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by: Kristyn Notetaker
Kristyn Notetaker
Penn State
GPA 3.84
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A compilation of the notes from class of chapters 3, 6, 7, and 8.
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristyn Notetaker on Wednesday October 22, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 005 at Pennsylvania State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 100 in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 10/22/14
I p PU at S W 19 1 39Drf amm lat M R9 1 W10 V 39 e 3 m quot1 W 4 n A 54 f we During REM sleep the lgrain IImdllcf r e la 39 Iquot V Y I Py A iail15031Cli 4WLx ee x Jlr lfkrquotnle1 WA rm 1 mix I EL P 3 e l I P P J Help 1H4QJ am 3 0w J p6 3 MC l51 fquotquot The true function of REM sleep is a mystery Sleep Deprivation 2 Causes 0 Difficulty concentrating o Generall irritability o Decreases ciognitive funcltionning o Impairs learning AL 0 Lm1g term health effects Wm L413 3 3 e 0 Tecknacgfly Quid 239 Jl39r 3 o sleep may be most important Ala P REM Rebound After a perilmil of sleep del rivati 11 quotquotW fnSH393 J af Sl pf MC P by V 39 L7 i39quot33910 I Tgll i l JdsJ M Lvlelmil M no A 39 few e G A e V I Aleohl0l a I1 l Z W dwp M gdabe l Eh 339 if 1quot pT P4 A A rebmmdg mp etaml es lcncalgnel and L 3 7 r3 g F V 39 J K T fig W3 1 uquot J 39aj39T 1 0w quot7 llE 7rirE 0 DP 39 5 39f9 7 5 l quotlv39 aquote l 0 5 L 39 L l L 39 a u39 39 39r394 V 5 Hrflflw is L if 39I mw 41 A e F 139 0 g iquotf r39lrquotfee x if I A 4 0n 1quot 39 0j dust suppress REM sleep and results in lililgwl 39 WI39E x J rid Dreams o to y or y y39 tthJein 1 A dream where individual IS aware of dreaming and whose eonten often able to in uence while dreaming ideal is Lucid Dreams Next time you wake up during a dream try the following the steps to see if you can engage In l d dreaming Relax i Close your eyes and focus on an imaginary spot in ynonr eld of v11s1o1n Focus on your intention to have a lucid dream Tell yourself that you re going to dream about whatever you want Imagine yourself in a dream of the type you want to have Repeat the steps until you fall asleep Co Wmopi drfamjy 39i g P 0 w 3 6 ii 1 i5 t Vr f39rE2Jlr d1 39 if li yw kt 39 1f5 1quotle 39quotn w5quotquot quoti33937 T n o o i 1 v 3 J K P quotquot ilhterpretlng reams B e 1 Freudian Interpretation A A p 3 or ieime SnH3Pa v zurgtr1 39quot o F i ix 0 najreszsive dew rm4S 39 be dx raw5eJ 000000 D g1m5 reuealr your Mn M o Manifest Content M E W fmi xi of 39ir67 fr Q5 r quotcfspiel pi 3 E i o Latent Content L Ti amp UI3915i 3rquot1 1 h39f Ii2eneroi t i I f gtm r i I B i ii 5 i 0 mate eyzm N P 2 ProblemFocuseInterpretation e s y 39Dream3 3 an or region CD5 quotn om J Clarity p 2 pmblemsi P pb 39quot QQFQXQ W33 if d 0 q lav Kagr lrl S lieu car has been ghgien do f Tquot39 N1 y 3 9 1 P Fmh VB quot quot 3R tquotJ p Pg 9 X 3 Aetwaton Synthesiis Hypothesis to g s rV ii x o i g vows are 2 mi am 2 0 rwcz S m3 e 3 go En g 0 mm cans durfry 514310gm 5 my5 up 5rquot f quot7 J 7 My if 1 f i m 4i x 39 emkz q ha 1 n a pz we allow gmr lp 0 lt3eet hypm sed Q51 its pain gt Induced altered consciousness mtsed m L rxzt gt State of deep relaxation ht 3 73gt Associate with heightened suggestibiity Z Can have anal esic effects F M V dark S A quot1 s 5 A e 055 0 W quoti 2 t S3Zsas3 393 ttzrm W 7 25gt Dissociation hM A ST P SW m5 Q P rmijw 0 35 gt mmN z is is yM wG e x5T w s A J gt Sociai Role Playing ch 15 out Su tjtims Meditation 9 S 10 G 2 vK altered consciousness gt Rooted in ancient Eastern religions State of aterhrelaxattirn gt improves immune system lowers BP and cholesterol creates a wellbeing 4 g av 4 WK 3 Iii 1 Chapter I 9 Sensation and PETCEDIIOH Sense rgans Sense Organs organs that receive stimuli gtf l 6airg M JR if quot339Hquotquot 5quot is Sensory Receptor Cells A I i W1 iii 3 A 1 1 W equot 139 39739 I V k 7 I O 0T 339 M I Sensation Vs Perceptlon Sensation win3 in p rig if1 5 EN V anquot quotK Perception P 0 i4P 1rf z ui 395 is Example your ear receives a stimulus in theform of sound wtrves t 0Ii perceive that your favorite song is on the radio Sensory Limits thresholds Absolute Threishold A E J W SWi9quotJ L5 p quotH7 W N R 73 k Writquot 7 5 Hm pm 1 R p i quot quot 3 XL ifrf u39vquotquot39 0y r re Wits Difference Threshold swHe quotJ a i 0 t i i i 4 P 39 I quot 0 0c it 3 J quot 39o i 3 if J quot L 39 1 145 39 Color lindness Most animals only see black white and shades of g1 3 T T V o e T T A v A A f 01 Total color bhndness 1n humans 15 extremely rare due to lack 0 001195 mal mctionirrg cones A i h A A ColorBlind People can usually see come colors and not or ers TtA a Most cromrnon RedsGreen color blmcl can see Yel1ow B111e SPEC mm Rater YellowaBlue color blind can see RedGreerr spectrum 8 of IHHIES are color blind Extremely rare in females Color V1s1on Trichromatic Theory The first level of color processing r M no r r Lquot 39 ll 4 g A g 39 39 ll l 14C arf 393 driferenlr k qjj re more h P f P b c a all senmliornr DP fFquotf r39i Yf p d or wf e f f f d b all 12 nd e Cones o c T he Opponent Pr0cess Theory second level ofcolor processing c Yc a Z hb b c e b b F fl ha y ll oa H n0ll l l4quot r E Pd xa 4 rquot H ie p l fit rf iquot1 ll V T B r L E 39 439 3 WW 0 Gk R 1ml u H we or X T A lT 0Y oojyrl aw 9 Co1or Afterlmages A After starrng at one color for a Ion of the opp33itg calm g time we will seer arr 1llcrrlirrm1cl39 0 eth Perception Z Monocular CIJESI A t A W R ies M the umzm mart rile lepl de M be by mhj 1 eye I Binotcutlar Cues U393 eyequot 9 Convergence eyes angle inward as an object gets closer to US 3 Retinali Disparity because each retina is a few inches apart they have slightly different images land this helps with depth perception Optical Illusions Illusions are created using mostly morlocular depth cues what we perceive is not always reality ae T he Ames Room Prorzzo and MullenLyer z39lluls39i0rzs use monocular depth cues to trick the eye Smell Called Oi61c 39l39r39on 0 Airborne molecules enter the nose and are transferred to olfactory bulb in the brain for processing 0 Difficult to classify smells A 1 o B1oceslsed directly through the amt d at lea 3 r p V ga5 vrs P 1 If 39 39 9 Smells can often trigger Ph PM l m39 J7 purge wes i p i waves erzl r em P E p p it Equot 539i j Taste El iit amp P qustavhon 0 Foturbasick astes T Sw C quot e lt7quot o 23 j 1 P 0 PL 0M p d ifv J N p a EquotL L J Luf Q3 5 Jtxyzetrquot 0 Taste buds on the tongue code for taste which is processed in the somatosensory cortex Flavor in uences by taste smell and vtsual cues A P Skin Senses Touck W 7c1r39 quotquot Wdm We Picks up sensory information based on 7 sarvsz e to pwzgazrf gilt v Pressure SKim 3 W17 A 4 VCMES quotj 3 1A 2 6 W521 J cc 4 Temperature CEI1 s 1 j 53 J 1 rta1y W 9 Q I 5 V1 f 39 2r39L Ir ql ptgt t chrcai 9 Pain ensations Pam naessages ate sent through two distinct pathways mP1d 1 StI33 1H quotW5 bmrI MW yatzrr f slow second pa1n1 many QM paw quot391 Gate Contro1 theory ofpain a B J3 quotH 39quotE t if St P I to l tr p 9 yet pd t quot quotquot f 39 t C1 inert p quot I Chater 7 leami g se m A K K t 9 V it I W V W t a T 0t u it C lasslcal Lonbd in gaming themy that is t n story of Pavlov and hlS i0B5 13 fimr W 4 W A it 39 i i now ealle IasfelCrJngl 1quot 1 iii ii 1 Q i Ww s I 3939 39 U i I fnr 395 r 33 Mquot if it i D T fieilt can lhquotri39 an ax ftkrl d rif i p Pw S lt5 mil e M p X 3 3quot1 I ii I 1 xx 5 Ha fl v quot39r A non 0 W MCE tI9 i iquotM M 3 im T l I quotl ri 1 39i15d R e A 1 VI 0 7 ma iv J n P H MS Ji q e liC3H 5 3 nojpgngic as 2 1 it 2i rquot r m om UCS a leatmad vmuu53 i Calida ged Respondwe iCR A Re ii mi 2 41 1 L5 ilmiar or 1 39ti r u 439 5 A 0 llCjJ d iii an S an earned mylr t De nition a form of learning in which a previously neutral stiinulus CS is paired withian unconditioned stimulus UCS to elicit a wnditioned response CR that is identical to or very similar to the unconditioned response UCR Classical Conditioning Cont Lmle Albert l experiment John Watson paired a white rat with at ightening noise T 0 l the baby was conditioned to be afraid of the white rat on site after 7 pairings What s the Unoonditioned Stimulus Loud mm JVhet ss Ph Unconditionecl Response lame ml Wittefsthe Condiitioined Response 1 What s e Clonditjoned Stimulus v pK d emcee 0 P c Z b Fd b 0R T a a T 0 T 0c a a T 0 ot j l c 1311 P31 the rat with cookies until he is no longer at aid on the rat ME K W Inc1a eW p mi9i 8 pq an ucs W15 99 Sh rk u c R QtV i 1Ei39W A Q a7 3m ai j T T j E w N I g mA vz ii UziEraM C53 l WI Y M P M foe lm i 54 TI n t p mm 9 1 39 1r l g Q 439 39l 39 V5 I in im d5W5 fL7 W M L 31 f 1 x A t quot W F 739 P X H nu 2n 51b5 f3c39 139 Udwrbefj MW 55 M 5 I1 V0 Y1Jw tw f13R eui A K5h C r mmd8f5 C1quot 17ti Ilt t iv du ng iTe 3 L3 3 i at7 3911 rc3quot39 T U Q5 an CKanausm JWWMLi W 15 nauSPw i reef Operant Con 1t10n1n 51 De nition Learning in which the consequences of behaivior lead to changes in the probability of the btehavioris occurrence There are fc ur mays in whi h the coltijequences of our behavior can be in uenced w 0 o5 ve reiniiavcenwt X t p e T K T T T I y gu L i1t1m pa i D fag Wm uk zNe eh 9 mn yrcemni gt C r 0t J L H A 5W hm mmW e e A J a 4ma 4Na A pt V era 3 Positive Reinforcement Posztzve Remforcement A C OW W z 1 Qwmt fgi 19 61 4 irt i ct he 0 Pbkrd iy ifreii A I p forcer Q MU i Dquotr 0 I i V fJ it Q3 5 e1 3 A Tim POSi iiV CmSPUitW e 4 39si kE have to be adhered to in order for Positive Reinforcement learning to ma 1 must be presented within a short time of the desired behavior T g g 3 sCersisteriess must be presented nearly every time the desired behavior occurs L A True Positive Reinforceir must be something that is actually reinforcing Primary and Secondary Reinforcers F Primary Rez39nf0rcersTLu r innz9741Lf ii quotquot395 i3339quotC 393 10 7 d f5xjif j quotgT4r 3397 W Secondary Reinforcers Qgg mQmg g A we fair rs A a money prizes mdr 39 X 2 9bI45 LSecondary reinforcers are learned through classical conditioning Schedules of Positive Reinforcement i Continuous Reinforcement Schedule the reinforcer is given every time L Fd tio Schedule the reinfo rceir is given only after a speci ed number of responses i e a seamstress gets a paycheck each time she makes dresses L9 Variable Re a j the reinforcer is given after a varying number of responses J the average of every 6th time slot nga iilllrae gdahm YMJ 4 amzm 9 C qA 0 Jam i e i si the reinforcer is given after a xed of time T is e of food is given to a dog doing tricks it i the reinforcer is given after a variable amount of time food on the taverage of every 5 minutes L 1 e exit is 8 P9 Whlch Schedule Works Best Caatittueus reinforeement is great for initial leaming but is not practiucal to do all the tinie F ixed Ratio produces a high rate of desired behavior but there is usually a pause aticr the reifnforeer is given Variables Ratio is the best reinforcement schedu E lt65 0 the learning is permangnt 39 responses increase only as the fixed time approaches a Vattebie Interval erases high rates of steady resp nises ie because it produces a very hi gh rtzttyc n rat lung bcfnrc there is may chszrnz tm rm L c Aura stressed timt ps Iplc learn hy w1tchingn1hc behavitar tn UQGUF and he rczinihrced a cf hww many mminni hchavinrrn ikir learned lhrnugh rnudciing 0A P doll experimend T Tl A V flhildrcu watch I An adult beating up the dull p An adult being niccmtl1edull prouucial bchavicar 3 Nmhing Children modeled whatjthey dull avllo 1 c M 0 far wwerthl man What 2r0ySAYL 1 Changed s 4mf 9513 14 fv HvW gr 3w 21 9 M hmki P U p clap mu E1 Wv 0 4 aw beat up tlhc dnll wen nice n the dull or Vwerc I 1cu rul In the 8 s No YELLIN3 wkae yen E quotquot No hitting 5 RE I39 p p o i Canpj ff 4 C54 quot A toddler is having a temper A A toddler is having a temper A Chapter 7 Class Activity Theeries of lieiarningf w 0 I le For each ef the examples listed T A Identify what type of learning has occurred Lee CC 0C Mmeiingi If CC identify the UCS UCR CS and CR A A A If OC identify whether it is positive reinforcement negAAat1ve reAAinf0N 9quotWquot positive punishment or negative punishment and explain why It is Such If Modeling what has been modeled A A A A A A A 0y Ml mM1j The meme games over and hugs the child tn 39fiW IIh i1ii l7l quotht i t k a result the child seems to have more temper fO tat hefshe u ed I0 OC Vast rCz39r1 39quoti39I11J You feed you eat with an eieictritict eopener Now I g idl ss Of What Y0 393 0D i i1Ih quot quot739 W eat hears the Zelinctp eA1A1eAr r e eemes p looking for fun SA pD Q W E G p CC quot5 U CAp s ampa H Ck N tiv 11 1 n1r3939aVi3 F951 His mother makes him in the comer until ht is quiet ii 0c2 P0 A AquotPm x fu W result the boy has less freqii Wu A teezaae girl met a boy and had her rst 0Py with him at an arcade near her school l hw rrt1ta T A d l p k T A Y mxs r sit made her feel giddy and happy New every time she walks by the arcade or sees anythitig mx iittd with an arcade she feels giddy Xl happy C A AA DECS n W53 A C S6lrCRd A 9quot uc Cz1 gsdtjwkappy C Q3 quotddC7R quot3quot iy er is having a temper P because her father is asking her tn clean her mum ltcmult Ilw is p i k he can stand the father stops asking her to tctlean her mom As at msitill tin ultild to have more temper tanmmms 0 c she used to r iIP ea idbnj ohms away quot Qi W3 iv V c 3661113 c Tiiiitlgfwatehes an elder sibling punt a football The first time the yuungicr Hihiilw mc in At already tlenows haw to hold the footbiall and how to kick it Ic3HrtIaiu1 P5wLI1 l gtL Ih1apIrr H quota 1I tnmga5 o EImap391 er E MELMDW quot T F Tm 39li N P iFIiiIEEEiriIg M del quot739 39JlL quoti FT 4 i N J fMI H Jfu39i39iI39 39ji quotTr i39Ir iI rquot1f Nquot 0 r inmiv Es tl1A rEE rrucnersgagg iquotL39iu jEf39Fi39E3939 39 391 Wga W 3 FquotLquot1iwraa w I E P a L p L rmiy Pq U c Time 139VhrerE stage MEPE Memry W a a ntE i 5 t EhiTif Fllt prm srarzi this T11 I El in 19163 Th KPTDEEEEILIHQI f memnriea gnaas thr uzgh thgrags arE g quot 7 1 r 39L39Tr ra p maquot is p 3 gas o 399 rJ 39 rquot j Ttquot39f2irquotaquot39i I i39v39ari quot39u39quotT393l Level 1 rn he Thm Sfaigtia Made F 5 S nsnry MeimamquotEaErJW 5 iufqum f M3 n1mgpr la pu 1 P Ema Echain MEm W U wry k 2 0 p LmquotA F 391 E39 a Lwel 2 fth Thriea Eta59 39i7 39E39I39 Elhurt Tenn tMen1m39gr STEM Very liiI39 TI1i39lE aapa1 it1r J 52 P r vh u Mmit vd y T Gan Jigsaw in n LhEIquotE I1nn QE r vgrfm Ean sire mares Ainafin I E139E 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