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PSYC 3188: Attitudes Toward Death and Dying - Study Guide

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by: Meg Taylor

PSYC 3188: Attitudes Toward Death and Dying - Study Guide PSYC 3188

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 3188 > PSYC 3188 Attitudes Toward Death and Dying Study Guide
Meg Taylor

Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
Dr. Pamela Woodruf

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Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
Dr. Pamela Woodruf
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meg Taylor on Wednesday October 22, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3188 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Pamela Woodruf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 352 views. For similar materials see Attitudes Toward Death and Dying in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/22/14
lifeline I think this is how long each gender is expected to live ldk 0 Men 76 o Women 81 Bam thanatology The study of death developed because of groups of people who decided to acknowledge death headon and break through the taboo These people provided counseling services taught courses on death and dying Had to develop their own research methods and strategies theories and databases about the study of death Many Thanatologists were not interested in creating a whole new discipline of study rather they wanted to bring concern for the human encounter with mortality to caregivers educators and researchers within existing disciplines thanatoshypnos Thanatos death instinct Hypnos Personification of sleep risk taking behavior TYPE A Pedestrian Safest pedestrian stand at curb until light changes look both ways o Tended to not think about suicide TYPE E Pedestrian crossed in middle of block jwalk don t look both ways aso classify themselves as high risk drivers in the study o Tended to think about suicide more so than did Type A pedestrians sex discrimination after death More men get obituaries than women Men s obituaries are more likely to include a picture child s understanding of death developmental stages ch 10 or ones she went through in class Ages 35 Children think dead aren t actually dead but rather a diminished state see death as temporary death is separation dead are less alive very curious Ages 69 Children personify death death is final but one might escape it Age 10 Viewed as abstract concept final universal personal child understands cessation and causation talking to children about deathhow they re exposed to death Many adults want to protect children from anxiety and sorrow associated with death but no child is spared possibility of losing someone no child exempt from lifethreatening risks no child grows up without noticing something that is here can be gone tomorrow so death is a part of the child s world Adult assumptions about children and death most times families are silent when it comes to communicating to their children about death adults should respect their curiosity When your grandparent dies a book that helps adults talk to children about death Many children exposed to death of a pet Songs and games Ring around the Rosie about plague in 14th cent Europe we all fall down Games like Cops and robbers violent video games It can be helpful to take the child to visit a cemetery not necessarily for a funeral to begin a dialogue about death Children should be allowed to view the a body at a funeral as long as they were not close to the person who died the dying child Dying children often keenly aware of their situation Care of the dying child they need emotional support sensitive communication and medical support Hospice approach to terminal care extended to include children Focus tries to be on home care Respite care small homelike centers where child can receive care for a few daysweeks while family copes with other problems Allow them to express their concerns through conversationsplayartwriting confirm to them that they are still valuable people despite impairments assure them that family will not abandon them no matter what and reassure them that they will not be forgotten Siblings of dying child anxiety and sorrow about the dying child can lead parents to neglect other family needs the siblings may be at particular risk during this time They may be confused about what role they play have feelings of deceptionrejection by parents uncertainty about future changes in relationships among the siblings feelings of guilt and ambivalence frustration in not being able to express their feelings and fears to parents Communicated and interacting with dying child 1 Interpersonal functions empathy respect genuineness 2 Types of Communication direct language verbal symbolic language nonverbal symbolic language truthtelling Tell Dying Child Truth Experts Say Article Karon and Joel Vernick pediatric care doctor from National Cancer Institute worked with children suffering from Leukemia say that parents cannot conceal the news from their children they already know something is serious The hospitals used to not tell children the truth but it led to children saying things like that s where kids go to die if they were being moved to a different floor Not telling the truth leads child to be forced to cope with fear and anxiety by themselves direct language verbal symbolic language nonverbal symbolic language spinettaisolation of the dying child Psychology study by Spinetta children asked to place significant figures parents doctors around the room children with Leukemia placed them farther away than other children the distance increased each time supports hypothesis that sense of isolation increases as child nears death wants more personal space psychosocial distance I also have in my notes that we have to know the three opposites of images of death as they relate to the child s exposure to death 1 Connection separation 2 movement stasis 3 integrity disintegration the life instinct Eros and death instinct Thanatos Freud Eros Force leading to expansion growth adventure and pleasure SEX In other words the life preserving functions Thenatos biological force that tempts us to withdraw from field of action shut down lives seek silence and death Tendency to revert toward an inanimate stability These drives consistently interact When Thenatos gains upper hand we are more likely to engage in selfdestructive action because much of our aggression has been forced inward social death Identified by how a person is treated by others recognizes that when we die in the eyes of others we may become somewhat less of a person Examples someone violates a group s norms that person is cut dead member of a tribe violates a rule that person is ritualistically expelled a symbolic execution an old person who lives alone in community can be victim of social death a dying person may be treated as already dead Glasser and Strauss Types of Awareness 1 Closed awareness patients are unaware of their own impending death 2 Suspected awareness patients begin to suspect with varying degrees of certainty that hospital staff believe them to be dying 3 mutual pretense awareness staff members and the patient know that the patient is dying but everyone pretends othenvise 4 open awareness both staff and patients know and acknowledge that the patient s condition is terminal Glasser and Strauss Dying trajectories lt Doesn t this refer to lingering death trajectory expected quick trajectory pointed trajectory crisis trajectory will probably die trajectory and unexpected quick trajectory yes I was wrong wt 1 Physical pain 2 Emotional pain 3 social pain 4 spiritualphilosophical pain KublerRoss 5 stages of dying Stage 1 Denial Fueled by anxiety and usually runs its course in a short time Stage 2 Anger Why me rage and resentment in many directions even toward god Stage 3 Bargaining dying person attempts to make a deal as do family memberscaregivers Stage 4 Depression follows as the person experiences increasing weakness discomfort and physical deterioration Stage 5 Acceptance hospice care endoflife care medical psychological and spiritual support intended to allow dying people to have peace comfort and dignity control pain and ensure that patient is as alert and healthy as possible usually expected to die in six months or less st christophers founded in 1967 first modern hospice located in Iondon home care vs inpatient hospice care home care is intended to give the patient and their family more independence staff is not there 247 they come in times of crisis or in order to treat specific symptoms inpatient hospice carepatient lives in a hospice facility and is provided daily continuous care care pain management medical care that relieves pain symptoms and stress caused by serious illnesses improving patient s quality of life AlDs HIV Taking out rubber and ivory We now think that HIV originated in monkeys Monkeyszchimps People would butchers chimpanzees on the spot into portions that were easy to carry ie people ate AIDS chimps which was referred to as bushmeat Virus found in blood samples from 1950s Severe economic problem in Zaire virus jumped to haiti and then worldwide 12 million cases in the united states AIDS disfiguring and disabling harassment persecution isolates a person social death before theres a physical death disempowering viewed by some as disgusting and disgraceful can be a long period between the contraction of the virus and the onset of symptoms there is medication but it must be taken throughout the lifetime transmitted through the placenta so it goes into the fetus can be transmitted through breast milk depression epileptic seizures dementia horrible diarrhea weight loss Susan sauntag nonfiction author with breast cancer wrote a book called AIDS and its metaphors Said that we turn the victims of aids into feared people who brought it onto themselves hemophilia transfused with a blood product that helps them to clot cannabis helps ADs patients autopsypost mortem usually done for medical or legal reasonsto see what a person died of or to get evidence and see if there was a crime involved Internal external examinations and possible body reconstitution When body is received it is first photographed notes the kind of clothes on the body and what position they re in Next external examination of any wounds or evidence such as flecks of paint or dirt documents of death death certificate will and testament etc I think we need to know testate Having made will before dying intestate not having made a will testator a man who s made will testatrix woman who s made a will executor executrix disposal of remains different kinds of disposal such as burial below or above ground cremation etc Must be properly disposed of in order to reduce public health risk Last Will and Testament legal declaration names one or more persons to manage his or her estate and provides for the distribution of his property at death death certificate can describe either a document issued by a medical practitioner certifying the deceased state of a person or popularly to a document issued by a person such as a registrar of vital statistics that declares the date location and cause of a person39s death as later entered in an official register of deaths harvesting the dead removing and preserving the organs of a dead person in order to reuse them organbody donation history of the funeral Iraq o Neanderthal burials Egyp ans o Elaborate procedures to preserve and dispose of dead Romans o Influenced by the Greeks Burial and cremation Hebrews o Body is buried 24 hours after death o Body is washed and placed in a shroud Christians Leonardo Da Vinci lolwut United States funerals have existed as long as the human race has existed We have always taken care to dispose of our dead properly these three elements are almost always present in any funeral in history some type of ceremony funeral rite or ritual A sacred place for the dead memorials for the dead funeral directors what do they do usually take care of the disposal of remains as well as the planning of the actual funeral ceremony also may be involved in dressing the dead person and putting them in the casket green funeral burial in the soil that does not inhibit decomposition allows the body to recycle naturally do it yourself Planning a funeral on your own preparing the body cutting the cost of hirting a funeral directors or wanting a more natural death cremation the use of hightemperature burning vaporization and oxidation to reduce dead animal or human bodies to basicchemical compounds such as gases and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone cremains slang term for a dead person s ashes Cremulator food processor for bone fragments mausoleum building that holds caskets and tombs Usually large and stately ep aph message on tombstone cryonics deep freezing the dead body of someone with an incurable illness in hopes of finding a cure in the future burial in space launching of cremated remains into space plastination water and fat are replaced with a certain kind of plastic aka bodies do not decay and can be touched and even retain most of the characteristics mummify preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals extreme cold very low humidity or lack of air so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions spontaneous memorialization rapid public response to a very public unexpected or private death many times involving an accumulation of mementos and such at the death site to create a shrine Alkaline hydrolysis They dissolve the body in some ammonialike chemical ie lye YES Then they pour most of what s left in the drain The remaining solid parts are dry bone residue that resemble cremains bereavement grief The period of grief and mourning after a death can be mental physical social or emotional reaction anger guilt anxiety and despair length of bereavement often depends on how well you knew the person who died What s a columbarium Is that a thing and do we need to know it o Yeah it s the building place where they put the urns that hold cremains Thanks Sure thing Bereavement the state that involves being unwillingly separated from something or someone Grief the emotions involved in bereavement eg anger depression It is a response Parental grief death of a child Knapp Beyond Endurance 0 Death of child represents loss of future dreams Loss of future creates special problems for parents u Desire of parents to never forget u Need to talk about child Sudden death of older child u Parents seem to feel that own death is notjustified Indifferent to own death Crisis of faith may occur if a religious belief had been held but if atheism or agnosticism is practiced some may turn to religion 0 Shadow grief griefwork of parent may be accomplished on the surface but shadow grief arises as emotional dullness Dull ache in the background of one s feelings Feelings of mild anxiety and of sadness quotwhats goin on with these symbols Economic immortality is like leaving money for someone lmmortalized through money I think that has something to do with like amassing a ton of money and putting it somewhere like a fund or keeping money in the family or whatever interesting ok thanks Sure thing Anything else probably but I m just spewing spewing lulz out things as I go That s fine WHO IS ANONYMOUS INSERT ANIMAL HERE GR8 Q NOT SURE spoopy Heshe is gone now I think it also includes giving your money so that it can be used to memorialise you like having a building named after you or endowing a university good point But what s the difference between that andoh nevermind o Psychological the consciousness existing after death o Social memories others hold of you impact on groups family name etc o Apparently donating your organs can feel like mortality physical immortality cocoanut grove study cocoanut grove was one of the most popular night clubs in boston during postprohibition 30s and 40sthere was a deadly fire there killing roughly 500 people enormity of the tragedy struck the nation and briefly replaced the event of WWII in newpaper headlines seconddeadliest building fire in american history sparked the creation of guidelines for buildings in MA and across the country including banning inward swinging doors flammable decorations and making sure that exit signs were visible at all times freuds grief work Freud39s grief work theory suggested the importance of expressing grief and detaching emotionally from the deceased in order to recover full function break ties that bound survivor to deceased adjusting to new life building new relationships Also Freud said that believing in immortality is the ego s way of denying annihilation religion is crutch stages of grief same as stages of dying broken heart syndrome people with broken heart syndrome have usually recently experienced loss such as the death of a loved one They may think theyre experiencing chest pain or having a heart attack may be cause by a surge of stress hormones to the heart condition usually reverses itself within a week death of a child shadow grief intense sadness that comes over us instantly and when least expected often marked by unable to respond full to external stimulation dull ache always accompanied by feelings of mild anxiety and sadness death in the elderly silverman belief that grief is central to human existence not an illness Came up with a model for grief that includes the following grief does not have a final outcome grief can most usefully be regarded as a life transition people can help each other She introduced the WidowtoWidow Program since then many other peer support groups have surfaced Urged that we give ourselves permission to establish continuing bonds with the deceased rather than trying to free ourselves of all attachments to the lost object transcending death obtaining immortality in the physical spiritual psychological social or economic realms the near death experience often very transformative lifechanging many people say they are permanently changed by it albert heim Confused about this one albert heim is a swiss geologist but ARIBERT Heim was an S8 doctor called Dr Death and he was known for brutally torturing many inmates at a nazi concentration camp AND THEN THERE WERE TWO oskar pfister an associate of freud belief that theology and psychology could be mixed studied theology psychology and philosophy advocated concept of christian eros depersonalization the feeling of watching oneself act but not being able to control it merely being an observer michael saborn cardiologist with book called Light and Death accounting an incredible neardeath experience with both medical and scientific evidence the patient could record all of the instruments used on her during a surgery even though she was brain dead what is proof of life after death people say that they feel the dead person s presence Scary Could this also be when people recall memories of a past life that are semibeievabe oh maybe I don t have any notes of this Oh never mind then I think talked about with her after class some time but I guess if she didn t say it to everyone then we probably don t need to know it I just wasn t sure cos I ve missed a few classes Iol i dont take notes so the reason i dont have them is i dont take them so thats just my fault oops 9997999 Dealing with a sick child Ask openended questions to cancer patients Accept what a child tells you in the beginning Role play with the child Use of interpersonal communication respect caring for the human potential Genuineness being yourself Some use verbal symbolic language euphemism metaphorical language calling cancer it rather than cancer Nonverbal symbolic language behavior posture body language Siblings may resent special treatment given to the sick child misunderstanding jealousies resentful behavior somatic symptoms headaches stomach aches depression school refusal Poor school performance concern of developing the fatal disease that the sick sibling has scared of being rejected feelings that you caused the illness magical thinking may benefit from special support group counseling Grandparents represents a loss of their future try to be supportive of their adult child as well as the grandchild sometimes they lack support I think it s when the bereaved are denied the opportunity to express their feelings Disenfranchised grief Not recognized by others Individual may be keeping emotions to himself or herself Relationship to deceased is not socially recognized o Eg extramarital cohabitation Loss is not recognized as a genuine loss o Abortion pet former spouse Grievers are unrecognized because they may be a young child coworker mentally handicapped Death is not socially sanctioned o Eg death occurred while committing crime suicide AIDS Person is not entitled to feelings doctor nurse A thanks quotis that a smiley or are you ignoring me its a quotreferring to this up here DUH UGH I know but each subsequent quot refers to an individual previous line P CONFLICTED GRIEF SYNDROME Grief that occurs after a conflicted and troubled relationship has ended due to death Grief with unpredictable death AKA traumatic grief It is a severe and disabling response The sunivor s whole world seems like it has coHapsed It is more difficult to restore a sense of purpose and meaning Professional counseling or therapy should focus especially on the circumstances surrounding the death Survivors are more likely to experience physical symptoms after the death such as headaches insomnia Grief with predictable death depression from something in your circumstance usually the person does not consider himself or herself accountable physical presence individual might be so numb that he or she doesn t cry disorganizedconfused volatile emotions anger etc need to get rid of it jogging screaming let the emotions out guilt causation guilt having feeling that you could have done something to prevent the death wishing they would just die so they stop suffering moral guilt being punished for something that you did cultural guilt a good wife takes care of her husband how could she possibly be good if he died relief building up person to be better than they were relief that you no longer have care taking responsibilities final stage reestablishment working through is never complete but most people are able to go on with their life The most common emotion individuals felt was yearning longing longing for the company of the person who has died long range effects obsessional thinking all about the dead person hallucinations delusional thinking hearing a car door close smelling fatigue insomnia loss of appetite taking on mannerisms wearing clothes of the deceased carrying out the wishes of the dead dying of a broken heart people lose their will to live state of helplessness giving up stress compromises the immune system behavioral changes increasing smoking drinking might ignore serious medical conditions in themselves unresolved grief unexpected grief dying without warning too much disbelief conflicted grief syndrome have negative feelings toward person chronic grief sooo dependent on the person who died sometimes can t even learn how to operate machinery parental grief losing a child parents feel they upset people by talking about the dead child and vice versa parents feel their own life isn tjustified feel as though they want to join the child may neglect their health search for cause rational reason to find some meaning shadow grief reveals itself in dullness unable to respond full to external stimulation dull ache always accompanied by feelings of mild anxiety and sadness


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