895. o This was made possible by the Lumiere brothers.
o They invented the cinematograph, which allowed multiple people to see movies on a large screen
o The first public movie theater was opened in 1896 (Melies)
∙ Films were largely considered scientific curiosities in the U.S. until well after 1900. Why?
o because of the horse argument
∙ Narrative film making rapidly popularized movies.
∙ The first narrative films were produced in the early 1900's in the US
∙ In 1914, the first "Movie Palace" was opening in the US
o Large, full- time single screen movie theaters
o Designed to make audiences comfortable (as opposed to previous "nickelodeon" theaters)
∙ One of the most influential early American actors was Mary Pickford o She was so popular that producers had to pay her higher and higher salaries. o In 1919, she formed United Artists, along with Douglas Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin, and others
o UA was the first movie company formed by actors
∙ Sound came to movies in 1927
The Attendance Peak & What Happened Next
∙ 1946 was the movie attendance peak
∙ Why did the (relative) popularity of movies decline after that time?
o Post WWII "Baby Boom" means families move to the suburbs
▪ Families have less money
▪ Few money theaters in the suburbs
∙ The anti-communist "witch hunts" of the 1940's and 1950's give Hollywood a bad name ∙ The arrival of popular TV in the 1950's gives movies a serious competitor. ∙ The invention of VCR's in the 1970's means you don't have to go to the theater anymore ∙ Attendance hit a low point in the late 1960's and has stayed steadily low since ∙ And yet movies survived
o Movies are a bigger business than they were before all these things
Free Expression (Chapter 16)
∙ Free expression is guaranteed in the First Amendment, but there is a long history of government attempts to limit expression
∙ The Supreme Court has banned prior restraint
o Government attempts to censor something before the expression (speech, printing, distribution, etc.) actually takes place
∙ There are many reasons why prior restraint is considered particularly bad: o It takes something completely out of the marketplace of ideas
o Prior restraint laws tend to censor more materials than their authors intend o Prior restraint has a "chilling effect" that causes speakers (and writers, etc.) to self- censor, which is even more restrictive than the law itself
∙ Near v. Minnesota
o The court's "first great press case"
o It ruled that newspapers could not be stopped from publishing even "scandalous and defamatory" material
o However, it left open the possibility that prior restraint might be acceptable in extreme circumstances.
∙ The Pentagon Papers
o The actual court case was New York Times Co. v. United States
o The court ruled the government could not stop newspapers from publishing classified material in their possession.
o It left open the possibility of justifiable prior restraint, but said the government was not justified in this case.
∙ The Progressive magazine case
o United States v. Progressive, Inc.
o The government sought to stop the publication of an article containing classified information about how nuclear bombs work.
o A federal judge initially ruled that the government was justified in restraining publication.
o The government later dropped the suit because the information had been published already in other papers based on non-classified information
Fun with Obscenity
∙ There is a very, very long history in the US of attempts to ban publications on the basis of obscenity
o The word "prurient" was a common element in early definitions
▪ prurient - "marked by, arousing, or appealing to sexual desire"
∙ The modern court definition was established in 1973 (in Miller v. California). It has 3 elements:
o The average person applying community standards, would find the material prurient
o The material depicts sexual conduct in a patently offensive way
o The material as a whole lacks ANY value
∙ As a result, it's much harder to prove that something is obscene, and standards vary a lot from community to community
∙ However, the Court has since ruled that child pornography is not protected. ∙ Some localities use other tactics to enforce anti-obscenity laws.
Forcing your TV to Talk
∙ Enacted in 1949, the "fairness doctrine" required stations to air all sides of public issues o This was abandoned in 1987 when TV stations got so numerous that diversity of content was likely.
∙ Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act requires broadcast stations that give or sell time to one candidate to provide equal opportunity to other candidates.
o If a station sells ad time to one candidate, it cannot refuse to sell ad time to others o If a station gives free time to one candidate, it must give free time to the others o News programs are exempt
Unprotected Speech: An Overview
∙ When thinking about free expression issues, remember two things:
o The government is allowed reasonable restrictions on the "time, place and manner" of expression
o The constitution primarily keeps the government (not your employer or anyone else) from restricting your expression
Unprotected Speech: Intellectual Property
∙ Intellectual property rights trade off with freedom of expression
o "Intangible rights protecting tthe products of human intelligence and creation" ∙ Specifically, freedom of expression does not allow us to violate copyright laws. o Literally, "the right to copy."
o Gives the creator of an original work of authorship exclusive rights to control its distribution
o Lasts until you die, then 70 more years after that, then the work enters the public domain
Unprotected Speech: Slander and Libel
∙ Slander and libel are recognized as expression not protected by the First Amendment. o Both are "communication that defames a person's character"
o Slander is spoken, libel is written or broadcast
o To count as libel, the expression must be both false and damaging. Also, the publisher must have been negligent in determining the truth.
∙ In New York Times v. Sullivan, the Supreme Court ruled that public figure also have to rpove that news organizations acted with actual malice
o This means unless they acted with a "reckless disregard for the truth" they're not guilty of libel
∙ There are a number of defenses against libel
1. "The truth" is always a defense
2. Prosecutors in court are granted absolute privilege, which means they can't be sued for making false accusations in the courtroom
3. Reporters are granted qualified privilege which means they can't be sued for repeating false statements made in court or in legislative sessions
4. "Opinion and fair comment" is protected, although the line between what's suppose to be a fact and what's suppose to be opinion can be unclear
5. Satire, comedy, parody, and critical reviews are generally protected by law from libel suits
Individual vs. Press
∙ Another example where rights can trade off with one another is the freedom of press (1st Amendment) and the right to trial by an impartial jury (6th Amendment).
∙ Gag orders are issued by judges to prevent anyone involved in a trial from speaking to the press and potentially influencing a jury.
∙ Shield laws protect reporters from having to reveal their confidential sources to police or other legal authorities.
Oher Stuff to Study
∙ Fourth Estate – the notion that the press operates as an unofficial branch of government, monitoring the legislative, judicial, and executive branches for abuses of power ∙ Mutual v. Ohio – the first Supreme Court decision of 1915 regarding film’s protection under the first amendment where the Mutual Film of Detroit sued the state of Ohio whose review board had censored a number of the distributor’s films.
∙ Burstyn v. Wilson – 1952 Supreme Court case (also known as the Miracle case named after Roberto Rossellini’s film II Miracolo) where the movie distributor sued the head of the New York Film Licensing Board for banning the film although it was considered unconstitutional due to prior restraint
∙ The Pawnbroker – 1965 film which contained brief female nudity
∙ FCC v. Pacifica Foundation – 1978 case that sided with FCC and upheld the agency’s authority to require broadcasters to air adult programming at all times when children are not likely to be listening.
Television (Chapter 6)
The History of Television
∙ TV is older than you think. Early television design was pursued in the 1890's. ∙ These designs centered around the Cathode Ray Tube
∙ Picture screen TV technology was invented in the 1920's by a young American from Idaho, Philo Farnsworth.
∙ The first demonstration of the technology was in 1927. The first public demonstration was 1934.
∙ The first TV standards were adopted in the US in 1941.
∙ Between 1941 and 1948, the number of TV stations went from 10 to 100. o This was true in spite of the fact that full commercial broadcasting didn't start until 1947.
∙ In 1948, only 1% of American homes has a TV set.
o By 1953, that number had grown to 50%.
o This happened in spite of the fact that the FCC had issued a freeze on new TV station licenses during most of that period.
∙ Early television was live so no one recorded it
o Early tv was also very short.
o They were created, produced, and sponsored by a single company.
o The networks (NBC, ABC, CBS) wanted freedom from sponsor control, so they conspired to make shows longer.
∙ Color television wasn't consistently broadcast until 1966.
∙ Television affects us deeply but slowly.
I Love Lucy
∙ I Love Lucy is arguably the most influential show in the history of TV o First TV show to be recorded (filmed)
o First TV show to be edited using multiple takes
o First show to be produced in Hollywood instead of New York
o Broke many "taboos", such as showing married people in bed together Counting Screens
∙ Critics and media scholars now talk about the multiple screens upon which we receive media content.
∙ Movies are referred to as the first screen, since they represent the first form of motion picture technology
∙ Television is the second screen, since it came next.
∙ Computer monitors are now thought of as the third screen, since so many people watch different media content online.
∙ Smart phones (and mobile video like iPads) are the rapidly growing fourth screen. ∙ Some people even talk about digital signage that you see outside your home as a fifth screen.
The Cable Company
∙ Cable originated in the late 1940's to serve rural communities with poor reception. ∙ Wide- scale cable wasn't attempted until the 1970's.
o By 1985, 46% of US households had cable.
o By 1999, 70% had cable.
∙ The growth of cable was slowed due to fears it would destroy local TV. ∙ HBO was the first company to try using satellite broadcast to reach its local affiliates. ∙ Ted Turner realized he could use the same technology as HBO to reach affiliates with non-premium channel.
∙ Turner's "Superstation" became the first standard cable station across the country and created a rush of new stations.
∙ Cable introduced narrowcasting:
o Providing specialized programming for diverse and fragmented audiences o This allowed content providers and advertisers to target specific audiences. o As narrowcasting has become more popular, the big networks have become less important as cultural and financial influences.
∙ There has been a lot of convergence in the cable industry.
∙ There are also many regional monopolies. Most communities now have only one cable company.
∙ IN communities with only one cable company, rates have risen faster than hose with competition
∙ his convergence also means that cable cant really be an alternative to traditional network television.
The Business of TV
∙ TV networks are required to seek out most of their content from independent producers o The exception to this is "prime time," during which networks can produce their own show.
o -Prime time used to be from 7-11 pm, but the FCC reduced it to 8-11 pm in 1970. ∙ That same years, the FCC created "fin-syn" rules
o They banned networks from demanding large fees for syndicated shows. ∙ Like movies, most American TV shows cost a lot to make
o Around $3 million per episode for the average network TV drama
∙ Most scripted network TV shows don't recoup their investment through advertising in their initial run
o They make up the deficit through syndication
▪ The practice of selling the rights to broadcast reruns of a show to a
specific network or company
o They also make money from product placement, global sales of the show, and other sources such as merchandising.
Other Stuff You Should Study
∙ Paul Nipkow – German inventor developed the scanning disk, a large flat metal disk with a series of small perforations organized in a spiral pattern that separated pictures which would be used as scenes for TV
∙ Vladimir Zworkykin – Russian lab assistant that invented the first TV camera tube to convert light rays into electrical signals which he received a patent for in 1928 ∙ Time shifting – the process whereby television viewers record shows and watch them later, when it is convenient for them
∙ Prime Time Access Rule – (PTAR) an FCC regulation that reduced networks’ control of prime-time programming to encourage more local news and public affairs programs often between 6- 7pm.
∙ Must-carry rules – rules established by the FCC requiring all cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local TV broadcasts on their systems, thereby ensuring that local
network affiliates, independent stations, and public television channels would benefit from cable’s clearer reception
∙ Evergreens – in TV syndication, popular, lucrative, and enduring network reruns like I Love Lucy
∙ Fringe time – in television, the time slot either immediately before the evening’s prime time schedule or immediately following the local news or the network’s late night talk shows