HDF 211 Exam 2 Study Guide
HDF 211 Exam 2 Study Guide HDF211
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Date Created: 03/20/16
HDF Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Gender and Family • The traditional view of gender depicts males and females as polar opposites if men are aggressive, women are docile. if men have instrumental traits (taskoriented), women must have expressive traits (emotionoriented). • Perceptions tend to be much greater than actual differences, there are greater differences among men and among women than there is between the two. • Gender is not the same as sex, it instead refers to how one sees oneself, the expectations one forms on others based on their gender identity, the roles one plays in households and families, and the opportunities one has in the wider world. • Gender is multidimensional, with psychological, social, cultural, political, and economic dimensions. • At the same time, gender is both highly personal and eminently political. It is both important at a micro and macro level. • Gender is dynamic and highly variable. Across societies, there is much variation on how gender is perceived, including the perception of how many gender categories there are. • Gender stratification inequality between males and females • Patriarchies societies in which males dominate • Egalitarianism societies in which males and females share similar amounts of power • Matriarchies societies in which females dominate • Some societies illustrate extreme male dominance and female subordination, many of which are mentioned on pages 112113. • second shift the housework and child care that must be done at the end of the work day. • Gender identity person’s subjective sense of being male, female, or other • Some individuals do not accept a binary view of gender and view themselves as a third or nongendered individual. • Androgyny a blend of female and male qualities in one individual. • Transgender gender identity doesn't fully correspond with biological sex • Gendered roles a collection of attitudes and behaviors that a culture deems normal & appropriate for people of a particular biological sex (contains gender assumptions/stereotypes) • Gender stereotype a rigidly held belief that all males and females hold certain psychological and behavioral traits. • Gender attribution the automatic assignment of people to the male and female categories • Gender theory is used to describe the inequalities between the genders. It states that gender is a social construct and society can be best understood by how it is organized according to it. • It focuses on (1) how specific behaviors or roles are defined as male or female, (2) how labor is divided in the home and the workplace, and (3) how different institutions bestow advantages on men. • Gender is performative and situational. It is more something that we do compared to what we are. • Some scientists argue that gender in itself is a social structure that confines behavior. • Intersectionality is the concept that gender roles also interact with other roles and statuses. Gender Socialization • Social learning theory derived from behaviorist psychology and emphasizes observable events and their consequences rather than internal feelings and drives, learning attitudes abs behaviors through social situations. • Modeling learning through imitation • Cognitive development theory focuses on the child’s active interpretation of the messages he or she receives from the environment • Agents of socialization refers to contributors to one’s development as males and females. Parents, teachers, and peers are important agents of socialization. • Religion and mass media also influences our outlook on gender. • Marriage, parenthood, and the workplace influences the development of adult gender roles. • Intensive mothering ideology the idea that children need full time unconditional attention from a mother to develop into healthy, welladjusted people. • Traditional male roles emphasize dominance and work, while traditional female roles emphasize care and housekeeping. • Contemporary gender roles are more egalitarian than the traditional ones of the past. They reflect (1) the acceptance of women as workers and professionals, (2) increased questioning of motherhood as a core female identity, (3) greater equality in marital power, and (4) the expansion of male family roles. • There have been various social movements dedicated to challenging or changing men and women’s roles, including various feminisms and perspectives on men and masculinity. Chapter 7 Communication, Power, and Conflict • Communication occupies an important role in relationships and marriages. • Verbal communication expresses the basic content of the message • Nonverbal communication reflects more of the relationship part of the message, conveying the feelings and attitudes and indicates how words should be interpreted • For the meaning of communication to be clear, verbal and nonverbal messages must agree. • Nonverbal communication helps to convey interpersonal attitudes, express emotions, maintain the ongoing interaction, etc • Criticism, contempt, withdrawal, and defensiveness are the four horsemen that potentially leads to divorce. • Proximity physical closeness, body orientation, and lean • intimate zone the 018 inches of space most people will not breach • personal space (or zone) 1.5 to 4 feet • Different cultures have different spacial norms. • Eye contact, facial expressions, and touch are also important to note when determining the closeness of the relationship. • The genders have been found to differ in communication. • Women smile more, display more facial expressions, use up less space, use more qualifiers, intensifiers, and tag questions, are more polite, and maintain more eye contact. • Males use a more relaxed posture, use less words to describe color, texture, relationships, and feelings, and use more profanity. • Satisfaction in relationships is directly correlated to the quality of communication. • In relationships, wives tend to set the emotional tone of an argument, use more emotional appeals, send clearer messages, give less neutral responses, are more sensitive and responsive, etc. • The honeymoon effect the idea that you can say whatever you want in the first year and it won’t seriously affect the marriage. • Cohabitation has an effect on the outcome of marriage but not in the way you’d expect. Couples who live together before marrying are more likely to separate or divorce. • Demandwithdraw communication a pattern in which one person makes an effort to engage the other person in a discussion of some level of important to the person initiating either criticizing, complaining, or suggesting a need for change in the others behavior. The other person then somehow withdraws from the conversation by leaving, not replying, or changing the subject. • This pattern is common among all relationships and all cultures. • To have a satisfying sexual relationship, the couple must be able to communicate expectations, needs, attitudes, and preferences. • Discussion may include sexual health, sexual pleasure, sexual limits, and sexual histories. • Other problems in communication may lie with topic related difficulty, feelings of vulnerability, fright, or inadequacy, etc • Power the ability or potential ability to influence another person or group and to get people to do what you want them to do. • There are 6 types of marital power: coercive, reward, expert, legitimate, referent, and informational. • Relationship power is explained in a variety of ways. One prominent idea is the principle of least interest, referring to the idea that the partner with the least interest in continuing a relationship has the most power in it. • Relative love and need theory explains power in terms of the individuals involvement and needs in a relationship. • The resource theory of power says that whoever has the most resources holds the most power. • The gender perspective focuses on the inequality between the sexes and the gender dynamics that contribute to the distribution of power. • Conflict is natural in intimate relationships. • Basic conflicts revolve around carrying out marital roles and the functions of marriage and the family, Such as providing companionship, working, and rearing children. • Nonbasic conflicts do not strike at the heart of the relationship, they involve some other form of stressor or change that needs to be discussed. • Major sources of conflict include sex, money, children, and housework. • Forgiveness is an important part of efforts to restore trust and rebuild the relationship harmony. It is positively associated with both relationship satisfaction and stability. Chapter 8 Marriages in Societal and Individual Perspectives • Marriage has long been the foundation on which American families are constructed. • Marriage debate the ongoing discussion about whether marriage is an outdated institution or if it is dynamic, changing and resilient. “is marriage endangered?” • The two extreme positions in this debate are the marital decline and marital resilience positions. • retreat from marriage a trend of older age in first marriage and more people never marrying • Not marrying does not actually suggest a rejection of marriage. It remains the ideal to the majority of Americans. More than 80% are expected to marry. • Closer inspection of trends indicates that what ever retreat from marriage has occurred is not equal among all social groups. • There are also notable socioeconomic differences, observable in differences by educational level. • It has been said that marriage has been deinstitutionalized, referring to the weakening of social norms that define peoples behavior in a social institutions such as marriage. • Individualized marriage emphasizes personal fulfillment and growth in marriage and expects that our spouses will facilitate such growth and be sources of unprecedented support. • Limits imposed on choice of marriage partner include gender, age, family relationships, and number of spouses. • Marriage sanctification a process through which ones marriage is believed to be sacred, in which God is believed to be an active partner in the relationship. • Endogamy is the practice of marrying within one’s same large group. Exogamy is marrying outside of one’s group. • Homogamy the tendency to choose a mate who is similar to oneself in areas such as age, race, religion, social class, etc. (also known as positive assortative mating). Heterogamy is the tendency to choose a mate who is not similar to oneself. • Hypergamy means marrying up, and hypogamy means marrying down. • This appears to result from deliberate choice, social pressure, and opportunity. • Benefits of marriage include economic benefits, health benefits, and psychological benefits. These depend upon the quality of the marriage, however. • Marriage has both a selection effect (healthier and better adjusted people are more likely to marry) and a protection effect (provides a range of protective resources enabling people to prosper). • The marriage squeeze refers to the gender imbalance reflected in the ratio of available unmarried women and men. • The tendency we have to select partners from a geographically limited locale is called residential propinquity. • Complimentary needs theory states that we find someone with needs that are different from our own. Value theory and role theory state that gratification follows from finding someone who thinks and feels like we do. Parental image theory suggests that we seek partners similar to our opposite sex parent. Stimulusrolevalue theory is a filter theory that explains what happens in the magic moment of attraction and commitment making. • Predictors of marital success include background factors such as age at marriage and socioeconomic factors, personality factors, and relationship factors. • The family life cycle begins with engagements, which help prepare couples for the realities of everyday married life, such as dealing with money, friendships, inlaws, etc. • The arrival and raising of children leads to a decline in shared leisure activities by spouses, reduced marital satisfaction, and increased conflict. • Marriages without children also experience a reduction in satisfaction. • Duration of marriage effect the accumulation of various factors (unresolved conflicts, poor communication, etc) that might cause marital discord. • Marital commitment involves personal, moral, and structural forms of commitment. • Empty nest the period of time after children age and leave the house. For many families, there is no empty nest because of the increasing number of children staying with their parents. • Families can be considered launching centers, ejecting the children into the world as the parental role becomes less important. • Most marriages end in divorce or the death of a spouse. Most surviving spouses are women. Widowers have a better chance to date and remarry than widows do. • All marriages are different. There are many types. • Conflicthabituated marriages conflict is a basic characteristic of this type of marriage • Passivecongenial marriages marriages of convenience • Devitalized marriages high levels of emotional intensity that dwindles over time • Vital marriages high levels of emotional intensity that endures through time • Total marriages deeper vital marriages where spouses share everything. Chapter 9 Unmarried Lives: Singlehood and Cohabitation • Because of delayed marriage, increased economic and educational opportunities and commitments for women, increased divorce, and a liberal social and sexual standards, there has been an increase in the unmarried population. • Never married singles across all population groups has increased as well. • Types of never married singles: voluntarily and temporarily unmarried, involuntarily and temporarily unmarried, voluntarily and permanently unmarried, and involuntarily married. • Singlism refers to the stereotyping and discrimination directed at the unmarried. This may include myths such as singles are lonely, bitter, want to be married, lack a purpose, etc. • Matrimania is the glorification and hyping of marriage. • Cohabitation (living with one’s partner) has increased dramatically over the years for multiple reasons: sexuality is more accepted, the meaning of marriage has changed, men and women are delaying marriage longer, etc. • Reasons for and types of cohabitation vary. It may be due to finances, convenience, housing situations, and more relationship central factors. • Types of cohabitation include the following: • trial marriages living together to assess whether the partners have successful compatibility to enter marriage. • precursor to marriage living together with an expectation of eventual marriage • substitute for marriage or coresidential dating • Cohabitation is more common among African Americans and Hispanic Americans, those with less education, those with parents who divorced, those who are less religious, and those who have a less traditional attitude towards family. • Compared with marriage, cohabitation is more transitory, have different commitments, and lack economic pooling and support. • Cohabitation effect research has shown that cohabitation is correlated with negative marital communication, lower levels of satisfaction with marriage, and a greater likelihood of divorce. This may be due to selection factors (the type of people who cohabit) or experiential factors (consequences of cohabitation itself) • Serial cohabitation individuals who have cohabited with more than one partner • Common law marriage a couple who have lived together as husband and wife and presented themselves as married • Domestic partners cohabiting couples (hetero and homosexual) are guaranteed more legal rights and granted some of the protections of marriage. • Families of choice the concept in gay and lesbian marriage is that the family members chose to be together. Fictive kin include people that may be considered family members due to level of closeness. Chapter 10 Becoming Parents and Experiencing Parenthood • Not everyone decides to become a parent. With the widespread availability of effective contraception and access to legal abortion, women and men can decide whether and when to have children. • There were just over 4 million births in the United States in 2010, a decrease of 3% previous year and a drop of 7% from the all time highest total. • Fertility rates estimate the total number of births a hypothetical group of 1000 women what have over their lifetimes. Birth rates measure the actual births per 1000 population. Both vary among demographic and age groups. • Although births to unmarried women have decreased in recent years, the number of births to unmarried women in 2010 was 2 1/2 times higher than the number in 1980. These rates also vary among demographic groups. • Although a large majority of births to teenagers are outside of marriage, births to unmarried teens only represent a fifth of the total number of births to unmarried mothers. • The rate of teen pregnancy has declined substantially since 1991. The rate has fallen across all demographic groups. • There are 3 types of childless populations: those who are temporarily childless, those who are involuntarily childless, and those who are childless by choice. • impared fecundity a broad term referring to difficulty with conceiving or carrying a pregnancy to term. • childfree people who expect and intend to remain nonparents • Approximately 20% of women ages 40 to 44 have not had children, either because they can’t or have chosen not to. • Waiting gives couples the chance to complete their education, build careers, firmly establish their relationship, and save up for the responsibility of having a child. • Cost estimates for raising a child vary from $169,000 to $389,000 The Experience of Pregnancy and Parenthood • Women and men who become parents enter a new phase of their lives. • Planned vs. unplanned pregnancies begin the road to parenthood very differently. It can affect the couple’s relationship and their sex life. • Men are also affected when a pregnancy arises, worrying about the health of both mother and baby, whether they will be good fathers, how fatherhood will affect their lives, and if they are capable to take on these new responsiblities. • Medicalization of childbirth the concept that society has made a natural process into a medical “problem”, stating that women receive impersonal care during labor and delivery while lacking much input or control over their own childbirth experience. This causes an over dependence on medical professionals, an excessive use of technology, etc. • Miscarriages are the most common form of pregnancy loss. • Infant mortality children who die during or soon after childbirth. Rates are higher in the US than other industrialized nations and vary by race and ethnicity. • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) a perplexing phenomenon where a seemingly healthy infant dies suddenly while sleeping • The transition to parenthood is irreversible and sudden, and comes with little preparation. • Reduced sexual desire and depression during the postpartum period (first 3 months following childbirth) may occur. • Parental roles and responsibilities may be a lot different than one expects. This may be due to idealization and romanticization, suddenness, role conflict, and irreversibility. • Parenthood affects many areas of men's and women's lives, including their social activities, intergenerational family ties, occupational behavior, and free time. Research indicates that marital satisfaction declines when couples become parents though it also declines among non parents • Idealization of intensive mothering portrays women as the essential caregivers. Give cultural and societal pressure to have females involved in the child raising process and for females to have children. • Fatherhood is also an important role to play. The culture of fatherhood (beliefs about fathers) must be separated from the conduct of fatherhood (fathers’ real behaviors). • Nonparental households children who live with relatives other than their parents or in some cases, nonrelatives. • There are an estimated 1.8 million adopted children, representing 2% of children in the United States. • Open adoption contact remains between birth and adoptive parents • Authoritarian child rearing parents who require absolute obedience and have a high level of demand • Permissive or indulgent child rearing parents who have a low level of demand and a high level of lenience. • Authoritative child rearing parents who use positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment. • Uninvolved parenting parents who are neither responsive to their children's needs nor demanding of behavioral expectations. • Parent’s marital status, ethnicity, and sexuality all influence parenting and child socialization. Economic, cultural, and political institutions have neglected to adopt policies that would allow parents and children deeper and more frequent contact with each other. • generativity the commitment to guide and nurture others. • Studies show that children of gay or lesbian parents are just as well adjusted as children of heterosexual parents. • Increasingly, older parents provide financial and emotions support to their adult children. • sandwich generation people who have to take care of both their aging parents and their growing children • parentified children children who grow up to care for their aging parents • filial responsibility to see that one’s aging parents have support, assistance, company, and are well cared for
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