Exam 1 Study Guide
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Review for Spanish Lit Exam 2216 Identify the authors Emilia Pardo Baz án Es de La Coru ña, España “Las Medias Rojas” Una profesora de literaturas neolatinas (Romance literature) en la Universidad de Madrid y de consejera (counselor) de Instrucci ón Pública Moved to Madrid and to Paris with her husband A few years later, dejó de su esposo y de estableció en la capital (left her husband) Decided to study la literatura francesa contempor ánea, colaboró en periódicos madrileños y dio tertulias literarias en su casa.(collaborated with Madrid newspapers and had literary gatherings in her home) Lo mejor de su producci ón lo constituyen las novelas que tratan de la vida y costumbres de Galicia, su región natal. Sus obras incluyen Los pazos de Ulloa La Madre Naturaleza Cuentos de la tierra (el mejor de sus numerosos libros de cuentos se destacan los de ambiente regional) La cuesti ón palpitante Estudio literario muy significativo sobre el movimiento naturalista franc és La literatura española el naturalismo, movimiento literario originado en Francia por Emile Zola la representación minuciosa (thorough) y científica la preferencia por los aspectos m ás feos y desagradables de la vida manifiestan los rasgos distintivos (distinctive features) del naturalismo la autora utiliza a los personajes y sus circunstancias para estudiar las condiciones sociales a través (through) de situaciones sórdidas (mean) Julio Cort ázar Naci ó en Bruselas, Bélgica Volvió a la Argentina “La Noche Boca Arriba” regresó a argentina después de la primera guerra mundial y obtuvo el título de maestro de escuela secundaria renunció su posición en la Universidad de Cuya, en Mendoza, para mostrar su oposición al régimen neofascista de Juan Domingo Perón Before the march in Paris, he was an english and french translator in publishing houses in argentina In France, he was an interpreter for UNESCO Partició activamente en los asuntos políticos de Latinoamérica, y siempre apoyó (support) las causas sociales Don ó (donated) money to un frente popular chileno Obras incluyen: Cuentos Final del juego Las armas secretas Historias de cronopios y famas Todos los fuegos el fuego Deshoras Novelas: Rayuela modelo para amar Ensayos Instrucciones para subir una escalera La vuelta al día en ochenta mundos Nicaragua tan violentamente dulce la narrativa argentina e hispanoamericana enfoca en los aspectos subconscientes e irracionales de la existencia humana surrealista mezcla lo real con lo ficticio he inserts french or english words or phrases Cort ázar ha creado con su obra enigmática, Juguetona (playful), that offers many possible ways to interpret the story Jorge Luis Borges Es de Espa ña (19181921) the returned to Buenos Aires Nació en Buenos Aires “El Etnógrafo” En Espa ña, donde conoció a los más ilustres representantes del ultraísmo movimiento de renovaci ón artística derivado de las escuelas de vanguardia europeas Cuando regres ó a Buenos Aires, participó en la prensa local y fundó una serie de revistas que propagaron la corriente vanguardista en la Argentina (participated in the local press and founded some magazines in Argentina (Prisma, Proa y Martín Fierro) Tras la caída en 1955 del régimen dictatorial de Juan Domingo Perón, éste ingresó a la Academia Argentina de las Letras Profesor de literatura inglesa en la Universidad de Buenos Aires y de director de la Biblioteca Nacional Su vista qued ó totalmente ciego (sight completely gone) Este prol ífico cultivo tres géneros: la poes ía Fervor de Buenos Aires La rosa profunda El oro de los tigres el ensayo Inquisiciones Historia de la eternidad Nueva refutaci ón del tiempo Otras Inquisiciones Siete Noches Los conjurados y el cuento Historia Universal de la infamia El jardín de los senderos que se bifurcan Ficciones El Aleph Atribuirse principalmente a sus ficciones esc éptico que se niega a aceptar la verdad; para burlarse (mock) de la humanidad halla absurdo que el ser humano ponga su confianza en los sistemas cient íficos y matemáticos Símbolos y metáforas El etnógrafo” ejemplifica con toda claridad el pensamiento y las técnicas narrativas del autor Ricardo Palma Es de Lima, Per ú “La camisa de Margarita” Abandon ó los estudiados universitarios para dedicarse a la literatura, al periodismo y la política Sus ideas liberales y anticlericales le costaron tres años de exilio político en Chile Fue director de la Biblioteca Nacional que él hizo reconstruir después de la guerra del Pacífico conservando as í el pasado histórico y la cultura de su tierra Palma sobresali ó como ensayista (he excelled as an essayist) Su renombre se debe principalmente a sus Tradiciones peruanas, que escribió intermitentemente entre 1872 y 1910 vivó en una época en la que creciente número de escritores hispanoamericanos exigían (demanded) drásticas reformas sociales y políticas en sus respectivos países. amante de la rica historia cultural de su patria nuevo g énero narrativo, la tradición sátira social y pura ficción La tem ática de la tradición es variada e incierta (unpredictable) aka, the saying from “La camisa de Margarita” Ricardo Palma tuvo diputaciones con Manuel Gonz ález Prada, sobre las obras revolucionarias de sus países Don Juan Manuel Es de Espa ña (Granada?) “El cuento: Guía para el lector” “Lo que sucedió a un mozo que casó con una muchacha de muy mal carácter” Sobrino del rey Alfonso X durante esa época de grandes conflictos políticos y guerras civiles lucha contra al rey Alfonso Aliándose (allied with) con príncipes extranjeros como los moros de Granada Don Juan Manuel lleg ó a un acuerdo con él y acabó siendo uno de sus defensores más leales (came to an agreement with Alfonso and became one of his most loyal supporters) Las m ás importantes de sus poéticas incluyen Libro del caballero y del escudero Libro de los estados Libro de Patronio o conde Lucanor El conde Lucanor El conde Lucanor, don Juan Manuel introduce en Europa la prosa novel ística (prose fiction) Esta obra contin úa la tradición didáctomoral de la prosa castellana No Juan Rulfo!!!! Los Cuentos “ Lo que sucedió a un mozo que casó con una muchacha de muy mal carácter” (Don Juan Manuel) the story of what happened to a young man who married a very strong and aggressive woman written in 1335 Count Lucanor spoke with Patronio and told him that one of his servants is thinking of marrying a very rich woman but is very aggressive. Count Lucanor asks Patronio if he should tell his servant to marry her. Patronio explained to Count Lucanor that there was a boy from a village who was poor and could only achieve what he wanted if he had money The boy in Patronio ’s story went to the father of the “devil girl” and asked to marry her. The father was astonished but agreed to the arrangement of the marriage. The father of the boy spoke to the father of the girl and said that death would be better fit for him but if he really wanted to marry her, the girl ’s father would be happy to get her out of his house. the wedding happened and the bride was brought to her husband ’s house. The moors have a custom of leaving the married couple alone in their house until the next day. The families of the boy and girl were afraid they would come back to a dead groom or badly battered When the couple sat at the table, the boy first asked the dog to get water for their hands but the dog didn't do it, so the boy tore the dog apart. He then saw a cat and asked it the same thing, it didn't do it so he slammed the cat against the wall and it shattered into a thousand pieces. The girl didn't say anything bc she just thought that he was mad He then saw his only horse and asked it the same thing but then he told the horse that just because it is the only horse he has, it doesn't mean he wont release his wrath on it. Then he did by cutting off its head. The girl was so scared that she didn ’t know if she was dead or alive. After the boy sat down with his bloody sword in his lap, he didn't see another living thing in the house and then turned towards his wife with scary eyes and asked her the same question and she brought him water and then gave him food after he asked for it. After dinner they went to bed and the girl still has not said anything. He said that with the wrath that he has had, no one better wake him up and that she has to make him a good breakfast The next morning the families came to the door and she answered the door asking them if they were insane bc if anyone spoke, they were all going to die. From then on, they esteemed the man highly and his wife was very obedient and they lived happily. The girls father then killed his rooster like the boy did but his wife said that he was too late because they already know each other. The count said that if his servant were to marry this woman, he would have to act as the boy did to govern his house. Moral: If at the beginning you dont know who you are, you will never be able to ater, when you would like to. “Si al principio no te muestras cómo eres, no podrás hacerlo cuando tú quisieres.” The count accepted Patronio ’s advice and all was well Personajes: El conde Lucanor Patronio The boy The boy ’s father The girl The girl ’s father Narrador: no es reliable porque es un fable third person La Camisa de Margarita (Ricardo Palma) “Well! This is more expensive than the nightgown of Margarita Pareja!” Margarita Pareja was the favorite daughter of don Raimundo pareja, the tax collector of the port of Callao (1765) Margarita was a Lime ñita who's beauty could captivate even the devil. Her pair of black eyes were like torpedos loaded with dynamite and could explode the hearts of any young man in Lima A young arrogant man came from Madrid named Don Luis Alc ázar and had a very rich uncle. Until Luis came to his uncle’s money, he lived as poor as a rat. In a church procession, Alcaz ár met Margarita and when he courted her, she didn't say yes or not but smiled and flirted. He fell completely in love Luis went to her father to ask for her hand but he said no because she was too young, this was not the real reason though, he did not want to be the fatherinlaw to a poor man. He told his friends this and they went and told Honorato (Luis ’ uncle) Honorato was furious Margarita was very nervous and threw a tantrum and talked about becoming a nun “To Luis or to God!” the doctor said the medicine couldn't be sold so she either marrys him or dies Don Raimundo ran to Honorato ’s house and begged to let his nephew marry his daughter but Honorato was way to proud. Luis interrupted and said it wasn’t right to let her die and he wanted to marry her. The condition was that Don Raimundo could not give her any cantavo nor inheritance. But she could come in the clothes she was wearing and a bridal night gown the next day the uncle and her father went to the church of San Francisco very early to hear mass and to follow through on the oath. The night gown had laces that cost 2,700 duros and it was studded with diamonds that amounted to 30,000 morlacos the newlyweds kept this from honorato who was so stubborn because he would have made the two divorce In the 3rd person Narrador omnisciente (allknowing) El narrador no es fidedigno (reliable) Temas: El orgullo te puede hacer da ño La crítica de las diferencias entre las clases sociales Los personajes: Margarita Pareja hija de don raimundo viene de familia rica le dan todo lo que ella quiere Don Luis Alc ázar no era rico ten ía una buena herencia de su tío don Honorato quiere casarse con Margarita es de madrid Don Raimundo Es Rico quiere a un hombre que pueda sostener a su hija y es obstinado Don Honorato Es rico t ío de don Luis Alcázar muy orgulloso (proud) es de Madrid Las Medias Rojas (Emilia Pardo Baz án) The girl, Idira, entered carrying the firewood she took from the mountain of her master. Her uncle didn ’t lift his head but was cutting his cigar with his amber burnt fingers. She pet the horse and started the fir and started making dinner in a big black pot while uncle Clodio rolled his cigar. The firewood was very wet and gave off a bad smell but Clodio was used to it because he grew up with the smell. When she bent over to blow on the fire, he saw something of a lively color, a robust leg, imprisoned in a red stocking, of cotton He asked her what her new thing was and she pretended like she didn't know “¿ ahora me gastas medias, como la hirmán del abade? he called her over and the light from the black pot illuminated her lively and beautiful face she said that she bought them and if she bought them then she didn't owe anything to anyone she said that she sold some eggs to the abbot and that is where she got the money he got very mad and stood up and slammed her into the wall saying she was deceptive and that the hens are broody and don ’t lay eggs. She tried protecting her face because she was afraid of what happened to her cousin who got hit in the face by her mom She wanted to get away via a boat to a place where she could make a living but Clodio didn't want to emigrate. If he were to stay, then she could have the life she wanted. The middleman payed the money and the rest would be paid with her red stockings Clodio closed his fist and started beating her head and then she took her hands off of her face and he kept hitting her face, eye, nose. Before he could kill her, he realized that he would need her help with the land he cultivated. He stopped hitting her and she was so incapacitated with freight that she couldn't cry out anymore she went to the river to wash the blood off and had one tooth left in her hand and couldn't see out of her bad eye. The doctor came and told her there was a separation in the retina which she understood to leave her blind in one eye. Ildara never got to go on the boat but the women that did got to live happy and health lives with their eyes bright and their teeth complete Personajes: Ildara Joven bonita que sue ña con un futuro mejor Clodio T ío de Ildara, violento, astuto y viudo Temas: La pobreza El abuso familiar El táfico humano El utilitarismo Symbols: The color red El fuego El barco El Etnógrafo (Jorge Luis Borges) ***Jorge Borges ’s story is twofold: to study and to record. Murdock completes his study of the indigenous tribes, but struggles with the “systematic recording” aspect of his research; he refuses to express “el secreto” that he discovers in writing or seemingly in other way*** Fred Murdock a man of few words he was the age when man still doesn't know who he is, and he is ready to deliver himself to what change proposes … In the university, they advised him to study Native American languages his professor suggested that he go live on a ranch and study the rites and discover the secret that the shamans reveal to the initiate Murdock ’s ancestor died in the Indian Wars so he has connections difficulties: he had to make the red men accept him as one of them he lived in the prairie for more than 2 years, under a leather roof, or under the stars his thoughts, tastes, and original friends changed he took notes in the first few months but then would later destroy them the priest ordered him to remember his dreams, and relate them to him at daybreak his dream was about bisons and the shaman ended up revealing his secret doctrines. without telling anyone, he left one morning When he returned back to the school, he told the professor he could not tell what he learned He said that he could interpret it in many languages but now their science is mere frivolity. “ the secret, besides, is worth less than the ways that led me to it. These roads you must have walked.” the professor asked him if he was going to go live among the indians and he said no but what the men taught him is valid for every place and every circumstance. Fred got married, got divorced, and is now a librarian at Yale “etnógrafo” Persona que profesa o cultiva la etnografía “etnografía” Estudio descriptivo de las costumbres y tradiciones de los pueblos La Noche Boca Arriba (Julio Cort ázar) Hay que se ñalar que noche is un cronotopo, es a la vez espacio y tiempo (night is a chronotype, circadian rhythm) “boca arriba” es un juega de palabras the aztecs would offer the blood of an enemy for a favor from the gods “moteca” tribe = motorcycle la mezcla de historia/literatura, ficción/realidad y realidad/sueño El narrador es un de omnisciente con vocalizaci ón externa… The difficulty of determining what is reality and what is fantasy is given by the perspective of the narrator. the narrator gets the reader to believe the dream is reality and vise versa. “la moteca” no es un motocicleta pero un insecto? The emphasis in sensations and perceptions, what was he touching, seeing, feeling, and hearing in the dream vs. reality?
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