ANT 215 Quiz 3
ANT 215 Quiz 3 ANT 215
Popular in Origins of Civilization
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Mesopotamia • Location: between Euphrates & Tigris River as important resource for plants, animals, and people; relied on seasonal flooding’s later used as mode of trade • Fertile terraces (Anatolia) contained wild wheat originally from Turkey • Tribes & H/G had all resources for survival • 15,000BC: wheat grew over land rapidly allowing settlement, storage of surplus • First farmers were inventive (writing), created time (minutes, seconds) • Collapse 4,000 years ago Empire: collection of settlements from absorbing other city/states into their environment creating provinces with separate governments with taxation/obligations to collective empire • Characteristics: multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multiple religions (States as well) State: 7,000 – millions of people with central government composed of ruling elites with control of population (Emperor/Kings) • Highly centralized, formal, professional/upper ruling class • Developed independently across world; 1,000 – 10,000 people • Independent states revenue by: o Collecting raw materials o Surplus o Craft specialization o Labor o Obligatory military participation • Provide protection from famine, warfare for members State level societies have hereditary status, full-time craft specialization, and ranking within settlements cities based on prestige and luxury items Exploitative: leaders gaining power for themselves at populations expense Civilization: large regional tradition including one or more state level societies in a region; coercive power, specialists as leaders Ex. Mesoamerica—Aztec, Inca, etc. Theories for developing Complex Societies • V. Gordan Childe o Agriculture surplus and craft specialization, over time societies gained complexity and gained more wealth and status. As populations grew, they grouped into cities that composed first states. • Hydrolic Theory—Karl Wittfogel o Noticed civilizations were near river valleys and used irrigation. States were a result from the people who controlled the water ways of those systems. Coordinated and maintained canals and canal systems creating power and wealth, resulting in a state level society (democracy). Others were forced to obey the commands of the canal system because cuttings groups off from irrigation system fail them. o Archeological systems were not managed locally by elites. Would look for irrigation present before states, although there’s evidence of larger settlements that began without irrigation • Population growth in circumscribed environment —Carneiro o Valleys separated by large stretches of deserts and resources are limited because of the landscape that creates a circumscribed environment. This environment was really successful at first—expansion of population and growth in crops. Usually results in competition between people, leading to warfare because of the limited resources that are no longer available. The conquerors become the elites in those societie s and become rulers over slaves and tax the other members of society. Based on warfare of conquering others—military and authority elite (state society) o Several assumptions § Population growth is inevitable: § Warfare is the “natural” response to population g rowth o Issue: population is NOT inevitable because people control the rate of population growth within society. • Marxist Perspectives —Class conflict o Increase in surplus from successful agriculture, you get economic differentiation. More people gaining more power and creates classes within society. Focuses on economy as driving factor. Groups who gain control over production become the elite over time. o State according to this means that the group of elites are ruling and exploiting others as it relates to controlling land and the means of production. • Flannery/Wright—Systems theory o Does not put one single cause forwards; different kinds of external stresses that result in changes in the society. The stresses vary based on the culture. 1) population pressure 2 ) economic factors; Societies become more complex and hierarchal to deal with stresses, increase in hierarchy leads to formation of state. Leadership Qualities of fully -stratified societies • Formal leadership that collects and redistributes goods for prote ction in return • Elites/nobles can obtain status by earning rather than inheriting • Defined by power: persuasive —swaying opinions to make people do what the bureaucracy wants • Leadership linked to religions symbols/certain gods to justify power over a state • Human sacrifice reinforces social order confirming higher status of leaders o Military: able to give order/protection to population and other members provide goods o Bureaucracy: formal hierarchal structure with many levels of tasks, responsibilities, and authority separated among individuals, offices, departments, controlled by central administrator o Religion: gives leader of states power to rule as connected with gods • Maintaining power o Shared display: military action, display of goods, monumental works o Ideology: world-view of elites to give power • Writing: system of communication between humans Complex Society: Egypt: centrally governed political states with writing and monumental architecture that are self-reliant with few urban areas *differs from Mesopotamia Farmers take over H/G of north Africa Upper Egypt: southern region near Red Sea Lower Egypt: north near Mediterranean Sea • Nile River o Predictable, seasonal floods gave deposits of nutrients for agriculture o Perch—food source o Waterfowl—crucial since settlement o Provided option for transportation o Flood patterns unchanged since 3800 BC—controlled lives/schedules • River Valley: oasis in dry desert (kms wide) maintained by the flooding since rainfall was scarce • Nile delta: located in Lower Egypt, first civilization development (southern area of Egypt) • Early Agriculture: was originally best location for natural agriculture, H/G and fishing dominated until farming started *Sahara became desert 60,000 year ago o By 8000 BC most life near river valley & delta • Cultural development began 7/7500 BC o Introduced plant/animals from SW Asia o Agriculture first first step of Egyptian evolution o Crops: emmer wheat, barley, lentils, chickpeas, veg., fruit o Livestock: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, ducks, bees Predynastic Period • Occupied in Neolithic • Developed agriculture by 5000 BC • Upper Egypt o Badarian culture: § earliest proof of agriculture in south (cattle, sheep, dogs, wheat, barley) § Pottery: rippled surface § Social stratification of graves: burying patterns (graves: west, heads: south) • Settlements: Hierakonpolis & Nekhen o Religion/political center of Upper Egypt o Rapid growth 3800 BC—centralized, specialized settlement o Stratification marked by crafts, tombs, house sizes o Individual settlements specialize in certain areas but began competing to gain power over the other—controlled small areas based on sacred and secular authority o Narmer Palette: slate containing records of authority/kingship including time of unification of upper/lower Egypt § Upper: white crown § Lower: red crown § Metaphors of taming wild animals, conquering bulls represents unification Early Dynastic Period (2950-2575 BC) • Beginning of unification marked beginning of period • Capital of Memphis • Writing use increased • Unification evidence o Single leader brings competing villages under single rule o Textual/written evidence o Imagery associated with ruler of time • Saqqara: Pyramid of Djoser (Stepped) o Series of stacked mastabas slabs with burial graves inside o Site of death cult: mummification of kings • Pharaoh: leader stablished as divine king/queen o Later viewed as embodiment of sung god (Son of Ra) o Wearing red & white crown after unified o Originated from palace of king (before referred to kingdom) • Egyptian Pantheon: seemingly human with animal traits o Similar to human political system (back-stabbing, incest, magic) o Shift in gods during 5 dynasty—Old kingdom • Ra/Re o Created world represented as rising sun (King of gods) o Major worship cite: Heliopolis • Osiris: god of afterlife o Fertility, rebirth of people & lives—floods o Worship cite: Abydos o Replaced Ra o Married sister, Iris • Iris: wife/sister of Osiris o Nature, motherhood, fertility o Revives Osiris after killed by Set o Floods represent tears of Iris • Rosetta Stone: writing dated to 196 BC from Memphis Egypt o French found, Champollion interpreted o Stated Ptolemy V was king in 3 languages (Ancient Egyptian, Demotic Egyptian, Ancient Greek) Hieroglyphics: first alphabetic system using symbols and pictographs to represent sounds Old Kingdom (2575-2150 BC) • Unification of Narmer/Menes in 3100 BC led to dynastic rulers • Consolidated power, tyrannical leaders viewed as divine kings (predicting floods gives their people the thought of connection to gods) • Social stratification, classes based on bureaucracy (scribes and officials) • Extensive trade networks empowers elites • Pyramids burial place of kings demonstrating kingship • Burial of Kings o Mummified in tombs of goods o Royalty practiced afterlife rituals—unavailable to non royals until New Kingdom o Mummification: exposure of skin to rapid drying leaving hard skin, practiced on animals also • Great Pyramids of Giza (Khufu—largest, Khafre, & Mycerinus) o Monumental king tombs o Designed as means to connect spirit of kings to heaven o No goods from looting o Took 3 generations to construct • Significance of pyramids/writing o Powerful central government ruled by pharaoh o As size of pyramids decrease symbolizes loss of pharaoh’s control o Taxation on agriculture, raw material, labor o Specialization: government, workers, artisans, architects, scribes o Infrastructure: complex from gaining material outside of river valley and across seas o Boats in4th millennium: disassembled to carry to Red Sea • Politics o Kings who sought out government positions would appoint family members to priest-hood/governors (highest positions) o Gave land as payment of favors/service; developed Nomes—states/provinces given to people outside of the family as payment, spreading kings power outside family now o Increasing tension of Nomes as they try to take power of King First Intermediate (2150-1975 BC) period of strife/downfall • Collapse of central government as number of Nomes increase and king power decreases; drought—king always promised floods as part of divinity but challenged now • Regional governors establish power over small regions • Conflict between regional rulers cause another unification; under Theban forces (Mentuhotep) and Thebes becomes new capital • Innovation: pyramid building, instruments, horse and chariot present Middle Kingdom (1975-1640BC, 11-15 dynasty) • Period marked by calmness, Pharaoh leader once again • Memphis becomes re-established capital • Shortage of grain from drought in Egypt • Pyramids much smaller • Hyksos (nomadic group) invade and begin to control Egypt marking end of period Second Intermediate (1630-1540 BC) • Begins with Hyksos invading, Asiatic immigrant control Thebes • Theban kings fights/defeats Kushites (Nubians of south) and push Hyksos out of control New Kingdom (1540-1075 BC) • Pharaohs have massive power—military used as dominating/conquering force • Egypt expands—prosperity and growth • Gold collected from southern Nubian region • Akhenaten/Amenhotep: attempted to replace religion with new ideas to worship Aten—sun disk; new capital Amarna but his death marked its end • Decrease in pharaohs control Third Intermediate (1075-715 BC) • Theban (pharaoh) rule ends when Ramses IV dies • Fractured kingship/priesthood • Nubian—25 dynasty—rules until 664 BC (Piye as leader) • Egypt changes forever Later Period (715-332 BC) • Nubian, Egyptian, Persian kings rule different parts of Egypt • Ends with Alexander the Great occupying Egypt Greco-Roman Period (332-642 AD) • Macedonian and Ptolemaic dynasties in rule • Roman Empire colony in 30 BC New Kingdom Era: • Fighting, competition, & political complications • Royalty tries to keep power in family—incest • Priesthood challenges Pharaohs power • Expansion: conquers Syria/Levant • Irrigation less common/necessary o Shaduf: lever arm pullet to pour/lift water • Tutankhamen: gained throne at 9 years old, married half-sister o Established old religion o Supports priesthood o First un-looted tomb found • Ta-sekhet-ma’at: Valley of the Kings o Burial of New Kingdom royalty (63 tombs) o Most decorated—looted Ramses II: Ramses the Great • 19 dynasty • Longest lived pharaohs (67 years of rule) • Military wins over Hittites of Syria, wanted to re-take Levant • 50 sons, 45 daughters—many children Video of New Kingdom • Hittite pushing against northern part of Egyptian empire • Ramses was tricked to think the Hittites were far away but later found out they were only across a river • Nearly losing, Egyptian cavalry arrived and prevented Hittites from advancing • Hittite King and Ramses signed a treaty, Ramses married Hittites king’s daughter
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