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notes from textbook BIOL 2343 - 001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amaka Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2343 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Jill Devito in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 346 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Study Sheet Biology 2343 Chapter 23 1 Genetic variation makes evolution possible 2 Sources of genetic variation a formation of new alleles b Altering gene number or position c Rapid reproduction d Sexual reproduction 1 independent assortment of chromosomes 2 crossing over 3 fertilization 3 HardyWeinberg a see if a population is evolving 4 Population vs gene pool 5 Conditions for Hardy Weinberg a no mutations b random mating c no natural selection d extremely large population e no gene ow 6 Gene frequencies are altered by natural selection genetic drift and gene ow 7 What is the founder effect A genetic bottleneck 8Effects of genetic drift a significant in small populations b can cause allelic frequencies of change at random c can lead to a loss of genetic variation Within populations d can cause harmful alleles to become fixed 9 Natural selection is the ONLY mechanism that causes adaptive evolution 10 DirectionalDisruptivestabilizing selection 11 Sexual selection a intrasexual Males compete b intersexual Females choose 12 Balancing selection a heterozygote advantage b frequency dependent selection 13 Why natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms a selection can only act on existing variations b evolution is limited by historical constraints c adaptations are often compromises d Chance natural selection and the environment interact Chapter 24 1 What is meant by a biological species concept reproductive isolation vs the morphological species concept 2 What is meant by gene ow and how does it contribute 3 Allopatric speciation occurs when two groups are divided by geography sympatric speciation occurs when two species are still in the same geographic area 4 What is meant by a hybrid zone Some are stable over time what is the role of reinforcement on prezygotic barriers 5 What is meant by fusion of gene pools 6 What is punctuated equilibrium and its role in evolution 7 Speciation may involve few or many genes 8 The largest unit in which gene ow can occur is at the species level Chapter 25 1 How is the fossil record used to view the history of life how about radiometric dating 2 What is the endosymbiont theory 3 Adaptive radiations followed our 5 mass extinctions 4 What are plate tectonics and continental drift Chapter 26 1 For humans we are order primates family homindae genus homo and species sapiens 2 What are monophyletic paraphyletic and polyphyletic groups 3 The Linnean system uses morphological differences it was all he had back then 4 What were conditions like on the early earth 02 came much later Chapter 34 An Introduction to the Vertebrates Chordate characteristics what are the derived characteristics a Notochord b Dorsal hollow nerve cord c Pharyngeal clefts d Muscular Post anal tail Lancelets cephalochordtes Amphioxus vs tunicates a Tunicate larvae has four main chordate characters Derived characteristics of craniates a Fate of neural crest b Significance of hagfishes Derived characteristics of vertebrates Hagfish and lampreys are jawless Gnathosomes are jawed vertebrates Chondrichthyans sharks 9 10 Osteichthyans a Ray finnedLobe finned b Anatomical differences operculum swim bladder Derived characteritics of tetrapods What is an amniote Group of tetrapod veterbrates that lay eggs and retain the ferterlized egg within the mother 11 12 13 Reptiles and their origins parareptiles diapsids etc a Lepidosaurs tuartara and lizards snakes b Crocodilians are very old Birds from reptiles a Special anatomical adaptations of birds are to save weight Mammals What are the derived characters Oldest forms synapsid What are monotremes Marsupials Placental mammals Primate derived characters Big thing opposable thumb Early hominins Australpiths are more apelike Homo more human What homnins do that other primates cannot Newogop g H H o
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