BIO 123 Exam 2 Study Guide
BIO 123 Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 123
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amber Logan on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 123 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Dorothy C. Scholl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Biology for Health Related Sciences and Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Nutrition and the Macromolecules of Life 1 Explain the role of condensation and hydrolysis reactions in the utilization and synthesis of macromolecules Condensationdehydration synthesis builds macromolecules binds monomers together by taking away a water molecule see Image 1 Hydrolysis reactions breaks down macromolecules splits a water molecule and incorporates it back into the monomers see Image 2 Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water k Hydrolysis adds a water molecule forming a new bond molecule breaking a bond I Longer polymer Image 1 Image 2 2 Identify the four major classes of macromolecules and their roles in living systems Carbohydrates MonomerPOIYmeri Monosaccharide I Polysaccharide Chemical FOFmUIai Comprised of Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 121 ratio 9 CHZO Diagram CHQOH I C O Hl H I H I C C OH H HO I I OH C C I H OH Functions 1 Shortterm energy 0 Glycogen simple sugar stored in skeletal muscles and liver 2 Cell communication o Carbohydrates found on plasma membranes of cells help with celltocell recognition and cellhormone communication eg insan 3 Structural support 0 Cellulose in plants We do not have enzymes that can break apart cellulose so it passes through our systems as fiber 0 Chitin in fungi and insects w exoskeleton Other 0 lsomers molecules with the same chemical formula but different molecular shapes eg glucose and fructose 0 Simple Carbohydrates o Monosaccharides glucose and fructose or disaccharides sucrose and lactose Glucose and fructose C6H1206 found in high fructose corn syrup Sucrose glucose fructose tablecane sugar Lactose galactose glucose found in milk 0 Lactase enzyme that breaks down lactase o If a person is unable to produce lactase 9 lactose intolerant 0 Body has different metabolic pathways for each type of simple sugar Glucose pancreas secretes insulin hormone 9 transports glucose into cells 0 If transported to muscle cells the glucose will be used for energy 0 If transported to fat cells the glucose will be stored as fat 0 Complex Carbohydrates o Polysaccharides Glycogen sugar stored in muscles and liver Starch polymer of alpha glucose 0 Found in bread pasta rice potatoes etc Fiber cellulose polymer of beta glucose 0 Important for digestive health especially in the colon 0 Additional Carbohydrates o Celltocell recognition Glycoprotein branching carbs attached to a protein Glycolipid branching carbs attached to a lipid Branching carbohydrates are unique to each individual so that immune cells can distinguish our own cells from foreign cells Proteins MonomerPolymer Amino Acid I Polypeptide 0 There are 20 different amino acids 0 9 are essential they cannot be synthesized by our bodies 9 we have to obtain them from our diets Chemical Formula NH2CHRCOOH where NH2 is the amino group R represents the variable group side chain and COOH is the acid group Amino acids can be either hydrophobic or hydrophilic depending on their side chain R Diagram R Functions 1 Build muscles for movement 2 Involved in body s immune system antibodies are proteins 3 Form enzymes molecules that facilitate and catalyze chemical reactions 0 Bromelain catalyzes protein metabolism breaking it down 4 Cell recognition and communication Other 0 Formed by condensation reactions 0 Vegetarians can fulfill all of their protein needs as long as they eat a variety of foods 0 Eating 1 grain and 1 legume gives you the equivalent amount of protein found in meat Quinoa does not need to be paired it contains all 9 essential amino acids Nucleic Acids MonomerPolymer Nucleotide I Nucleic Acid Chemical Formula NA Diagram DNA l g 0 539 ATCG39s 339 39 0 o e o L I r 3 lt a basepair 1 o a 39 339 5 Nitrogenous Sugar Phosphate RNA Bases Backbone A 39 I UCGs 3 lt o Functions 1 Forms DNA and RNA Other 0 All nucleotides have 3 parts 1 5carbon sugar simple sugar in DNA deoxyribose in RNA ribose 2 Phosphate group 3 Nitrogenous base differs between types of nucelotides Nitrogenous bases 0 Purines double ringed adenine A and guanine G o Pyrimidines singleringed thymine T cytosine C and uracil U o Doubleringed nitrogenous base always bonds to a singleringed nitrogenous base A always bond to T takes 2 hydrogen bonds 0 DNA sections rich in AT bonds are usually the start of a gene they are easier to pull apart for transcription G always bonds to C takes 3 hydrogen bonds Lipids Lipids large organic molecules made largely of Carbon and Hydrogen 9 extremely hydrophobic 0 Have 1 fatty acid tails hydrocarbon hydro water chain w terminal carboxyl group Structure of fatty acid tails determines whether lipid is solid or liquid Fatty acid tails store a lot of energy 0 Triglyceride glycerol 3 fatty acids Saturated fats fatty acid tails are saturated filled in hydrogen ions see Image 6 0 Because there are no doublebonds in the fatty acid tail the tail is straight 9 easy to stack 9 solid at room temperature 0 Diets high in saturated fats 9 plaque buildup in arteries 0 Unsaturated fats have 1 doublebonds between Carbon atoms see Image 8 Because there are doublebonds in the fatty acid tail the tail kinks 9 not easily stacked 9 liquid at room temperature Diets w unsaturated fats reduce levels of saturated fats and total cholesterol levels in the blood 9 lower rates of coronary heart disease Trans fats unsaturated fats that are harder to break down so they form plaque buildups in the arteries 9 you should NEVER eat trans fats 0 Essential fats fats you must obtain from your diet H H H H H H II II n 11 u I I I I I I OlIlIl I H 11 COOH C C C C C C H I l quotC39 I I I I I 3 n H n H Pf H H H H H H H Unsaturated FattyAcid I If Saturated Fat Image 6 Image 7 o Phospholipids 2 fatty acid tails hydrophilic waterloving phosphate head Make up the plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer separate inside of cell from outside environment Are amphipathic have a hydrophobic and hydrophilic region Extracellular Phospholipid bilayer lmracenmar Hydrophobic tail Hydrophilic head Image 8 3 Explain the health problems associated with too many carbohydrates and high fructose corn syrup 0 Fructose does not cause insulin to be released 9 taken to liver and stored as fat can lead to fatty liver disease 0 Diets high in simple sugars can cause obesity and increase chances of developing diabetes and heart disease 4 Describe different levels of organization in proteins 0 Shape determines function 0 34 levels of organization see Image 9 depends on the protein 1 Primary structure linear sequence of amino acids held together by peptide bonds covalent bonds between amino acids 1 This is coded for by DNA 2 Secondary structure hydrogen bonding forms betapleated sheet or alpha helix 3 Tertiary structure protein folds up because of interactions between side chains R groups 4 Quaternary structure separate polypeptide chains bonded together 1 eg hemoglobin Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary structure structure structure structure Bsheets a helices a helices BShee ts Amino acids J Image 9 Denature when protein unfolds and loses its shape and therefore its function 0 eg cooked egg protein in egg becomes denatured so it can never return to its uncooked state 0 Heat stroke is dangerous because it causes proteins in your brain to become denatured 9 causes permanent brain damage 5 Compare and contrast DNA and RNA 0 DNA 0 Found in the nucleus of the cell 0 Structure Doublehelix structure held together by hydrogen bonds Nitrogenous bases adenine A guanine G cytosine C and thymine T 0 Chargaff s Rule DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 11 ratio of adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine 0 Function stores genetic information 2 of DNA codes for proteins 98 of DNA junk DNA includes switches body plan sequences etc 0 RNA 0 Structure Singlestranded Nitrogenous bases adenine A guanine G cytosine C and uracil U 0 Function acts as a messenger carrying copies of DNA from the nucleus to ribosomes o 3 types of RNA 1 Messenger RNA mRNA the copy of the geneinstructions for synthesizing a protein 2 Transfer RNA tRNA binds to amino acids in the cytoplasm and brings them to ribosomes to grow a polypeptide 3 Ribosomal RNA rRNA structural component of ribosome 6 Explain why saturated fats and trans fats are unhealthy 0 Saturated fats fatty acid tails are saturated filled in hydrogen ions see Image 6 0 Because there are no doublebonds in the fatty acid tail the tail is straight 9 easy to stack 9 solid at room temperature 0 Diets high in saturated fats 9 plaque buildup in arteries 0 Trans fats unsaturated fats that are harder to break down so they form plaque buildups in the arteries 9 you should NEVER eat trans fats 7 Describe the connection between the consumption of saturated fats trans fats and high LDL to heart disease 0 Diets high in saturated fats 9 plaque buildup in arteries 9 increased chance of developing heart disease 0 Trans fats unsaturated fats that are harder to break down so they form plaque buildups in the arteries 9 increase chance of developing heart disease 0 LDL lowdensity lipoprotein bad cholesterol increases risk of heart disease Chapter 5 The Cell is the Basic Unit of Life 1 Understand the single origin of cells 38 billion years ago first cells prokaryotic emerged from ocean hydrothermal vents o Abiogenesis original evolution of life from inorganic substances 0 Last Universal Common Ancestor LUCA first prokaryotes that are now traceable in all domains of life Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor LECA shared by domains Eukarya and Archaea 2 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells structures and functions Common features of all cells 0 Plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer that separates inside of cell from outside environment 0 DNA amp RNA genetic code is the same for all living things Redundancy of the genetic code multiple nucleotide combinations code for the same proteins 0 Same 20 amino acids protein monomers o Ribosomes organelle that synthesizes protein 0 Cytoplasm water dissolved minerals Prokaryotic cell structures include see Image 10 0 Cell wall help maintain cell s structure 0 Nucleoid region where chromosomal DNA is found 0 Virulence factors make organisms more pathogenic Capsule layer of polysaccharides that protects cell Fimbriae velcrolike structures that help organism stick to surfaces Flagella propellerlike tails that help organism move Plasmid DNA bacteria only extra chromosomal pieces of DNA that code for genes often virulence factors that allow bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics Bacteria conjugation plasmid DNA transfer see Image 11 0 L Plasmid 0 DNA Cytoplasm 0 DNA 0 Ribosom Pila Plasma membrane Cell wall Nucleoid u i l 1 l I I K J39 t K vi 39 v v V v f r x 7 7 1 i l u l I v I l 39 y 39 l i I x Y K amp o 139 li lil I quot39l ll39n Capsule r can F coil 0 o F coll F coll g A 8 l l C Flagellum lal DrTVRao MD Image Image 3 Endosymbiosis and the evolution of eukaryotes 1520 bya evolution of eukaryotes see Image 12 1 Evolution of photosynthesis 9 increase in atmospheric 02 9 bacteria evolve aerobic respiration process that uses 02 to break down organic molecules to create energy C6H1206 02 9 C02 H20 ATP glucose oxygen gas 9 carbon dioxide water energy 2 Development of endosymbiont aerobically respiring bacterium living inside of a larger eukaryotic cell 3 Endosymbiont evolves and becomes known as mitochondria lniomal Auobc mum boclenum system 4 o y g 5 4 7 quot r 139 i I UdKHOOmlon Ancestral eukaryohc coll towel a mm 1de00 Chlompuu Photosynthchc bbcunum 5 5 o S quot iEndosymbws39nk7 j 4 39 ukaryoeoc coll mh chlomplnsts Image 12 4 The cell nucleus and the endomembrane system all of the organelles their structure and function 0 Endomembrane system organelles different membranes suspended in the cytoplasm that divide the cell into structuralfunctional compartments see Image 13 o Nucleus where DNA is stored Nuclear envelope phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the DNA determines what enters and exits nucleus Nucleolus where ribosomes are synthesized Chromatin DNA leaves cell nucleus through nuclear pores in nuclear envelope 0 During replication chromatin becomes condensed and spirals around histones to create chromosomes 0 Endoplasmic reticulum ER series of passageways connected to the nuclear envelope that are used to create process and transport organic molecules Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it 0 Ribosomes on ER vs freefloating ribosomes o On ER synthesize protein that is going to be secreted by the cell 0 Freefloating synthesize proteins that are going to be used by cell Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and breaks down toxins cells in the liver have more smooth ER 0 Golgi apparatus sorts modifies and packages proteins from rough ER Packaging wraps protein in vesicle which leaves and travels to the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane 0 Lysosomes vesicles bound by a phospholipid bilayer used to break down large organic molecules viruses damaged organelles and foreign cells Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes 0 Peroxisome lysosome with enzymes that neutralize free radicals toxic forms of oxygen Macrophages immune cells that contain a lot of lysosomes Not typically found in plant cells 0 Mitochondria see Image 14 Have own unique DNA supports endosymbiosis theory because the bacterium that became interdependent with the eukaryote would have had its own DNA separate from the eukaryote s 0 This DNA might have been responsible for the evolution of the different sexes Mitochondrial DNA can be used to trace one s maternal lineage 0 Zygote 23 chromosomes from mom 23 chromosomes from dad all of mom s organelles 0 Early evolution studies that focused on mitochondrial DNA were flawed because they excluded the paternal side of evolution Have own ribosomes Have 2 membranes lnner membrane is folded into cristae which increase surface area 0 Within cristae ATP synthase particles enzymes that catalyze synthesis of ATP Matrix located inside of inner membrane Intermembrane space space between inter and outermembranes Functionsimportance Generate the majority of ATP Center of numerous metabolic pathways center of cellular respiration Central to apoptosis programed cell death important in the case of cancer Cells that use the most energy have the most mitochondria ie muscle cells have more mitochondria than cartilage cells 0 Centrioles become active during cell division produce spindle fibers 0 Vacuoles used to store water only found in plant cells see Image 15 gt Check out this video httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvci8dDTHGJBY Golgi apparatus Rangquot enduulasvnit reticulum quot lquot Nudein 1 Matrix Inner membrane Cristae I 393 Pultearwa2ope Nuclear pct4 HubcsotIes 2 Smooth endoplnamlr rotn inn Outer Secretory39u esmle membrane an Lysosome i lasn a membrane Image 13 Image 14 Image 15 5 The cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton internal skeleton of the cell that helps organize and structure its activities 0 Made up of proteins some are contractile allowing the organism to move 0 3 components see Image 16 1 Microfilaments actin filaments contractile smallest components 0 Made up of actin which is involved in muscle movement 0 Cytoplasmic streaming when you look at a plant cell under a microscope it looks like everything inside the cell is randomly moving around but the organelles are actually following actin filaments Responsible for cytokinesis splitting of cytoplasm during cell division 2 Intermediate filaments keratin fibers strong permanent structures of cells 0 Found in hair nails and animal horns 3 Microtubules largest component tubular structured proteins 0 Composed of tubulin dimers 0 Form cilia and flagella Responsible for arranging chromosomes during cell division mitotic spindles Cell membrane Actin lilamcm Image 16 6 Cell communication and cellular responses ligands receptors signaling pathways transduction Ligand chemical signal 0 3 phases of cell communication 1 Reception ligand temporarily binds to a specific receptor protein on the plasma membrane 9 receptor molecule changes shape sending message to cell 2 Transduction transmission of signal into the cell receptor brings signal molecule into the cell Signal can be amplifiedmodified in some other way through chemical reactions during transmission 3 Cellular response Includes signal to release a hormone start to divide etc Most common signal is for the synthesis of a protein 0 Steps for protein synthesis 1 Transcription mRNA copies DNA sequence for protein synthesis 2 mRNA leaves nucleus through nuclear pores and a Goes to ribosome on rough ER if protein is going to be secreted OR b Goes to ribosome in cytoplasm if protein is going to be used by the cell 3 Translation ribosome translates the language of the genetic code to the language of amino acids 4 Synthesized protein travels to golgi apparatus where it is packaged and sent off to be secreted Chapter 6 Cellular Membranes and the Metabolic Processes 1 Explain the importance of cellular membranes to cells 0 Cellular membrane plasma membrane gatekeeper of the cell 0 Made up of a phospholipid bilayer Makes up all cellular membranes plasma membrane organelle membranes etc Amphipathic has hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads components 0 Separates the highly ordered inside of the cell from the outside world helps cell maintain homeostasis constant internal environment Selective permeability carefully regulates what goes in and comes out of the cell 0 Yes small hydrophobic molecules 0 No large hydrophobic molecules hydrophilic molecules ions 0 Factors that can affect permeability 0 Temperature colder temperatures cause membrane to become less permeable less fluid while higher temperatures cause membrane to become more permeable more fluid 0 Fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane that shows proteins embedded in the surface of the plasma membrane Extracellular matrix surrounds cells made up of water and glycoproteins protein w a sugar attached to it 0 Provides structural support glycolipids sugar with a fat attached are sticky and help hold cells and tissues together Some proteins move along the membrane while others are anchored in place Receptor proteins cellcell communication receive and transmit signals into the cell Transport proteins help shuttle substance and molecules across the plasma membrane and intoout of the cell Adhesion proteins anchor cell to extracellular matrix Outside of cell Carbohydrate chains Proteins Cell membrane Inside f 99 Protein cytoplasm channel Llpld bilayer Image 17 2 Compare and contrast osmosis and diffusion Diffusion spontaneous movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down its concentration gradient 0 Example if you dump some salt into water the salt will spread out through the water until it reaches a concentration equilibrium even distribution o Is a passive process 9 does not require energy input Relies on kinetic energy keeps molecules in constant motion 0 Osmosis the diffusion of water solvent molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration 0 Solutions can be 1 lsotonic concentration of the inside of the cell is equal to the concentration of the outside environment 9 no net water movement 2 Hypotonic outside environment has lower concentration of solute than inside of cell 9 water moves into the cell 9 cell swellslyses 3 Hypertonic outside environment has higher concentration of solute than inside of cell 9 water moves out of the cell 9 cell shrivelscrenates ISOTONIC SOLUTION HYPOTONIC SOLUTION HYPERTONIC SOLUTION H20 H20 H20 ANIMAL CELL 1 Normal 2 Lysing PLANT CELL 4 Flaccid Copyn39g39n 6 2003 Pearson Education 102 publishing as Beniamin Cummings 5 Turgid Image 18 3 Compare and contrast passive transport with active transport 0 Passive transport diffusion does not require an input of energy 0 OOO Think of coasting down a hill on a bike Diffusion molecules slip between phospholipids Channel proteins open a channel intoout of the cell Passive carrier proteins molecule binds to site on protein causing the protein to change shape and bring the molecule into the cell 0 Active transport requires a protein pump input of energy ie ATP 0 O 0 Moves molecules against their concentration gradient Think of pedaling up a hill on a bike Active carrier proteins molecule ATP binds to site on protein causing it to change shape and bring the molecule into the cell Sodiumpotassium pump transports sodium and potassium ions into and out of the cell 0 Maintaining homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions is critical for muscle contraction Vesicular transport vesicle from golgi body travels to plasma membrane w help of ATP TRANSMEMBRANE TRANSPORT l I Active transport I I 39 Simple Facilitated diffusion diffusion Channel Passive carrier Active carrier proteins proteins proteins Discover Biology Sle Figure 76 part 2 2012 W W Norton 8 Company Inc Image 19 4 Understand the relationship between energy temperature work and chemical reac ons 0 Energy ability to do work causing something to move 0 Laws of Thermodynamics govern energy transformations 0 2 basic forms 1 Kinetic energy energy of motion 0 Includes electricity visible light thermal energy etc 0 Heat thermal energy the faster a molecule moves the more thermal energy and kinetic energy it has 0 Temperature measure of heataverage thermal energy 2 Potential energy stored energy 0 Potential energy is found in concentration gradients Extra Credit Cancer and BRCA 12 0 Cancer cells are your own cells something that controls when they divide is messed up 0 Metastasis when a secondary growth develops at a distance from the primary site when this occurs the cancer is Stage 4 and is terminal 0 BRCA 12 gene mutations that increase your risk of developing breast cancer 0 We have not yet identified all of the genes that increase risk of developingcause cancer Alzheimer s disease 0 A chronic symptoms take a long time to show disease 0 Can be delayed by 1 Regular exercise affects mood increases HDL levels etc 2 Eating a hearthealthy diet 3 Being mentally and socially engaged Picture Credits Image 1 httpbio1 1 51 nicerweb comLockedmediach05dehydrationhtml Image 2 httpbio1 1 51 nicerweb comLockedmediach05hydrolysishtml Image 3 httpwww doe mass edumcasstudent20 1 Oquestion aspxGradeD 1 00ampSubjectCode biohsampQuestionD 1 2090 Image 4 httpwwwruppweborgXraytutorialproteinstructurehtm Image 5 httpssangyongoh wordpress com20 1 50 61 9dnaandrnaoperationsforIife Image 6 httpwww ca veman doctor com20 1 W052 7checkingyouroiIthede nitiveguideto cookingwithfat Image 7 httpsgrub rst wordpress com201 00824andnowforsomeorganicchemistry Image 8 httpswwwboundlesscombiologytextbooksboundlessbiologytextboakbiological macromolecules3Iipids55phospholipids300 1 1 433 Image 9 httppubsrsc orgencontentarticlehtmIZO1 4tbc4tb001 68kpage search Image 1 0 httphyperphysics phy astr gsu eduhbasebiologyprokar html Image 11 httpwwwslidesharenetdoctorraobacterialgeneticsppt teaching Image 1 2 httpbiologyforums comindex php a ction gaIIerysavie wid 1 8496 Image 13 httpsen wikipedia orgwik7Endomembrane system Image 14 httpwwwmovdatanetmitochondriainaplantcellhtml Image 1 5 httpsldnx4 70 weebl y comvacuoIean dgolgiapparatus html Image 1 6 httpsonline science psu edubiol01 1sandbox 7239node7421 Image 1 7 httpapbiomaedahs weebly com2bceIIhomeostasisceIImembrane processeshtml Image 1 8 httpcmapspubli02 ihmc usrid1 1 651549 70624 1 9279876 7 6077Cell20Membrane cmap Image 19 Dr Scholl s Ch 6 PowerPoint
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