GEOG 456: The American City - Study Guide
GEOG 456: The American City - Study Guide GEOG 456
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Date Created: 10/22/14
Monday 13 October 2014 The American City 456 Week 1 Experiencing the 19th Century City Engels 1844 The Great Towns Theme of specialisation and alienation The individual is dependent on a speci c task to produce wages to reproduce yourself Entirely dependent on wages and employer as means of subsistence Creates an estrangement of people from each other but also independence The more they crowd together the more indifferent they are Ignore each other Critiques capitalism greed the effects on the proletariat and the embarrassment of social welfare Critiques the justice systems which does not protect the workers Critiques the living conditions and urban design of the city as cramped dirty no air Built form of cities reflects inequities of their population The shape of cities re ects tensions between the universal and the particular Engels hypocritical plan the location of mills and warehouses by centre of the city nice shops and hotels by the stock eXchange it must be planned but it is not Thinking of the city as something natural and governed by laws and the way it is planned by humans Focuses on social justice and moral implications of the extemal conditions people are living Simmel 2002 The Metropolis and Mental Life Simmel focuses on the mental conditions of the people living in these cities the effects of the city have on the mind The over sensory overload How do we maintain a sense of individuality amongst the crowds of the city Tension between the individual and society City people produce a shell of rationality to protect their inner personalemotional life Division of labour most extreme in city completely specialised commercialmonetary relationship Reduces all qualitative difference to quantity relationships Calculation then becomes easy to do this you want to be unemotional suppressed Interdependence But freedom that comes along with division of labour allowing you to independently de ne oneself Others are dependent on you Being specific at what you re good at rather than having to make everything for yourself Metropolis intellectualistic Exercise or application of the intellect Human interactions in the metropolis become short and instrumental lacking the emotional and personal involvement of small communities Matter of fact attitude in their treatment of people and things why cities make lots of money Monday 13 October 2014 Foucault disciplinary institutions in 19th century city Processes of normalisation people learning skills needed for the new economycontrol the population Help ensure cities can produce wealth and money Week 2 20th Century Urban Planning and the lntractable Complexity of Cities Hall 2000 The Centenary of Modern Planning Modern planning movement 18981990 Throughout 20th Century aesthetic considerations overshadowed by social needs Straight streets for transportation of machinery Changes to urban planning birth of garden city movement attempts to create ideal modernist cities shift to bottomup planning attempt at urban regeneration through an entrepreneurial style 1898 Rejection of the Palaeotechnic City coal and steam Move towards neotechnic age of electricity and motor vehicles Ebenezer Howard created the Garden City idea to tackle urban overcrowding poor public health and the depopulating countryside Plan for urban renewal at lower densities with new garden cities and agricultural suburbs 1920s rise in development globally Magnets metaphor Towns and country have their own positives and attractive forces Solution for Howard was to create a new magnet to bring town and country together the Garden City 1923 Suburbanisation took off American housing Minimal planning improved building codes and zoning regulation for privately constructed houses both in cities and suburbs Streetcar construction and subways allowed movement of dwellers into new suburban homes 1948 The Great Postwar Rebuild Emphasis on comprehensive schemes of urban renewal and construction of new communities by public agencies American urban renewal beginning 195 Os uprooted urban ethnic communities without supplying overspill houses Ghetto style housing projects Suburb against city resistance to movement of lowincome ethnic minorities from the cities White ight to suburbia 1973 The Great Shift in Zeitgeist postwar baby boomers in active political and public life Af uent rejected comprehensive reconstruction and construction large scale development and auto mobility all now seen as bad Small is Beautiful protection of environment important Civil rights movement war on povertyhostility towards capitalist system Distrust of topdown planning Planning agencies had reduced power Public Monday 13 October 2014 participation in planning Shift towards knowledge based industries including both high tech manufacturing and advanced services Neoliberalism Changed economies of major cities Loss of manufacturing jobs but gain of financial and services jobs New emphasis on urban regeneration rather than on accommodating demographic and economic growth Planning tries to engage more with the community less utopian planning 39 1998 The Search for Sustainable Urban Development Social stigma now associated with social housing Role of planning now weakened social housing no longer a govemment priority Planning perceived as negative routine generally disliked Florida 2013 The most famous models for how cities grow are wrong 39 Burgess model 1923 most popular for urban development Cities grow outward from CBD 39 Los AngelesChicago School model argues that growth doesn t follow a concentric and orderly pattern Post war LA sprawling fashion with a mixture of commercial industrial and residential areas spread out with no particular pattem Can be found in early 20th century and in American postwar suburbanisation but less so today 39 New York school model suggests most economically productive districts and residential areas are concentrated in and around the city s dense centre growth in the periphery is less pattemed 39 1990 2000 there are less clear pattems between decline in downtown areas and growth in the suburbs Back to the City movement going on with middle class people moving to the core Poverty shift to the suburbs High paying knowledge jobs in centre larger number of low wage service workers in and around the core 39 Closed system Predictable Produce regularities Give them a stimulus you can be reasonably sure of the response These can be modelled relatively easily The way in which a city works is constant 39 Open system Cities are open systems The way in which it works and its relation to the external environment can change Don t exhibit regularities Difficult to model and control Not predictable Humans don t like open cities Try to make them operate more like closed systems through 0 Standardisation building cities more similar to each other American gridcities Policies that work in one city can work in others Easier to navigate monitor police 0 Simplification and abstraction representation of the city in a different way to make it more predictable Graphs equations representation of a city But can be misleading Monday 13 October 2014 Week 3 Utopianism and the Rule of Planning and the City as Growth Machine Scott JC 1998 The High Modernist City An Experiment and a Critique Charles Edouard J eanneret Le Corbusier the embodiment of highmodernist urban design Active between 19201960 High modernism implies a rejection of the past Asserted Big ids Beautiful but new cities designed to make a powerful visual impact as a form This impact is only seen from afar in his drawings and betrays no context None of the plans make any reference to urban history traditions or aesthetic tastes High cost of construction meant his plans weren t adopted Didn t like the disorder of cities objected the slums Wanted to correct it from a birds eye view Loved geometry and standardisation Le Corbusier insisted on right angled intersections but straight lines often impractical and expensive His doctrine to carefully delineate urban space by use and function so that single purpose planning and standardisation were possible City designed as a workshop for production The straight line right angle imposition of intemational building standards steps towards simpli cation Separation of pedestrian street and vehicle traff1c functional segregation This linked to hierarchy the monocephalic city where the core performs higher functions of the met city the brain of the whole society Planned functional segregation in the city of 1960s separate zones for workplaces residences shopping New urbanism Designed to eliminate the streets and squares as a place for public life instead used for functional and simple demands not a social meeting place E g Brasilia The Case Against HighModemist Urbanism Jane Jacobs 1961 The Death and Life of Great American Cities in 1961 against modernist functional urban planning Argues there s no correspondence between geometric order and daily needs Need to understand chaos as order to understand complex systems Order determined by the purpose a thing serves not its aesthetics Social order enforced by intricate network of people rather than architectural order Self surveillance Busier the better The persistent failure of urbanplanning doctrines has something to do with gender Jacobs sees the city as a social organism and a living structure constantly changing Argues planners destroyed unslumming slums Logan and Molotch The City as a Growth Machine Monday 13 October 2014 Place is a market commodity that can produce wealth and power for its owners Cities with more powerful elites tended to have stronger growth rates Growth Machines in US History 18th and 19th C American cities competition between communities among growth elites to attract academics land of ces etc as a means of stimulating development Manufacturing bankers merchants rather than lawyers physicians needed City building celebrated for taming American wilderness Attempts at public betterment and growth have resulted in the damage of certain social groups Physical manifestation of the city bears the imprint of growth is good ideology Turns the city into a type of machine Designed to increase rents and funnel wealth to elites Imbalance in priorities between use and exchange value in the city To increase income from land you can centralise it 1 Changeincrease location 2 Make it more productive The easiest way is to make land more productive Or can make the land more accessible and change its location relative to the market by building roads Rent seeking increasing the value of something you hold without making any improvements to it Just by changing the activities that is going on around them Land is a fictitious commodity it s never entirely produced and consumed according to the laws of supply and demand Politics around the production of land What role does city governance play in the growth machine slogans Eg Scottsdale s most liveable city people is the selling factor Marketing themselves Want the public to believe growth is a common good The Modern Day Good Business Climate Matrix of important social institutions The reinforcement of the link between growth and better lives for the majority 1 Modern cities seek growth in basic economic functions job intensive functions 0 2 Cities can affect the factors of production expected to drive capital investment and local growth 3 Cultural ingredients crucial for a good business climate No violent raceclass con ict 4 Local publics should favour growth and support the ideology of valuefree development The Organisation of the Growth coalition Two kinds of politics 0 Symbolic politics of public morality and other big issues featured in the press 0 Distributional politics that involves the government actions that affect the distribution of important goods and services Myths about the effects of Growth Fiscal health and this depends on the kind of growth involved e g industrial vs residential Employment assertion that growth makes jobs but the Monday 13 October 2014 reality is it doesn t It only distributes them Job and income mobility no solution to urban poverty Urban areas with more people have higher wages rates Growth likely to increase inequality within places through its effects on the distribution of rents Growth has a negative affect on the environment particularly affects the poor Problem of providing homes and jobs for children Urbanisation not necessarily a response to people s wishes Fiscal health Often with new development costs outweigh the benefits Bad for public health Impact fees in place on new growth in addition to property taxes on new developments to pay for additional costs of the growth Economic mobility growth affects renters and owners in different ways Rapidly growing cityincreasing property values good if you own your home not if you rent Week 4 Urbanisation and Capitalism Kneebone 2013 Suburban Poverty by the Numbers Loss of manufacturing jobs in 2000s Rapid decline during the Great Recession Rapid suburbanisation of poverty has gripped new and old places alike Rate of growth in suburban poor population began to outpace cities for the rst time between 19801990 However city residents were still more likely to be poor than their suburban neighbours Two important trends 1 Challenges of urban poverty in America s largest mets worsened even as economic hardship reached deeper into the surroundings Poverty now affected cities and suburbs as it grew 2 Much larger size of suburbia so the suburban poor expanded by a much greater margin than the poor population in cities Postwar suburbs of Midwest and Northeast exclusionary development practices e g restrictive zoning Left many central cities hemmed in unable to absorb prosperous neighbouring suburbs Low income and minority populations remained less suburbanised Newer met areas in the West and South featuring large suburban cities and agricultural areas exhibit narrower disparities The largest increases in pushed poverty rates 20002010 in the Midwest and South Met areas with the lowest suburban poverty rates Midwest and Northeast Share of poor residents of working age approaches 60 in both cities and suburbs Slightly higher share of poor urban families led by single mothers Poor residents in cities less likely to nish high school Largest differences homeownership and racial and ethnic makeup More suburban families below poverty line own homes Poor residents in the suburbs more likely to be white Monday 13 October 2014 Harvey 2012 The Urban Roots of Capitalist Crisis Housing crash of 20072010 Argues land is not a commodity it s a fictitious form of capital that derives from the expectations of future rents Hundreds of nancial crises since 1973 compared to few before that a lot have been property or urban developmentled Property market booms and busts inextricably intertwined with speculative financial ows The greater the share of property markets in GDP the more significant the connection between financing and investment in the built environment becomes as a potential source of macro crises Capital accumulation through urbanism production of space becomes integral to the dynamics of accumulation Booms of local building cycles in one place the US south and west in the 1980s correspond to crashes somewhere else older deindustrialising cities of the midwest Mid l990s pressure for housing market and urban development in the US to absorb surplus and over accumulating capital In the face of an insufficiency of valuecreation through production the continuous ow of fictitious capital must come to an end Class interests Class alliance of bankersdevelopers construction companies dominate the urban growth machine Consumer housing mortgages are dispersed involving loans to those who occupy a different race class or ethnic position Predatory urban practices Dispossession of low income African Americans in the US Massive transfers of wealth from the poor to the rich manipulation in housing markets Blockbusting practices Fiscal and Monetary Policy Solving the problem of insufficient aggregate demands Spatial Fix You can refunnel money into the built environment to sop up accumulation Neoliberal spatial fix market fundamentalism Distribution of resources in society should be left to the market Regulating at a distance through incentives the poor tend to suffer Capitalism A mode of production is a historically speci c way of allocating resources organising production consumption exchange and distribution Role of a sate money and credit private enterprise market exchange commodity exchange for money to buy another commodity Over accumulation When consumers can t afford to buy the commodities because of wage prices These tensions have to be reconciled at a global level To solve drive down wages in one part of the world and maintaining consumption levels in another part of the world Switching of investment Money into the built environment in an attempt to motivate more consumption that will make labour cheaper or absorb monetary capital Harvey argues reorganising through building sky scrapers in the service of accumulation changed in l940s Monday 13 October 2014 5 Os Suburban development became a style of living that would sop up the productive consumption surpluses Week 5 The Death and Life of American Cities and the Creative Class 1961 Jacobs Streets and sidewalks are the main cities vital organs Bedrock attribute of a successful city people feel personally safe and secure on the street Three main qualities of a city street 0 1 clear demarcation between what is public space and what is private space they cannot mix as they do in suburban settings 0 2 Must be eyes upon the street belonging to natural proprietors of the street 0 3 Sidewalk must have users on it fairly continuously to add to number of effective eyes and to induce the people in buildings along the streets to watch the sidewalks Good lighting augments every pair of eyes But lighting doesn t guarantee safety Radiant Garden City minimises use of the streets Empty spaces crime Impersonal city streets make anonymous people Institution of turf a gang appropriates as territory certain streets or housing projects parks Safety of a city depends on public right and freedom of movement In the rebuilt city it takes a heap of fences to make a balanced neighbourhood Dividing the city into Turfs is a Rebuilt American City solution Garden City planners thought solution to keeping children off the streets and under surveillance was to build interior enclaves for them in the centres of super blocks Only from the ordinary adults of the city sidewalks do children leam the first fundamental of successful city life people must take public responsibility for each other Most city architectural designers and planners are men curiously they design and plan to exclude men as part of normal daytime life wherever people live Richard Florida Cities and the Creative Class Article intends to spur wider commentary and debate on the critical functions of cities in 21st century creative capitalism Monday 13 October 2014 People remain highly concentrated high tech knowledge base and creative content industries drive so much of economic growth continues to concentrate in specific places Place rather than abstract space is essential to economic life The Social Capital Perspective Regional economic growth associated with tightknit communities where people and rms form and share strong ties Argues many aspects of community life declined in last half of twentieth century People become increasingly disconnected Human Capital and UrbanRegional Growth Theory in the last decade that people are the motor force behind regional growth Key to regional growth lies in endowments of highly educated and productive people The Creative Capital Perspective creative people power regional economic growth prefer places that are innovative diverse tolerant Creative Class Its members engage in work whose function is to create meaningful new forms Estimates the Creative Class to include 383 million Americans roughly 30 of the entire US workforce Moving away from corporate centres and sunbelt cities to Creative Centres 3 T s of Economic Growth Technology Talent and Tolerance Entwined to be efficient Toleranceopenness A place must have all three to attract creative people generate innovation and stimulate economic development Talent defined as those with a bachelors degree or above Technology a function of both innovation and high tech concentrations Places that are open and possess low barriers to entry for people gain creativity advantage from their ability to attract people from a wide range of backgrounds The Great Inversion people moving back to cities and suburbs associated increasingly with poverty Suburban styles are coming with them to the city E g wealthy folks in high density inner cities but still commuting by car to work living in detached homes Suburban living has produced a geography of urbanisation but certain way of living in these settlements Richard Florida objects that the world is at Despite all of these innovations and new ways that the globe is linked together production is in fact measured in a lot of different ways is increasingly uneven concentrated in particular locations Creative and service sector have been growing much more rapidly than manufacturing and agricultural sectors Critique Florida s theory are politically appealing but not academically robust Celebrate a society based on inequality supported by an invisible army of low wage service workers Serves only to increase the vulnerability of the vulnerable and further empower the powerful Monday 13 October 2014 39 Analytical critiques of Florida s ideas The whole three T s argument is not necessarily a true indicator of what creative s are looking for Harvard academic said sprawl sun and skill has just as much explanatory power It s unfair to assume these people in all of these occupational categories all think alike Critique around correlation and causation Maybe talented people are attracted to jobs Cities compete with each other because of scarce resources But also the idea that there s a zero sum gain going on One city s benefit comes at the expense of another city How do the uncreative class live What becomes of the people that don t t into the occupational categories Struggle between creative class and uncreative class Do the creative class work as one What is the social division of labour in the creative class What about those precarious occupations of the class itself Endorses cultural commodification everything is reduced to regional economic growth Week 6 Tucson Urban Renewal Otero 2010 La Calle Spatial Conflicts and Urban Renewal Destruction of attached adobe Sonoranstyle row houses dating back to 19th c Changed the character of Tucson s downtown 193 8 planning and zoning agenda to remedy the decline in Tucson s urban core housing a large Mexican American population Linda McDowell places are made through power relations which construct the rules that define boundaries These boundaries in tum de ne who belongs to a place and who may be excluded as well as the location or site of the experience Racialised nature of the Pueblo Centre Redevelopment Project targeted the most densely populated non white area in the city The Politics of Belonging and Exclusion Tourist boosters promoted Tucson as an Anglo gateway to Mexico not a place of Mexican people and spaces Effort to make tourism the city s primary industry would have dire consequences With the exception of the mining industry Tucson remained economically undiversified and underdeveloped as late as 1972 Notions of white and citizen essential to the construction of difference were defining property values Nonwhite places in US have always been marked as inferior and Other IO Monday 13 October 2014 Brutalist modem architecture in Tucson 60s Concrete structures Ugly So much of the space dedicated to parking Republican issue to push through urban renewal Dan Gibson Keep Tucson Shitty Debate Keep Tucson Shitty Gentri cation displaces less fortunate and marginalised members of the community that are the very reason Tucson is what it is today New businesses trying to reinvent things that don t need reinventing Locallyowned establishments that represent the financial interest and uniqueness of our town are being bullied out of business Becoming corporate Biggest concem is a potential loss of local culture and that local business owners aren39t the problem Don t Keep Tucson Shitty Idea of wanting to keep an artsy bohemian idea of a business which is actually failing and unclean e g the Grill Treated customers terribly Reason it failed It39s that the crowd that wants Tucson to remain shitty is in fact shitty in and of itself Class Notes on Gentrification 11 Positive aspects of gentrification More money in the local economy increased property values more money circulation Infrastructure gets repaired Increased property tax revenue means more money can be spent on improving infrastructure Wealthy suburban people will move back to the city less suburban sprawl and a more sustainable city Reduced vacancy rates good for landlords Displacement not guaranteed necessarily Encourages home ownership Emancipatory process allows non conformist members of middle class suburbia to escape that lifestyle Gays and Lesbians able to carve out spaces where they are accepted Social mix wealthy people will rub off on poor people to set a good example reduces social isolation connections But assumption that poverty exists only because of individual s characteristics Why not move poor people into wealthy neighbourhoods if social mixing works so well Negatives Experienced as positive by some and negative by others Whose experiences around gentri cation is most important Do we look at the most vulnerable citizens or those that have the most to gain We re valuing it from a certain perspective Difficult to measure displacement Hard to do an exit survey why people leave places Loss of density multi family residences tumed into single family mansions It s about struggle struggles between race class and tenantslandlords Exclusion of lower income people from buying properties Blames problems on marginalised groups rather than landlords Manifested in policies that make living uncomfortable for minority groups E g stop and frisk no sitting on the pavement after 6pm Monday 13 October 2014 Essay will be on keeping Tucson Shitty Use leaming from the rest of the course No time limit But aim to nish around 75 minutes Part A 12 names of authors and 10 different quotes 0 Peter Hall is not on the list 0 Ebenezer Howard is on the list Part B 10 multiple choice questions Part C Short answer choose 2 of 3 questions Part D Keep Tucson Shitty essay 0 What does KTS mean to me Carve out my own position Then back up with context of other themes of the course Why social mix is supposed to be goodbad Bonus draw and label a diagram from memory Is there a neoliberal spatial x and what does it look like Brett Christophers 2011 explores Harvey s ideas of a spatial fix in the context of the UK in the years running up to the economic crisis of 2007 to nd empirical evidence of switching of investment into the builtt environment Switching occurs when there is over accumulation of production and investment into the built environment sops up this over accumulation encourages people to spend more and therefore mitigates the problems of a financial crisis Financial crises thus usually follow a period of switching and property booms are a leading indicator of recession However Christophers states that his findings do not indicate whether switching occurred because of over accumulation itself or of other factors Neoliberal spatial fix geography of office building in Houston Texas in the boom years of 19711983 Financial institutions play an increasingly important role in the economy Capital Switching 20002007 private sector expenditures in the built environment and expenditure on the sphere of production increased from 58 billion to 97 billion between 2000 and 2007 Fixed investment n structures and equipment and software Switching occurred in the US from 20002006 earlier collapse of the housing market Pension fund investment investment by financial institutions in pension funds Changes in the level of fund allocation to property and real estate assets Critique Richard Florida Same questions come up in different forms from the mock Flag wars and the Pruitt Igoe Myth will be useful t answer some questions But no specific questions on them Themes crosscut 12 Monday 13 October 2014 39 Class 1 Themes suburbanisation of poverty segregation gentri cation nancial crisis 39 Class 2 Simmel 2002 Engels 1844 19th Century City Both of them talk about specialisation and coping with the modem industrial city Interdependency 0 Engels highlights problems of the city along issues of community healthpublic health pollution exploitation The Condition of the Working Class Urban form peculiar aspect of the industrial city s urban form separation by type of residents and industry slums and overcrowding of the working class factory owners and upper class are not aware of these slums Cities laid out to conceal poverty How the city has produced a brutal form of human development Changes happening in the role of cities within the nation state The emergence of the nation state meant that cities didn t have to be worried about protecting themselves Emergence of institutions from 15th century 19th century Simmel talks about how we retain individuality the metropolis and mental life Blas attitude intellectualistic Calculating Shell to protect oneself from all the stimulation around you Think about how are the insights of Engels and Simmel relevant to today E g people walking alone looking at their smart phones Public transport becoming easier because its easier to exist in a bubble now that we have technology 39 Class 3 Ebenezer Howard Richard Florida 2013 Urban Planning Resulted from trying to solve these issues The idea that planning and design could solve the problems of this unique human settlement of the city 0 Ebenezer Howard Idea of the Garden City Why was their overpopulation in the city and 13 low economic development depopulation in the countryside Garden City was supposed to balance the attractions of the city and the countryside Diagram of the magnets town magnet cities Produce a Townincountry form Garden cities Trends in planning Suburbanisation in 1920s Trends in planning practice in a post 7 Os environment Small is beautiful Bottomup planning rose because communities wanted to be involved in building the landscape Growth in topdown planning also because deindustrialisation was creating large chunks of land that were no longer economically productive needed a level of authoritarian control Richard Florida Open and closed systems Closed systems are predictable modelled easily and conditions outside are always constant Cities are open systems Humans want to tum cities into closed systems Two processes standardise simplificationabstraction Monday 13 October 2014 Standardisation grid system easier to navigate street signs addresses Simplif1cation abstraction use modelsgraphsequations to represent urban land use 39 Class 4 James Scott Logan and Molotch Utopicmism and the Rule of Planning and the City as Growth Machine 0 Critiqued Le Corbusier represents High Modernist Urban Planning Cared about aesthetics start over from scratch to make a city perfectly ordered Extreme example where the desire for aesthetically pleasing city wins out over the actual practices of urban living Risk of simplifying models that we re losing important nuances making decisions that affect certain groups over others Scott puts forward an altemative Jane Jacobs That the disordered city is in fact ordered in its complexities But you have to be within the city look at the city Tension plays out in the American city through urban renewal recognising spontaneous forms of unplanned urban life against the imposed bran planner dream Urban renewal was facilitated by Federal legislation that allowed cities to clear slums and build highwayspublic housing These housing projects tended to look more like Corbusier than Jane Jacobs Logan and Molotch The Growth Machine Elites all agree that growth is good impacts the way that cities get structured Elites want to increase exchange value Tensions between use values and exchange values An exchange value has to have a use value but a use value doesn t have to have an exchange value The process of making exchange values benefit you is rentseeking behaviour Increasing the value of your land by in uencing the activities around it eg transportation Investments to increase the value of your land without increasing the productivity of the property itself Design the city to filter wealth to elites Contemporary examples of rent seeking behaviour eg railroads Ideology of growth growth is good for everyone Increases GDP and employment property values go up But Logan and Molotch argue that the bene ts of growth is not universal Focus on increasing employment doesn t actually happen at the national level it s just a redistribution of j obs 39 Class 5 Harvey 2012 Kneebone 2013 Urbcmisation and Capitalism 0 Harvey The Urban Roots of Capitalist Crisis If you want to understand the way that cities 14 work today capitalism has a logic to it This logic has certain contradictions that lead to crises and one way these crises can be deferred is through investments in the built environment eg cities are govemed by the laws of motion of capitalist accumulation Capital gets recirculated into the built environment Harvey argues that accumulation is contradictory because of supply and demand Spatial f1x suburbanisation and investment in this built environment solved the problem of aggregate demand by reducing interest rates Monday 13 October 2014 increasing government expenditure and Harvey argues transformations in the built environment Spatial Fix The urbanisation of capital Kneebone Suburbanisation of poverty Neoliberalism market fundamentalism Federal govemment charged lots of income taxes in early 20th century This became problematic Now the idea that the state plays a minimal role in distribution Cities had to collect their own money through taxes of their own cities Rise of entrepreneurialism Cities have competed with each other in the investment of the built environment Finance Insurance and Real Estate Is there a neoliberal spatial fix and what does it look like 39 Class 6 Jacobs 1961 Richard Florida 2013 The Death of Greatlmerican Cities and the Creative Class 0 J acobs pro sidewalks and streets 0 Richard Florida believes source of extemal economies is human capital certain types of human capital creative capital They spur growth Cities need to make themselves more appealing tolerance talent and technology Implies transformations in what our cities look like His ideas aren t good for everyone Critique 39 Class 7 Keep Tucson Shitty Debate 15
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