Organizational Behavior Exam 2 Study Guide
Organizational Behavior Exam 2 Study Guide MGT 06300 - 6
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MGT 06300 - 6
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Rossi on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 06300 - 6 at Rowan University taught by Yang Yang in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business, management at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Test 2 Study Guide: Session 6: Decision Making and Creativity: Identifying Problems: Rational Model Assumptions: We use all received information to recognize opportunities and identify problems. OB Evidence: We only attend to certain information which limits our abilities to identify opportunities and problems Generating Alternatives: Rational Model Assumptions: We explore all alternatives and compare their probable outcomes. OB Evidence: We have limited information-processing capabilities, and only generate a small set of alternatives Making Choices: Rational Model Assumptions: We evaluate all alternatives simultaneously and choose the one with the highest payof OB Evidence: We evaluate alternatives sequentially and choose the one that is “good enough”. Prospect Theory/Framing Heuristic: Tendency to evaluate risk diferently depending on how a decision is presented (or framed). We evaluate options against a “neutral” point. Escalation of Commitment (sunk cost bias): refers to a pattern of behavior in which an individual or group will continue to rationalize their decisions, actions, and investments when faced with increasingly negative outcomes rather than alter their course. Reduce Escalation Commitment: Separate initial decision-makers from decision evaluators: o example: preventing banks from making problem loans Shift focus of attention: o example: considering consequences for others and the organization, not only the self o example: emphasizing hopes and aspirations, not only costs and losses Give positive feedback properly: o example: affirming decision makers’ values and skills with little relevance to the quality of the decisions Hold people accountable for decision processes, not outcomes: o example: rewarding decision makers based on following the steps o Creative Process Model: 4 stages: Preparation: thinking before, brainstorming Incubation: to form the ideas Illumination: put the ideas together Verification: verify it works Session 7: Team Dynamics: Types of teams: task force: Temporary organized to complete an assignment virtual team: Members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries self-directed team: have great autonomy, requiring little supervision 3 forms of interdependence: Reciprocal: AB, BA, AC, CA, BC, CB Sequential: ABC Pooled: DA, DB, DC 3 Levels of trust in teams: Calculus based: based on deterrence Knowledge-based: based on predictability and competence Identification-based: based on mutual understanding and common values The 5 levels of the team development process model: Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Four constraints of team decision making: Time Constraints: time to organize Evaluate apprehension: belief that others are silently evaluating you Peer Pressure to conform: adjusting ones behavior to conform to groups Groupthink: tendency in highly cohesive teams to value consensus at the price of decision quality Brainstorming: coming up with other ideas Four specific rules to follow: speak freely, don’t criticize, provide as many ideas as possible, build on others’ ideas Session 8: Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace : 2 Types of Conflict: Constructive (task-oriented) conflict: Parties focus on the issue while maintaining respect for people having other points of view. They try to understand the logic and assumptions of each position Relationship (socioemotional) conflict: Parties focus on adversary rather than the issue as the source of conflict. They try to undermine each other’s worth/competence. This is Accompanied by strong negative emotions (drive to defend) Sources of Conflict: Incompatible goals: one party’s goals perceived to interfere with other’s goals Diferentiation: diferent values/beliefs Interdependence: greater chance that parties will disrupt or interfere with each other Scarce resources: motives competition Ambiguous rules: create uncertainty, encourage political tactics Communication problems: increase stereotyping, escalates conflict 5 Conflict Handling Strategies: Problem solving: Best when: - Interests are not perfectly opposing - Parties have trust/openness - Issues are complex Problem: takes time; costly Forcing: Best when: - you have a deep conviction about your position - quick resolution required - other party would take advantage of cooperation Problems: relationship conflict, long-term relations Avoiding: Best when: - conflict is emotionally-charged (relationship conflict) - conflict resolution cost is higher than benefits Problems: doesn’t resolve conflict, frustration Yielding: Best when: - other party has much more power - issue is much less important to you than other party - value/logic of your position is imperfect Problems: increases other’s expectations; imperfect solution Compromising: Best when: Parties have equal power - Quick solution is required - Parties lack trust/openness Problem: Sub-optimal solution where mutual gains are possible 3 Third Party Conflict Resolution Strategies: Distributive and Integrative Negotiation techniques: Distributive: o Anchoring (Strategy 1): making a first ofer that’s very favorable to you prepare and share a legit rationale use precise numbers o Re-anchoring: making a counter-ofer based on your target price ask counterpart to explain reasoning flinch, stare, and wait for a response ask counterpart to try again threaten to walk away (but only if you’re willing to do it) o Managing Time (Strategy 2): Apply time pressure through an “exploding ofer” or prolong the process to obtain the other party’s commitment o Managing Concessions (Strategy 3): Allow yourself room to make concessions signal information with your concessions develop a rationale around each of your concessions Integrative: o Sharing Information Selectively (Strategy 1): “Mutual striptease” Base reactions on tit-for-tat o Discovering Priorities (Strategy 2): Ask counterpart “why this is important to you?” Reveal priorities among issues Ask counterpart to rank order as well o Packaging Issues (Strategy 3): Make multi-issue ofers make multiple ofers simultaneously
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