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Exam 1

by: Aparna Pal
Aparna Pal
GPA 3.025
Diseases in Wildlife
Kurt Sladky

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Exam 1 Study guide part 1!
Diseases in Wildlife
Kurt Sladky
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aparna Pal on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to F&W 548 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Kurt Sladky in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Diseases in Wildlife in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 10/04/15
Howard Steinburg Veterinary anatomic pathology WHY STUDY DISEASES OF WILDLIFE ex good indicator of health based on population possible perspectives a disease is normal b evolved as integral part of nature c natural form of pop control d cannot be done nature is greater than us aindicates disharmony b ecosystems altered change the likelihood of disease prevalence c evolution of disease out of sync d disrupted pop control e must manage to sustain disease a particular abnormal pathological condition that affects part or all of organism departure of health could lead to disability or death there are countless causes of disease for both human and wildlife populations common domestic diseases can have a large effect on wildlife population distemper pasteurellosis inflamed nasal tissue rickettsia Rocky Mtn spotted fever Fungi stressed animals will be unable to fight off fungal spores that are within the body Protazoa can be transmitted through tissueenvironment or through consumption Algae bluegreen red tides overgrowth causes disease and death through toxins other animals can also affect the individual and cause disease leeches prions protein found in mad cow disease lead toxicosis unable to consume food eats lead shot food is obstructed from passing through the esophagus a lot of trauma is manmade traps nutrition can cause disease vitamin deficiencies myopathy mimics white muscle disease in lesion caused by overuse genetics eg scoliosis neoplastic spontaneous disease eg cancers spontaneous tumours INFECTION invasion of one organism by another INFESTATION parasitic attack on surfaces eg intestine includes endoparasites that live on the intestine consequences of infection can be from nothing to death could also propogate through the same or difference species communicable or Transmissable milk portal of exit potential transmission MODES OF TRANSMISSION horizontalcontact or verticalgenome reservoir tool of potential transmission vector transmission mosquitoes and malaria reservoirs and vectors can be mechanical or biological knowing disease is present in pop and understand ways of transmission is the best way to avoid infection Week 2 Milton Friend Caspian Sea saiga antelope Sea star wasting syndrome killed millions boone crocker starting point of US conservation by Teddy Roosevelt What is the quotfrontierquot conservation is confronting urban environments main ground of emerging infectious diseases vectors can cause havoc by passing diseases to humans without symptoms to track sanctuary created to raise the few bison left and mixed with domestic stock rusillosis passed a lot of overlap in territory with elk elkbison connection rusillosis to elk tasmanian devil doomed cancer spread as virus canary in the coal mine wildlife is able to pick out diseases we haven39t seen yet antibodies as an indicator of new diseases Emerging diseases broad spectrum of ecosystems and affected species ex coral disease ranavirus and amphibians chytrides boots in ponds story bovine tuberculosis huge number of deaths EPIDEMIOLOGY study of diseases within people epizootiology focuses on animals and people population a group of individual animals with a defined characteristic some animals more susceptible to diseases impact young and old most unless already immunocompromised HV is it endemic always present smoldering at low levels epidemic the smoldering population goes through growth subclinical disease symptom free disease must be tested no clinical signs exhibited reservoir reservoir anything in which an infectious agent can grow and spread itself to a susceptible host corvids canary in the coal mine west nile virus reservoir vector any living carrier that transports the disease to its host zoonosis infectious disease which is naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans measles example evolved separately from nNanadan apes killed easily by measles disease within an animal is a combination of the factors of the host agent and environment eg Brucellosis transmitted primarily through sexual contact host bisonelk agent brucella abortus environmentyellowstone national park bison wander in and out of park spreading brucella lives in macrophages raccoon roundworm triad Missing lecture lecture 4 disease outbreaks times span of outbreaks can vary anywhere from a week rannavirus and tadpoles to months may be sublethal no mortality in adults but causes stress on the systems of newbornshatchlings purposes of disease investigation identify cause assess significance develop hypothesis for occurence evaluate methods to prevent control mitigate its effects if needed types of investigations mortality surveys of quothealthyquot pops could be affecting fecundity reservoir screen for pathogen presenceexposure methods of detection passive opportunistic necropsies wildlife rehabilitation admissions fieldcitizen reports all very opportunistic active surveillance periodic surveys bat population measured for fungal levels to monitor for possible outbreaks challenges in field investigation estimating extent of outbreak relative to population geographic location total mortality there will always be a baseline mortality gathering evidence stages of decomposition gives us clues to timeline of disease who is being infected what species basic information environmental stress urban development need good samples better fresh and intact recently dead mostly opportunistic finding biologists advised to keep supplies with them getting samples to the lab NWHC national lab focused on free ranging wildlife health migratory birds mammals amphibians and reptiles corals clientele are diverse goal is cause of illnessdeath determination diagnostic approach necropsy gross lesions body condition microscopic evidence of bacterial viral fungal parasitic toxic exposures histopathology diagnostic tests ordered based on evidence always minimize risk of exposure as well as risk of spread carcass disposal for disease control decontaminate equipment disease response increased surveillance communications agency personnel partners and media management population manipulation if there is an environmental exposure that cannot be removed habitat manipulation such as raising or lowering water levels to affect animal interest decontaminate an environment hardest thing to do chemical treatments vegetativeenvironmental scaping follow up monitor surveillance after disease control ends data sharing is very important to prevent future outbreaks in same other different regions national surveillance peach faced lovebird introduced species encouraged by general population mid august through september mortality ofjust peach faced lovebirds no clinical signs reported human exposure fever in human enlarged liver spotted in pallor enlarged spleen poor to emaciated even though food was found in craws bacterial and viral cultures chlamydia psittaci zoonotic disease parrot fever inhalation ingestion direct contact 514 day incubation birds none to unkempt lethargic diarrhea tremors inflammation or crusting around eyes and nares humans none to flu like symptoms severe pneumonia inflammation of heart hepatitis neurologic signs treat with antibiotics helminths worms nematodes platyhelminths flatworms trematodesflue cestodestapeworm acanthocelphalans thorny headed worms use thornes to stick in intestinal epithelium can cause damage trematodiasis in wisconson waterfowl mortality of coots trematodes that are fairly common in eastern european waterfow infect intestinal track bumps are individual trematodes lifecycle needs a snail bithya tentaculata as the obligate lifecycle from eastern europe asexual reproduction next lifecycle as second intermediate host development to infective stage go to ducks and coots where eventually eggs laid management implications snail control clean up shoreline rip rap less snail refuges harvest submergent and emergent aquatic plants discourage use of lawn fertilizer adjacent to lakeshore natural competitors zebra mussels whirling disease related to jellyfish hosts salmonids trout highly susceptible golden less so brown trout susceptible but persistent carrier myxobolus cerbralis myxozoa CNIDARIA brown trout may be natural host from europe life cycle myxospores in cartilage of infected fish whirling behavior fish dies and myxospores released and ingested by tubifex worm intermediate host TAMS attach to the skin of susceptible fish and sporoplasms penetrate parasites migrate through CNS to associated cartilage signs of whirling disease warped shape containment sanitation in hatcheries origin of main issues surveillance monitor infection in hatcheries and rivers educa on prevention by public management in river systems prevention of tubiflex tubiflex colonization acquire natural resistance parelaphostrongylus tenuis brain worm of ruminants white tail dear no clincal symptoms llama goats sheep etc serious disease complex life cycle atrazine can cause breast cancer does estrogen alter sexual behavior estrogen receptors are promiscuous 12 different quotpartnersquot females not used in standard test trials


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