1001: Intro to Psychology - Study Guide
1001: Intro to Psychology - Study Guide 1001
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Date Created: 10/21/14
Study guide to Exam 2 Topics are Consciousness Learning Memory and Cognitive and Development Chapter 5 Consciousness 1 Describe stages 14 of the sleep cycle including brain waves and the kind of dreams associated with each stage 1 In this light stage of sleep which lasts for 5 to 10 minutes our brain activity powers down by 50 percent or more producing theta waves which occur four to seven times per second 2 In stage 2 our brain waves slow down even more Sudden intense bursts of electrical activity called sleep spindles of abnout 1214 cycles a second and occasional sharply rising and falling waves known as K compIexes first appear in the EEG 3 Light sleep gives way to much deeper slow wave sleep in which we can observe delta waves which are as slow as one to two cycles a second in the EEG In stage 3 delta waves appear 20 to 50 percent of the time and in stage 4 they appear more than half the time 4 In stage 5 our brain waves hype and are accompanied by increased heart rate and blood pressure as well as rapid and irregular breathing 2 What are the features of REM sleep In REM sleep we dream more the dream lasts longer and can be emotional illogical and prone to sudden shifts in plot REM sleep is biologically important and probably essential Our supercharged brains are creating dreams but our bodies are relaxed and paralyzed 3 What is lucid dreaming Describe the symptoms of insomnia narcolepsy sleep apnea night terrors and sleepwalking Lucid dreaming is when you re dreaming but your dream is so bizarre that you find out that you are dreaming INSOMNIA having trouble falling asleep waking too early in the morning waking up during the night and having trouble returning to sleep NARCOLEPSY people experience bouts of sudden sleep that last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes SLEEP APNEA Snore loudly gasp and sometimes stop breathing for more than 20 seconds Struggling to breathe rouses the person many times during the night NIGHT TERRORS Screaming crying perspiring confused and wide eyed SLEEPWALKING Walking while fully asleep occurs in non REM sleep 4 What is the effect of a stimulant on behavior and what drugs are considered stimulants What kinds of drugs are considered narcotics and what are the effects on behavior What is the effect of a psychedelic or hallucinogenic drug on behavior and what are some examples A stimulant increases heart rate respiration and blood pressure Nicotine cocaine and amphetamines are considered to be stimulants The opiate drugs heroin morphine and codeine are considered to be narcotics because they relieve pain and induce sleep Psychedelic drugs or hallucinogenic drugs include LSD mescaline PCP and ecstasy They produce dramatic alterations in perception mood and thought What are tolerance withdrawal physical and psychological dependence Tolerance is the reduction in the effect of a drug as a result of repeated use Withdrawal are the unpleasant effects of reducing or stopping consumption of a drug that users had consumed habitually Physical dependence is a dependence on a drug that occurs when people continue to take it to avoid withdrawal symptoms Psychological dependence is the dependence on a drug that occurs when continued use of the drug is motivated by intense cravings Reading on Learning chapter 6 Classical conditioning 1 What is learning What is habituation What is sensitization Learning is a change in an organism s behavior or thought as a result of experience Habituation is the process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli Sensitization is responding more strongly over time likely when a stimulus is dangerous irritating or both Who was Pavlov Describe the studies with the dog and metronome or bell Pavlov placed dogs in a harness and inserted a collection tube into their salivary glands to study their digestive responses to meat poweder He observed that dogs began salivating not only to the meat poweder itself but also to previously neutral stimuli that had become associated with it Define unconditioned stimulus sometimes abbreviated US and sometimes UCS and unconditioned response UR or UCR Define conditioned stimulus CS and a conditioned response CR An unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that elicits and automatic response An unconditioned response is the automatic response to a stimulus that does not need to be learned A conditioned response is a response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that comes to be elicited by a neutral stimulus A conditioned stimulus is an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus How can classical conditioning be used to produce an emotional response fear for example to a neutral stimulus When might this emotional conditioning be useful Classical conditioning can be used to produce an emotional response to a neutral stimulus through the introduction of an unconditioned stimulus that causes arousal An example of this would be Little Albert What is acquisition What makes a stimulus more likely to become a CS Acquisition is the learning phase during which a conditioned response is established What is extinction and what leads to extinction in classical conditioning Extinction is the gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus What are spontaneous recovery stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination Who was little Albert Please note that stimulus discrimination and discriminative stimulus are different concepts is the sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus is the process by which conditioned stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response is the process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus Little Albert was the baby on which the controversial study was performed He was introduced to a loud banging noise along with rats What is higher order conditioning Practice identifying the CS CR US UR in practical examples such as advertising conditioned fears sexual arousal food aversions and other emotional responses Higher order conditioning is the process by which organisms develop classically conditioned responses to previously neutral stimulus that later become associated with the original CS What is a conditioned taste aversion What makes it different from the usual models of classical conditioning Conditioned taste aversion refers to the fact that classical conditioning can lead us to develp avoidance reactons to the taste of food t s different from classical conditioning in that they typically require only one trial to develop Conditioned taste aversions tend to be remarkably specific and there is relatively little stimulus generalization Instrumental ConditioninqOperant Conditioninq Response Event Learning 1 Who is EL Thorndike What is Thorndike s Law of Effect What is a learning curve What is insight EL Thorndike came up with law of effect Law of effect is the principle asserting that is a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward the stimulus is more likely to give rise to the behavior in the future A learning curve is learning through trial and error through stimuus response associations Insight refers to grasping the underlying nature of a problem Who is BF Skinner What is a Skinner box BF Skinner developed electronic technology for operant conditioning A Skinner box is a small animal chamber constructed by Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviors to be recorded unsupervised Define Discriminative stimulus and identify it in practical situations Discriminative stimulus and any stimulus that signals the presence of reinforcement A friend s waving at us from across campus is a discriminative stimulus It signals to us that our friend wants to chat with us Define Reinforcement and Punishment is the outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior Positive reinforcement is when we administer a stimulus and ne ative reinforcement is when we take away a stimulus h is an outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior Positive punishment involves administering a stimulus that the organism wants to avoid Negative punishment involves the removal of a stimulus that the organism wishes to experience What do negative and positive refer to in operant conditioning Define and identify positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement as used in operant conditioning Negative refers to the removing of a stimulus whereas positive refers to the presenting of a stimulus In both cases the most frequent outcome is an increase or strengthening of the response 10 According to Skinner and others what are the disadvantages of punishment Skinner and other psychologists argued that certain actions that might superficially appear to be punishments are actually reinforcers What is a primary reinforcer What is a secondary reinforcer What are examples of each A primary reinforce is an item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior a favorite food or drink A secondary reinforce is a neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcer tokens chips points What are acquisition and extinction in operant conditioning is the learning phase during which a response is established is the gradual reduction and eventual elimination of a response after a stimulus is presented repeatedly What is a conditioned reinforcer How can classical conditioning be used to create a conditioned reinforcer a neutral object that can be used after conditioning to increase the frequency of desired behaviors What is shaping What is chaining 2 is conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target is when they link a number of interrelated behaviors to form a longer series Schedules of reinforcement 1 What is the difference between continuous schedule of reinforcement and intermittent schedules of reinforcement Continuous involves reinforcing the behavior every time it occurs whereas intermittent is only occasional Extinction occurs faster for continuous reinforcement than it does for intermittent Describe the four different partial reinforcement schedules and how they may be appear in rac calshua ons provide reinforcement after a regular number of responses provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once after a s ecified amount of time has passed h provide reinforcement for producing the response after an average time interval with the actual interval varying randomly Which is more resistant to extinction a variable or a fixed schedule Variable Comparing classical and operant conditioning 1 What are three ways in which operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning What areas of the brain are associated with classically conditioned fear reactions What neurotransmitter is associated with operant conditioning In classical conditioning the organism s response is pulled out by the UCS and later the CS whereas in operant conditioning the organism s response is generated by the organism voluntarily In classical conditioning the organism s reward is independent of what it does whereas in operant conditioning the animal s reward depends on what it does In classical conditioning the organism s responses depend primarily on the autonomic nervous system whereas in operant conditioning the organism s responses depend on skeletal muscles What is the two process theory Using phobias how does classical conditioning explain the development of a phobia How does operant conditioning explain the maintenance of a phobia The two process theory states that we need both classical and operant conditioning to explain the persistence of anxiety disorders People acquire phobias by means of classical conditioning and once they have the phobia they avoid the feared stimulus whenever they encounter it Operant conditioning kicks in when people negatively reinforce their phobia which causes the fear to persist Cognitive models of learning and Observational learning 1 Define observational learning Define modeling Who is Albert Bandura and what was the Bobo doll experiment Observational learning is learning by watching others Modeling involves being influenced by those who are influential to us which can include parents teachers etc Albert Bandura and his colleagues demonstrated that children can learn to act aggressively by watching aggressive role models The Bobo doll experiment involved children watching the way adults treated a Bobo doll The children were then placed into the room with the Bobo doll themselves and their results were recorded Explain how observational learning can explain how watching media violence may increase the likelihood of physical aggression Lectures and readings on Memory Chapter 7 1 What is the modal model of memory What are the working processes of memory attention rehearsal encoding and retrieval What is Sensory memory What is its capacity duration and function How did the Sperling study measure the duration and capacity of sensory memory Sensory memory is tied closely to the raw materials of our experiences our perceptions of the world It holds these perceptions for just a few seconds before passing some of them on to the second system The Sperling study displayed twelve letters for a brief period time and discovered that participants could remember a couple of the letters correctly but that they would never get all of the letters correct What are echoic and iconic memory What is the duration of each of these Echoic memory is auditory sensory memory Iconic memory is visual sensory memory Iconic memory can last very long for some people whereas echoic memory lasts for 5 to 10 seconds What is Short term memory What is its capacity duration and function What is chunking What is the magic number How did Peterson and Peterson study the duration of short term memory Short term memory is a second system for retaining information in our memories for brief periods of time Short term memory lasts for no longer than 20 seconds Chunking involves organizing material into meaningful groupins The magic number is the span of short term memory seven plus or minus two pieces of information What are the three levels of processing and what kinds of tasks are associated with each Which will produce the best recall 10 11 12 13 The three levels of processing are encoding storage and retrieval Encoding refers to the process of getting information into our memory banks Storage refers to the process of keeping information in memory Retrieval refers to the reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores Storage will produce the best recall What is Longterm memory What are its capacity duration and function Longterm memory is our relatively enduring store of information It has a huge capacity can stay with us for years or even a whole lifetime serves us in everyday life What are the different kinds of long term memory What kinds of memory are typical of each different kind Semantic memory our knowledge of facts about the world Episodic memory recollection of events in our live Explicit memory memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness Implicit memory memories we don t deliberately remember or reflect on consciously Procedural memory memory for how to do things including motor skills and habits Priming our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we ve encountered similar stimuli Who is Clive Wearing What kinds of things could he remember and what kinds of things could he not remember as a result of his brain injury What do these deficits and retentions indicate about memory Clive Wearing is a patient of complete anterograde amnesia He is no longer capable of explicit memory but his implicit memory is still fine He could no longer remember things that are to be remembered intentionally These deficits indicate that the hippocampus affects explicit memory but has no effect on implicit memory What is the serial position effect What is recency What is primacy What kind of memory seems to be involved in primacy What kind of memory is involved in recency If you want to eliminate the recency effect what would you do What is a mnemonic What is the method of loci What is the keyword method The Pegword method A mnemonic is a learning aid strategy or device that enhances recall The keyword method involves thinking of an English word that reminds you of the word you re trying to remember The pegword method involves rhyming and is often used to recall ordered lists of words Associate each number in a list with a word that rhymes with the number and create an image that associates the word you want to remember with the pegword What is a schema How do schemas helphinder memory A schema is an organized knowledge structure or mental model that we ve stored in memory Schemas equip us with frames of reference for interpreting new situations However they can sometimes oversimplify and produce memory illusions What is the difference between recall recognition and relearning as measures of memory Who was Ebbinghaus and what was his forgetting curve Recall is generating previously remembered information on our own Recognition is selecting previously remembered information from an array of options Relearning is how much more quickly we learn information when we study something we ve already studied relative to when we studied it the first time What is massed practice versus distributive practice What are the helpful study hints derived from memory research Table 72 Distributed versus massed practice tells us that we tend to remember things better in the long run when we spread our learning over long intervals than when we pack it into short intervals 14 15 16 17 18 What are the tip of the tongue phenomenon and encoding specificity context dependent learning state dependent learning The tip of tongue phenomenon is the experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it Encoding specificity refers to the phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it Context dependent learning is the superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context State dependent learning is the superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological of psychological state as it was during encoding In forgetting what is the difference between decay and interference What does each of these look like as a cause of forgetting What is retroactive interference What is proactive interference What is the role of the hippocampus and amygdala in memory What is long term potentiation What is anterograde amnesia retrograde amnesia The hippocampus is responsible for explicit memory while the amygdala is responsible for implicit memory Longterm potentiation is the gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation Anterogade amnesia is the inability to encode new memories from our experiences Retrograde amnesia is the loss of memories from our past What is a flashbulb memory What is source monitoring Memory illusions What is a suggestive memory technique A flashbulb memory is an emotional memory that is extraordinarily vivid and detailed Source monitoring refers to our efforts to identify the origins of a memory Suggestive memory technique refers to the procedure that encourages patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place What is the misinformation effect Who is Elizabeth Loftus What are examples of implanted memories What kinds of things increase the likelihood of false memories The misinformation effect refers to the creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place Elizabeth Loftus is a researcher who performed an experiment about the reports of participants and the actual reports of relatives She discovered that many people remembered things that didn t actually happen Examples of implanted memories include accidentally spilling a bowl of punch on the parents of the bride at a wedding reception t s wasier to implant a memory of something that is plausible than something that isn t and it is also easier to implant a memory of the distant past that people have a hazy memory
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