Exam 2 Study guide
Exam 2 Study guide Bio243
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naomi Chance on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio243 at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at University of South Carolina Aiken.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
CH 24 Structure of ATP composed of an adenine ring and a ribose sugar and three phosphate groups triphosphate Redox reactions Oxidation When a molecule loses electrons the electron donor Reduction When a molecule gains electrons its charge is reduced the electron acceptor What is the role of NAD and FAD NAD is reduced gets an H with an extra electron so NAD NADH FAD is reduced gets two H with extra electrons so FAD FADH2 The purpose of FADH2 and NADH is to carry electrons to electron transport chain How many ATPs each of the above yield each NADH produces 25 ATP and each FADH2 produces 15 ATP 4 steps that lead to ATP generation from food Glycolysis Pyruvate oxidation Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Cellular location of each of the above steps Glycolysis Happens in cytoplasm Pyruvate oxidation Happens as molecules move into mitochondria Krebs Cycle Happens in mitochondria Electron Transport Happens in mitochondria Starting material end point and total number of ATP used or produced in glycolysis Required some activation energy 2 ATPs to get glucose ready Reactions split one 6carbon sugar into two 3carbon sugars then converted these molecules to pyruvate 2 NAD accept highenergy electrons to make 2 NADH Enough energy is generated to attach phosphates to 4 ADP to make 4 ATP Not much energy was made but it was fast and no oxygen was required anaerobic Important end products 2 ATP 4 produced 2 used to start 2 Pyruvate 2 NADH Number of NADH in pyruvate oxidation 2 NADH What is aerobic and anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from glucose or in the presence of Oxygen Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of a molecule or molecules to produce energy in the absence of oxygenRespiration is a molecular process that breaks down glucose and produces wastes products and energy What happens during Kreb cycle How many ATP NADH and FADH2 generated Goal is to take a pyruvate and put it into the Krebs39s cycle producing NADH and FADH2 There are two steps The Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA The Kreb39s Cycle proper In the Krebs39s cycle all of Carbons Hydrogens and Oxygeng in pyruvate end up as C02 and H20 The Krebs39s cycle produces 2 ATP39s 8 NADH39s and 2 FADH239s per glucose molecule What happens during ETC How what grabs electrons at the end electron transport chain CH4 Goal to break down NADH and FADH2 pumping H into the outer compartment of the mitochondria In this reaction the ETS creates a gradient which is used to produce ATP quite like in the chloroplast Electron Transport Phosphorylation typically produces 32 ATP39s 4 basic types of tissues Epithelium Connective Muscle and Nervous Based on number of layers what type of epithelia can have Simple and Strati ed Based on shape what type of epithelia can you have Squamous Cuboidal and Columnar Difference between stratified and pseudostratified Stratified epithelium has layers of cells Pseudostratified has what appears to be layers of cells but is really a single layer Difference between comi ed and noncomified epithelium Comified superficial layer of cells attened and contain a nucleus NonComi ed super cial layer of cells attened and does not contain a nucleus Different between endocrine and exocrine secretion Exocrine Product released into a system of ducts that connect with the embryonic parent epithelium Endocrine Product released into blood or lymph These have severed their original connection with the epithelium Three components that make up the connective tissue ground substances bers cells Two main types of bers in connective tissue and their functions Collagen ber Provide high tensile strength to resist stretching and tearing Elastic bers Interspersed between collagen bundles in organs subject to bending stretching Different types of connective tissue Dense regular Dense irregular Loose Elastic Areolar Adipose Difference between white and brown adipose White adipocytes Unilocular because triglycerides are stored in a single locus Brown adipocytes Multilocular with multiple lipid droplets interspersed among mitochondria Types of cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Fibrocartilage Elastic Cartilage Examples of where you would nd a particular cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Found in ribs nose larynx trachea Fibrocartilage Found in intervertebral discs joint capsules and ligaments Elastic Cartilage Found in external ear epiglottis Bone tissue types types of bone cells Hard tissue forms skeleton Mature bone cells are called osteocytes Bone building cells Osteoblasts Bone chewing cells Osteoclasts Two types Compact consists of osteons Spongy trabecular meshwork Blood What it is made of Where are the RBCs made lifespan and structural features Blood composed of CELLS FLUID Red Blood Cells erythrocytes or RBC carry oxygen White Blood Cells WBC ght infections Blood Platelets help in blood clotting Blood Plasma uid material of blood RBC produced in bone marrow life span 120 days no nucleus and most other organelles contain hemoglobin that carries oxygen Three types of muscles and their differences Cardiac striated involuntary intercalated disc Skeletal striated multinucleated voluntary Smooth nonstriated involuntary one nucleus per cell Part of neuron Dendrites receive messages Axons send messages Soma or cell body regular cell function CH 5 3 major layers of skin Key features Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Subcutaneous Sub layers of epidermis Key features of each layer Stratum Basale Attached to dermis Youngest keratinocytes Stratum Spinosum Several layers thick Keratinocytes appear spikey Melanocytes and dendritic cells Stratum Granulosum l to 5 cell layer thick Process of keratinization starts Stratum Lucidum Thin at dead keratinocytes Stratum Comeum 2030 rows of dead keratinized cells Three quarters of epidermal thickness COME LETS GET SOME BACON Sub layers of dermis Papillary and Reticular layers Difference between Meissner s and Pacinian corpuscles Their location Meissner s Corpuscles light touch in papillary layer of dermis Pacinian Corpuscles vibration and pressure in reticular layer of dermis Different types of glands What are sebaceous glands and sudoriferous glands What glands are involved in thermoregulation Sebaceous glands Oil glands Associated with hair follicles Secrete sebum Blocked sebaceous glands blackheads and pimples Sweat Sudoriferous glands Eccrine Soles of feet palms and forehead Sweat Temperature regulation Apocrine Armpits and genital area Sweat fatty material and proteins Milky Mammary Milk Ceruminous Ear war What gives the skin color Determined by combination of Melanin Carotene and underlying blood supply Dark pigment Melanin Structure of hair follicle hair and attached muscles and glands A hair follicle anchors each hair into the dermis Associated with each hair follicle is a bundle of smooth muscle cells called an arrector pili muscle 3 types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma From stratum basale most common least malignant Squamous cell carcinoma From stratum spinosum Melanoma cancer of the melanocytes rarest but most dangerous CH 6 and CH 8 Difference between axial and appendicular skeleton Axial Skull ribs vertebrae sternum Appendicular Bones of arms and legs Shapes and sizes of bones with examples Long Arms legs Short Wrists ankles patella Flat Skull ribs sternum scapula Irregular Vertebrae hip What is articular cartilage Primarily hyaline cartilage Difference between compact and spongy bone Compact or hard Osteons Microscopic units of compact bone Shafts Long bones Spongy or soft No Haversian systems osteons Trabecular plates Swiss cheese Bone marrow 4 types of bone cells Function of each Osteogenic cells Osteoprogenitor cells Mitotically active stem cells When stimulated become osteoblasts Hang out in periosteum and endosteum Osteoblasts Bone building cells Lay unmineralized bone matrix called osteoid Osteocytes Mature osteoblasts that get trapped in the bone matrix Osteoclasts Bone chewing bone resorbing cells 2 types of ossifications Intramembranous ossi cation Replacement of thin connective tissue membrane with bone In at bones for example skull Endochondral ossi cation Replacement of fetal cartilage hyaline skeleton with bone In long irregular and short bones Factors affecting bone formation Growth hormone Estrogen Testosterone Types of fractures Types of bone diseases Greenstick fracture an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent This type of fracture occurs most often in children Comminuted fracture a fracture in which the bone fragments into several pieces Spiral is a bone fracture occurring when torque a rotating force is applied along the axis of a bone Occurs when the body is in motion while one extremity is planted Epiphyseal a fracture that involves the epiphyseal plate or growth plate of a bone It is a common injury found in children occurring in 15 of childhood long bone fractures Compression a vertebral bone in the spine that has decreased at least 15 to 20 in height due to fracture Depressed a break in a cranial bone or quotcrushedquot portion of skull with depression of the bone in toward the brain Osteoporosis Rickets and paget s disease Osteoporosis Bone resorption occurs at a faster rate than bone deposition Estrogen or testosterone needed to promote bone formation Very common in women after menopause because of lack of estrogen Weight bearing exercises can promote bone formation Rickets in children Bones are soft because they do not calcify Due to de ciency of Vitamin D and calcium Paget s disease Excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption cause bones to be made fast and poorly called Pagetic bone Very high ratio of spongy to compact bone and reduce mineralization Types of joints Example for each type of joint Different movements Intervertebral disc clinical problem associated with it Hip joint glenohumeral joints and injuries associated with them Knee joint with special focus on the 4 ligaments that keep it in place
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