BISC 130 exam 2
BISC 130 exam 2 BISC-130-001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alanna Kelly on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BISC-130-001 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Kyle Kemege in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles in Biological Sciences at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapters 45 Cell structures and function Cont Flagella long threadlike appendages 0 Function movement motility Cilia small hairlike lashes that extend from the cell surface 0 Function movement and moving of uid andor mucus across cell surface Cellular extensions cilia and agella 0 Structures that extend from the cell help with movement and increasing surface area Cell wall plants composed of mainly of cellulose Extracellular Matrix ECM composed mainly of protein bers from the endomembrane system 0 lntegrins transmembrane receptors Cell membrane thin semipermeable membrane that surrounds the cell Chapters 67 energy and metabolism Energy the power and ability to be physically and mentally active 0 Kinetic energy energy and object possesses due to motion 0 Potential energy energy that is stored First law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed 0 Energy can simply be converted from one form to another Chemical reactions 0 Endergonic products of reaction have higher energy than reactants requires input of energy 0 Exergonic products of reaction have lower energy than reactants release energy 0 These 2 reactions can be coupled 0 Chemical reactions are reversible 0 Extra energy is required for exergonic reactions to occur Activation energy or quotenergy humpquot 0 To get past activation energy Supply heat energy to the reaction Lower activation energy Catalysts in uence the chemical bonds of reactants to lower activation energy to speed up the reaction Enzymes biological catalysts 0 Mostly proteins but some are RNA Bind substrates and release products Substrates bind at the active sites Stress chemical bonds to be broken or reformed Lower activation energy Are speci c for their substances Not permanently changed by the reaction reusable Sensitive to pH and temp change optimal conditioning OOOOOOO O O 0 Can be affected by inhibitors These bind to enzymes and prevent substrate binding Can be affected by activators Bind to enzymes and increase their activity Can require cofactors to work Metabolism all chemicals carried out by an organism O O Anabolism all chemical reactions that bind molecules endergonic Catabolism all chemical reactions that break down molecules exergonic Metabolic pathway sequence of chemical reaction each with its own enzyme Feedback inhibition the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor for an enzyme carrier in the pathway ATP 0000 0 Nucleotide Energy quotcurrencyquot in a cell Very shortterm energy Has 2 high energy bonds between 3 phosphate groups ATP l ADP DAMP Energy energy Breaking these bonds releases energy exergonic o This reaction is coupled to endergonic reactions Cellular respiration the complete breakdown and oxidation of glucose 0000 02 is produced Energy harnessed to generate ATP Reverse of ATP break down Multiple stages 1 glycolysis Multiple steps enzymes intermediates Glucose 6carbon broken into 2 pyruvate molecules 3 carbon Generates ATP 0 ADP Pi ATP 0 Pi phosphate Generates NADH o NAD e l NADH o NAD and NADH e carriers 2 Krebs cycle AKA citric acid cycle TCA cycle Multiple steps enzymes intermediates ln mitochondria in plants and animals Cyclic o Takes 2 rounds to fully break down all 6 carbons from glucose Pyruvates 3carbon broken to C02 Generates ATP NADH FADH2 o FAD e l FADH2 FAD FADH e carriers 3 electron transport chain NADH and FADH2 are reduced 0 High energy 0 e ow from these carriers to other carriers in many steps 0 lower energy with each step 0 at each step energy released is used to pump H protons across a membrane creates a proton gradient 0 OZ is the nal e acceptor o No ATP produced at this stage 4 ATP synthase 0 Multi subunit enzyme 0 Uses the proton gradient to generate ATP 0 H move from high concentrations to low concentration Across membrane but through ATP synthase hollow Rotary enginemolecule motor 0 Uses energy of passing H to generate ATP 0 most of the total ATP generated from cellular respiration is from this step Aerobic respiration OZ is the nal e acceptor Anaerobic resporation molecule other than OZ is the nal e acceptor 88Fermentation 0 When aerobic respirators do not have OZ 0 Some ATP produced by glycolysisdo only this step since cant do e transport chain Buildup of NADH but glycolysis needs NAD need to oxidize NADH back to NAD o Fermentation occurs because there is a buildup of NADH o Oxidation coupled to reductionsomething needs to be reduced Ethanol fermentation o Acetadehyde reduced to ethanol Performed by some yeast Lactic acid fermentation o Pyruvate reduced to lactic acid Performed by animals after muscle cells use up all OZ fermentation has lower energy yield than full process of aerobic cellular respiration 0 Only done when OZ is used up completely Chapter 8 photosynthesis Photosynthesis o Anabolism o Carried out by plants some bacteria some protists Overall reaction 0 C02 H20 energyight D C6H1206gucose 02 Carried out in 2 parts 0 Light dependent reactions LDR 0 Light independent reactions LIR Photons particles of light 0 Have energy Pigments molecules that absorb light energy 0 Absorbed energy provides excitation of e go to a high energy state Chlorophyll pigment used for photosynthesis 0 Rings and double bonds allow it to capture light energy 0 One chlorophyll is not enough 0 Organized into arrays called light harvesting complexes Hundreds of chlorophylls absorb protons and excite e Pass energy of excited e from one chlorophyll to another 0 do not physically move at this step Until energy of excited e reaches center chlorophyll 0 At reaction center e are passed to e acceptor Chlorophyll get e back from an e donor 0 H20 0 H20 l 02 e 0 Two photosystems in plants 0 Photosystems II and l o E move from II to l Lower in energy after movement Releases energy 0 Powers protons pump ATP generated by ATP synthase 0 e are excited a 2nCI time in Photosystem ll excited e in l are passed to NAD 0 overall e move from H20 to NADPH o LDR in plants use H20 photons l 02 ATP NADPH Most bacteria have one photosystem o Excited e pass through e transport chain which results in a generation ATP by ATP synthase 0 Cyclic process E end where they started Does not create 02 from H20 0 LDR in bacteria Photons ATP 0 LIR Use energy and e from LDR to build glucose overall C02 ATP NADPH l C6H1206 Inorganic carbon C02 to organic carbon glucose 0 Fixing carbon 0 2 steps LIR 1 calvin cycle Creates G3P 3carbn molecule from C02 0 Uses ATP and NADPH Fixes 1 carbon per cycle 2 glycolysis G3P x2 D glucose enzymatic reactions of glycolysis are reversible and can be catalyzed by same enzymes 0 Why make glucose 0 Plants use glucose to build cellulose o Glucosestarches are better longterm energy storage molecules than ATP Photorespiration 0 Chemical reaction in which 02 is used in the Calvin cycle instead of C02 failure to x carbin Wastes energy and NADPH Occurs more frequently when 0 C02 levels are low 0 02 levels are high 0 Temp is high 0 plants are constantly creating 02 LDR and using C02 LIR 0 quotNormalquot plants are C3 plants Take no steps to reduce photorespiration
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