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PSY 1020 - Class Notes (First Exam)

by: Julia Notetaker

PSY 1020 - Class Notes (First Exam) PSY 1020

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Psychlogy > PSY 1020 > PSY 1020 Class Notes First Exam
Julia Notetaker
GPA 3.0
(LS) Elements of Psychology
Lingfei Tang

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These are the notes for psychology 1020 before the first exam
(LS) Elements of Psychology
Lingfei Tang
Study Guide
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Psychology 1020 Exam 1 Chapter 1 What is Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior outward or overt actions and reactions Mental processes internal convert activity of our minds Prevent possible biases from leading to faculty and careful measurement Psychology s Four Goals Apply this Differentiation Description what s happening Explanation Why is it happening Theory general explanation of a set of observations or facts Prediction will it happen again Control How can it be changed Structuralism focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind died out early 19005 Wilhelm Wundt s Psychology Laboratory Germany in 1879 Developed the technique of objective introspection the process of objectively examining and measuring one s thought and mental activities Edward Titchener Wundt s student brought structuralism to America Margaret Washburn Titchener s student first women to earn a PhD in psychology Functionalism How the mind allows people to adapt live work and play Proposed by William James at Harvard Influenced the modern fields of Educational Psychology Evolutionary Psychology ndustrialOrganizational Psychology Gestalt Psychology Gestalt quotgood figure psychology Started with Wertheimer who studied sensation and perception His ideas are now part of the study of cognitive psychology a field focusing not only on perception but also on learning memory thought processes and problem solving Psychoanalysis the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud Freud s patients suffered from nervous disorders with no apparent physical cause He proposed the existence of an unconscious unaware mind into which we push or repress all of our threatening urges and desires His patients suffered from nervous disorders with no apparent physical cause He believed that these repressed urges in trying to surface created nervous disorders He stressed the importance of early childhood experiences Behaviorism the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only must be directly seen and measure Proposed byJohn B Watson based on the work of Ivan Pavlov who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned learned Watson believed that phobias were learned Case of quotLittle Albert taught to fear a white rat Mary Cover Jones an early pioneer in behavior therapy She redid similar experiment as quotLittle Albert Little Peter and tested how to countercondition or systematically desensitize Modern Perspectives Psychodynamic Perspective modern version of psychoanalysis more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person s behavior than sexual motivations including sense of self social and interpersonal relationships Behavioral Perspective B F Skinner studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior Behaviorism became a major force in the 20th century Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism Humanistic Perspective Owes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy Humanists held the view that people have free will the freedom to choose their own destiny Early Founders Abraham Maslow amp Carl Rogers Emphasized the human potential the ability of each person to become the best person he or she could be Selfactualization achieving one s full potential or actual self Cognitive Perspective focuses on memory intelligence perception problem solving and learning Social and Cultural Perspective focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture Biopsychological Perspective attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body such as genetic influences hormones and the activity of the nervous system Evolutionary Perspective focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value Types of Psychology Professionals Psychiatrist a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Psychoanalyst either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis Psychiatric Social Worker a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders such as poverty overcrowding stress and drug abuse Psychologist a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology can do counseling teaching and research and may specialize in any one of a large number of areas within psychology Areas of specialization in psychology include clinical counseling developmental social and personality among others Scientific Method system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced Types of Research Designs Surveys Interviews researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic under study given to a representative sample randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects population the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested Advantages data from large numbers of people study covert behaviors Disadvantages researchers have to ensure representative sample or the results aren t meaningful people aren t always accurate courtesy bias Experiment a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see whether corresponding changes in behavior result allowing the determination of causeandeffect relationships Naturalistic Observation watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment Major Advantage realistic picture of behavior Disadvantages observer effect tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed participant observation a naturalism observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed to reduced observed effect observer bias tendency of observers to see what they expect to see blind observers people who don t know what the research question is to reduce observer bias Each naturalistic setting is unique and observations may not hold Laboratory Observation watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting Advantages control over environment allows use of specialized equipment Disadvantages artificial situation that may result in artificial behavior Descriptive methods lead to the formation of testable hypotheses Case Study study of one individual in great detail Advantage tremendous amount of detail Disadvantage cannot apply to others Famous Case Study Phineas Gage Finding Relationships Correlation a measure of the relationship between two variables Variable anything that can change or vary measures of two variables go into a mathematical formula and produce a correlation coefficient r which represents two things the direction of the relationship the strength of the relationship knowing the value of one variable allows researchers to predict the value of the other variable the correlation ranges from 100 to 100 the closer to 100 or 100 the stronger the relationship between the variables no correlation 000 perfect correlation 100 or 100 Positive Correlation variables are related in the same direction as one increases the other increases as one decreases the other decreases Negative Correlation variables are related in opposite direction as one increases the other decreases Correlation does not prove causation Experiment please see definition for experiment above Operational Definition definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured definition driving performance Independent Variable IV the variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter IV violent TV Dependent Variable DV the variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment DV aggressive behavior Experimental Group subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable experimental group watch violent TV Control Group subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment controls for confounding variables control group nonviolent TV Random Assignment the process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group control for confounding extraneous interfering variables Placebo Effect the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior SingleBlind Study subjects do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control group reduces placebo effect Experimenter Effect tendency of the experimenter s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study DoubleBlind Study neither the experimenter nor the subjects know which subjects are in the experimental or control group reduces placebo effect and experimenter effect Quasiexperimental Designs not considered true experiments because of the inability to randomly assign participants to the experimental and control groups for ex when age is the variable of interest Example of a Real Experiment Hypothesis knowing that other people might think one s success in school is due to athletic ability rather than intelligence can make an athlete perform poorly on an academic test Independent Variable timing of quothigh threat question dependent variable test scores Experimental Group answered quothigh threat question before taking the test quotrate your likelihood of being accepted to the university without the aid of athletic recruiting Control Group answered quothigh threat question after taking the test Results Supported Hypothesis Those asked the quothigh threat question before the test scored significantly lower on that test Why do we need it Nuremberg Code 1947 rights for human subjects Belmont Report 1979 respect for persons beneficence and justice Ethics in Psychological Research Ethics Committees groups of psychologists or other professionals who look over each proposed research study and judge it according to its safety and consideration for the participants in the study Common Ethical Guidelines The rights and wellbeing of participants must be weighed against the study s value to science Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participants Deception must be justified Participants may withdraw from the study at any time Participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of risks Investigators must debrief participants telling them the true nature of the study and their expectations regarding the results Data must remain confidential If for any reason a study results in undesirable consequences for the participant the researcher is responsible for detecting and removing or correcting these consequences Animals research answers questions we could never investigate with human research The focus is on avoiding exposing animal subjects to unnecessary pain or suffering Animals are used in approx 7 of psychological studies Critical Thinking making reasoned judgments about claims be skeptical and challenge preconceptions and false claims Four Basic Criteria a there are very few truths that don t need to be subjected to testing b all evidence is not equal in quality c just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have a lot of expertise doesn t make everything that person claims automatically true d critical thinking requires an open mind Chapter 2 Overview of Nervous System Nervous System an extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body Neuroscience deals with the structure and function of neurons nerves and nervous tissue relationship to behavior learning and memory etc Structure of the Neuron Neurons the basic cell that makes up the nervous system amp receives amp sends messages within that system Parts of a Neuron a Dendrites branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons b m the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell c m long tubelike structure that carries the neural messages to other cells Other Types of Brain Cells Glial cells are cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on amp around deliver nutrients to neurons produce myelin to coat axons Myelin fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate protect and speed up the neural impulse Neurons in the Body Nerves bundles of axons in the body that travel together through the body Neurilemma Schwann s membrane serve as a tunnel through which damaged nerve fibers can repair themselves Generating the Message w charged particles Inside neuron negatively charged Outside neuron positively charged Resting potential the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse Action potential the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon allows positive sodium ions to enter the cell Neural Impulse Allornone a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all return to resting potential Neuron Communication Neurons send message to other neurons Axon terminals branches at the end of the axon Synaptic vesicles sacklike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals Neurotransmitters chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which when released has an effect on the next cell Synapsesynaptic gap microscopic fluidfilled space between the rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell Receptor sites proteins in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters receptor sites are locks neurotransmitters are keys Neurons can be turned ON and OFF excitatory neurotransmitter neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to fire inhibitory neurotransmitter neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to stop firing Chemical substances can affect neuronal communication Agonists mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell The poison of a black widow spider is an agonist for acetylcholine Excessive acetylcholine cause convulsion Antagonists block or reduce a cell s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters they occupy the receptor site preventing other receptors from settling in Curare blocks the acetylcholine receptor paralyzing the animal Cleaning up the Synapse Reuptake process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles end result is less neurotransmitters Breakdown by enzyme fast nzyme a complex protein that facilitates chemical reaction One type specifically breaks up acetylcholine because muscle activity needs to happen rapidly reuptake would be too slow Central Nervous System Definition part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord Spinal Cord a long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain that is responsible for very fast lifesaving reflexes The Reflex Arc Three Types of Neurons Sensory neuron a neuron that carries information from the senses to the CNS through an afferent or sensory pathway Motor neuron a neuron that carries messages from the CNS to the muscles of the body through an efferent or motor pathway Interneuron a neuron found in the center of the spinal cord that receives information from the sensory neurons and sends commands to the muscles through the motor neurons Interneurons also make up the bulk of the neurons in the brain Peripheral Nervous System Definition all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself divided into the somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system Somatic Nervous System Soma body division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons motor pathway nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles consisting of motor neurons Autonomic Nervous System ANS division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles organs and glands sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons Sympathetic divisions fightorflight system part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal Parasympathetic division part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the daytoday functioning of the organs and glands Endocrine Glands Definition glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream Pituitary gland also known as the master gland gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormonesecreting glands ineal gland endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin which control sleepwake cycle hyroid gland endocrine gland found in the neck that regulates metabolism Pancreas endocrine gland that controls the levels of blood sugar Gonads the sex glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction ovaries the female gonads testes the male gonads Adrenal Glands endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress epinephrineadrenaline norepinephrine amp cortisol and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence Looking inside the Living Brain Clinical Studies Deep Lesioning insertion of a thin insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire Electrical Stimulation of the brain ESB milder electrical current that causes neurons to react as if they had received a message Human brain damage Electroencephalograph EEG machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain Parkinson s with DBS Parkinson s patient turns the deep brain stimulation DBS device on and off DBS is a device implanted in the body that stimulate parts of the brain Structural Imaging Computed tomography CT brainimaging method using computercontrolled Xrays of the brain Magnetic resonance imaging MRI brainimaging method using radio waves amp magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain Functional Imaging Functional MRI fM RI visualization of brain activation high resolution low speed Eventrelated potential ERP records electric activity of the brain below certain region of the brain low resolution high speed Position emission tomography PET brainimaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activity The Brain Stem Medulla the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord forming the lowest part of the brain which is responsible for lifesustanining functions such as breathing swallowing and heart rate m the larger swelling above the medulla that relays information from cerebellum and cortex that plays a part in sleep dreaming leftright body coordination and arousal Reticular Formation RF an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla amp the pons amp slightly beyond responsible for arousal amp selective attention cocktail party effect Cerebellum part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates fine motor movement think about alcohol Structures under the Cortex Cortex imbic system a group of several brain structures located under the cortex amp involved in learning emotion memory and motivation Thalamus part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex including all four senses except of sense Olfactory bulbs two projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors in the nose located just below Hypothalamus small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland and controls the pituitary gland responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep hunger thirst and sex responsible for regulation of hormones because it controls the pituitary gland Hippocampus curved structure located within each temporal lobe responsible for the formation of longterm memories and the storage of memory for location of objects Amygdala brain structure located near the hippocampus responsible for fear responses and the memory of fear Lesion of amygdala in animals or human resulted in a lack of fear response to potentially dangerous situations Definition outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input Corticalization wrinkling of the cortex allows a much larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull Human cortex compared to various animal species Cerebral Hemispheres Definition the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain Corpus callosum thick band of neurons that connects the right amp left cerebral hemispheres Four Lobes of the Brain a Frontal Lobes areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech Motor Cortex section of the frontal lobe located at the back responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the SNS b Parietal Lobes sections of the brain located a the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere and controls attention and spatial perception Somatosensory cortex area of neurons running down the front of the pariental lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch temperature body position and possibly taste c Temporal Lobes areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech Primary auditory speech processes auditory information from the ears Auditory association cortex identifies and makes sense of auditory information d Occipital Lobe section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain Primary visual cortex processes visual information from the eyes Visual association cortex identifies and makes sense of visual information Association Areas of Cortex Broca s aphasia condition resulting from damage to Broca s area usually in left frontal lobe causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently to mispronounce words and to speak haltingly Wernicke s aphasia condition resulting from damage to Wernicke s area usually in left temporal lobe causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language patial neglect condition produced by damage to the parietal association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field SplitBrain Research Cerebrum the upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them Definition study of patients with severed corpus callosum involves sending messages to only one side of the brain demonstrates right and left brain specialization Chapter 3 Sensation Definition the activation of receptors in the various sense organs Sensory receptors specialized forms of neurons the cells that make up the nervous system Sense Organs Eyes ears nose skin and taste buds Sensory Thresholds Just noticeable difference jnd or the difference threshold the smallest difference between 2 stimuli that is detectable 50 of the time quotfeel the difference Weber s Law Jnd is a constant proportion of the original stimuli If for 5 tsp of sugar jnd is 1 extra tsp of sugar then 10 tsp for sugar jnd is 2 extra tsp of sugar Absolute Threshold Definition the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 of the time it is present quotI can hear you talk 510 times Subliminal Sensation Subliminal stimuli stimuli that are below the level of conscious awareness just strong enough to activate the sensory receptors but not strong enough for people to be consciously aware of them limin threshold sublimin quotbelow the threshold supraliminal quotabove the threshold Subliminal perception the process by which subliminal stimuli act upon the unconscious mind influencing behavior Habituation and Sensory Adaptation Habituation the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant unchanging information Sensory Adaptation the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging Microsaccades constant movement of the eyes tiny little vibrations that people do not notice consciously prevents sensory adaptation to visual stimuli Psychological Aspects to Light Brightness is determined by the amplitude of the wave how high or how low the wave actually is The higher the wave the brighter the light will be Low waves are dimmer Color or hue is determined by the length of the wave Long wavelengths are found at the red end of the visible spectrum the portion of the whole spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye whereas shorter wavelengths are found at the blue end Saturation refers to the purity of the color people see mixing in black or gray would lessen the saturation Wavelength and Frequency Wavelength and frequency has an inverse relationship Frequency f 1wavelength Red Light longer wavelength lower frequency Blue light shorter wavelength higher frequency Structure of the Eye Retina Cornea clear membrane that covers the surface of the eye protects the eye and is the structure that focuses most of the light coming into the eye Laserassisted in situ keratomileusis LSHQ visionimproving techniques that make small incisions in the cornea to change the focus in the eye Aqueous humor next visual clear watery fluid that is continually replenished and supplies nourishment to the eye Pupil hole through which light from the visual image enters the interior of the eye round muscle the colored part of the eye in which the pupil is located can change the size of the pupil letting more or less light into the eye helps focus the image another clear structure behind the iris suspended by muscles finishes the focusing process begun by the cornea Rods and Cones Visual Accommodation the change in the thickness of the lens as the eye focuses on objects that are far away or close Vitreous humor jellylike fluid that also nourishes the eye and gives it shape Retina final stop for light in the eye contains 3 layers a ganglion cells b bipolar cells c photoreceptors that respond to various light waves Blind Spot area in the retina where the axons of the three layers of retinal cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve insensitive to light Rods visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina responsible for noncolor sensitivity to low levels of light 50 shades of grey Cones visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision How the Eyes Work Dark Adaptation the recovery of the eye s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights slow Light Adaptation the recovery of the eye s sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness fast Color Vision Trichromatic Theory theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones red blue and green receptor level cone Support color blindness Afterimages images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed Opponentprocess theory theory of color vision that proposes four primary colors with cones arranged in pairs red and green blue and yellow retinal bipolar cells ganglion cells and thalamus level Color Blindness Monochrome colorblindness a condition in which a person s eyes either have no cones or have cones that are not working at all Redgreen colorblindness either the red or the green cones are not working protanopia lack of functioning red cones euteranopia lack of functioning green cones ritanopia lack of functioning blue cones The gene for colordeficient vision is recessive More males colorblind than females females protected by the extra X chromosome Sound m frequency of the wave high medium or low ertz Hz cycles or waves per second a measurement of frequency Volume amplitude of the wave how soft or loud a sound is Lity interpreted as timbre a richness is the tone of the sound Structure of the Ear Auditory canal short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum tympanic membrane Eardrum thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening into the middle part of the ear just like a drum skin covers the opening in a drum when sound waves hit the eardrum it vibrates and causes three tiny bones in the middle ear to vibrate Hammer Anvil and Stirrup Cochlea snailshaped structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid Organ of Corti rests in the basilar membrane contains receptor cells for sense of hearing Auditory nerve bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear receives neural message from the organ of Corti Theories of Pitch m psychological experience of sound that corresponds to the frequency of the sound waves higher frequencies are perceived as higher pitches lace Theory theory of pitch that states that different pitches are experienced by the stimulation of hair cells in different locations on the organ of Corti Frequency Theory theory of pitch that states that pitch is related to the speed of vibrations in the basllar membrane but it is impossible for cells to fire 200000 Hz per second Volley principle theory of pitch that states that frequencies from about 400 Hz up to about 4000 Hz cause the hair cells auditory neurons to fire in a volley pattern or take turns in firing Types of Hearing Impairments Conduction hearing impairment can result from Damaged eardrum which would prevent sound waves from being carried into the middle ear properly damage to the bones of the middle ear sounds cannot be conducted from the eardrum to the cochlea Nerve hearing impairment can result from damage in the inner ear damage in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain Surgery to Help Restore Hearing Cochlear implant a microphone implanted just behind the ear that picks up sound from the surrounding environment for nerve hearing impairment the speech processor selects and arranges the sound picked up by the microphone the implant is a transmitter and receiver converting signals into electrical impulses Taste taste buds taste receptor cells in mouth responsible for sense of taste takes 1014 days to update Gustation the sensation of a taste Five Basic Tastes Sweet Sour Salty Bitter and quotBrothyquot or umami Current theory states that all of the taste sensations are processed are processed all over the tongue rather than in specific locations Sme Olfaction Olfactory Sense sense of smell Olfactory Bulbs areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells There are at least 1000 olfactory receptors they get updated every 58 weeks Somesthetic Senses Definition the body senses consisting of the skin senses the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular senses quotsomaquot body quotestheticquot feeling Skin senses the sensation of touch pressure temperature and pain Congenital analgesia cannot feel pain Gatecontrol theory pain signals must pass through a gate located in the spinal cord scratch a wound Kinesthetic sense sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other Vestibular senses the sensations of movement balance and body position Sensory Conflict Theory an explanation of motion sickness in which the information from the eyes conflict with the information from the vestibular senses resulting in dizziness nausea and other physical discomforts Perception and Constancies erception the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion Size Constancy the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size regardless of its distance Shape Constancy the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant even when its shape changes on the retina Brightness Constancy the tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change Gestalt Principles FigureGround the tendency to perceive objects or figures as existing on a background Reversible Figures visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed imilarity the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group roximity the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping Closure the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete Continuity the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with continuous pattern rather than with a complex brokenup pattern Contiguity the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related Development of Perception Depth perception the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions Monocular cues pictorial depth cues cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only Linear Perspective the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other Monocular Cues Relative Size perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are therefore assumed to be much farther away Interposition overlap the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer Aerial perspective the haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer causing the distance to be perceived as greater Texture gradient the textures are more distinct up close but much less so in the distant Motion parallax the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away Accommodation as a monocular clue the brain s use of information about the changing thickness of the lens of the eye in response to looking at objects that are close or far away Binocular Cues Definition cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes Convergence the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object resulting in greater convergence for closer objects and lesser convergence if objects are distant Binocular disparity the difference in images between the two eyes which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects Perceptual Illusions The Hermann grid is possibly due to the response of the primary visual cortex MullerLyer illusion illusion of line length that is distorted by inwardturning or outwardturning corners on the ends of the lines causing lines of equal length to appear to be different Moon illusion the moon on the horizon appears to be larger than the moon in the sky apparent distance hypothesis Illusions of Motion Autokinetic effect a small stationary light in a darkened room will appear to move or drift because there are no surrounding cues to indicate that the light is not moving Phi phenomenon lights turned on in a sequence appear to move Rotating snakes due in part to eye movements he Enigma due in part to Microsaccades Stroboscopic motion seen in motion pictures in which a rapid series of still pictures will appear to be in motion Factors that Influence Perception Perceptual set perceptual expectancy the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions Topdown processing the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole Bottomup processing the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception Chapter 4 Consciousness Definition a person s awareness of everything that is going on around and inside both external and internal processes Waking Consciousness state in which thoughts feelings and sensations are clear and organized and the person feels alert Altered state of consciousness state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness under influence of drug consciousness fuzzy and disorganized Necessity of Sleep Circadian rhythm a sleepwake cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24 period Suprachiasmatic nucleus deep within hypothalamus internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep signal pineal gland to release melatonin that regulates sleep young adults need 79 hours of sleep but it various between people Sleep deprivation any significant loss of sleep resulting in problems in concentration and irritability Microsleeps brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds Brain Wave Problems Electroencephalograph EEG allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered Alpha waves brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep Theta waves brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep Delta waves long slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep Stages of Sleep Rapid eye movement REM stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream NREM nonREM sleep any of the stages of sleep that don t include REM NonREM stage 1 light sleep theta wave may experience Hypnagogic imageshallucination vivid visual events ypnic ierk knees legs or whole bodyjerks NonREM stage 2 Heart rate decreases breathing becomes shallow Sleep spindles brief bursts of activity only lasting a second or two NonREM stages 3 and 4 Delta waves pronounced Body at lowest level of functioning Growth hormone released from pituitary gland reaching its peak When 50 or more of waves are delta waves REM Sleep and Dreaming REM sleep is paradoxical sleep beta wave high level of brain activity If wakened during REM sleep sleepers almost always report a dream leep paralysis brain active body inactive REM rebound increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights Sleep Disorders Nightmares bad dreams occurring during REM sleep Night terrors relatively rare disorders in which the person experiences extreme far and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully during nonREM sleep leepwalking occurring during deep sleep sleepwalking is an episode of moving around or walking around in one s sleep it is more common among children than adults Problems during Sleep Insomnia the inability to get to sleep stay asleep or get a good quality of sleep leep apnea disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more can cause heart problems Treatment continuous positive airway pressure device surgery spray Narcolepsy sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning Dreams M dreams as wish fulfillment manifest content the dream itself latent content the true hidden meaning of a dream Activationsynthesis hypothesis explanation that states that dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods Activationinformationmode model AIM revised version of the activationsynthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams HypnosB Definition state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion Four elements of Hypnosis The hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said The person is told to relax and feel tired The hyponotist tells the person to quotlet go and accept suggestions easily The person is told to use vivid imagination Hypnotic susceptibility degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject Theories of Hypnosis Hypnosis as dissociation hypnosis works only in a person s immediate consciousness while a hidden observer remained aware of all that was going on Socialcognitive theory of hypnosis theory that assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation Neurotransmitters and Drugs ndorphins endogenous morphine quotrunner s high endorphine release Morphineheronine pain relief withdrawal pain everywhere w Valium diazepam GABA agonist increase inhibition of fearrelated brain regions Alcohol binds to increase inhibition in prefrontal cortex leading to impulsive behaviors Serotonin depression could be related to reduced serotonin level Prozac SSRI increases serotonin level by blocking serotonin reuptakes more serotonin Dopamine related to movement and rewardmotivation too little Parkinson s disease too much Schizophrenia Cocaine dramatically increases dopamine level by blocking reuptake high could be related to sudden increase of dopamine level and is highly addictive Ecstasy dramatically increase serotonin norepinephrine and dopamine level Psychoactive Drugs Definition drugs that alter thinking perception and memory Physical Dependence body becomes unable to function without the drug Tolerance more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect Psychological Dependence the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological wellbeing Withdrawal physical symptoms that can include headache nausea pain temors crackiness and high blood pressure resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body system Stimulants Definition drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system Amphetamines synthesized drugs sometimes used to treat ADHD can cause the sympathetic nervous system to go into overdrive burns up energy has been used for dieting Amphetamines psychosis nausea vomiting high blood pressure stroke delusion Cocaine natural drug produces euphoria energy power and pleasure Highly addictive rats can forgo eating and drinking for cocaine User may experience crash afterwards tiredness nervousness and inability to feel pleasure and paranoia Fetus exposed to cocaine from mom show developmental delay Nicotine active ingredient in tobacco Rush of arousal raises blood pressure accelerates the heart releases adrenalin and dopamine more addictive than cocaine Caffeine the stimulant found in coffee tea most sodas chocolate and even many overthecounter drugs Depressants Depressants downer drugs that decreases the functioning of the nervous system Barbiturates depressant drugs that have a sedative effect overdose can lead to death Benzodiazepines Valium Xanax and Librium drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress Rohypnol sedation muscle relaxation partial amnesia the quotdate rape drug Alcohol Definition the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter often taken for a stimulant alcohol is actually a depressant on the CNS Stimulate the release of GABA it inhibits brain function reduced memory motor skills impaired speech increased response time Disinhibition related to the suppression of PFC the reduction of behavior control and rational thinking Narcotics Definition a class of opiumrelated drugs They suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the NS s natural receptor sites for endorphins Opium substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived Morphine narcotic drug derived from opium used to treat severe pain Heroin narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive Opioids interacting with alcohol can lethal Hallucinogens Psychogenic Drugs Drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication Hallucinogens drugs that cause false sensory messages altering the perception of reality LSD lysergic acid diethylamide powerful synthetic hallucinogen synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant depressant narcotic or hallucinogenic effects MDMA Ecstasy or X designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects release of serotonin and blocking of the reuptake Feeling of euphoria energy warmth but may damage serotonin receptors PCP and MDMA classified as stimulatory hallucinogenics drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects Marijuana pot or weed Definition mild hallucinogen derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant Active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol THC Cannabis is reported to relieve pain in cases of multiple sclerosis and chronic pain from nerve damage such use is controversial as cannabis is classified as an illegal drug in some countries


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