ECOL1000 Test 2 Study Guide
ECOL1000 Test 2 Study Guide ECOL1000
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Peat on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ECOL1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. J Vaun McArthur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Ecology Study Guide #2 Terms Exponential growth unchecked population growth Sigmoid growth curve graph that shows limits in growth; the “s” is what limits K carrying capacity of environment/total N supportable; metric units of K are just N Human carrying capacity max number of people that can be supported in perpetuity on an area with a given technology and set of consumptive habits without causing environmental degradation R intrinsic rate of increase Population group of individuals who use common resources and are regulated by biotic and abiotic factors Von Foerster Human Population Model best model to describe human growth; factors in declining death rates and is based on exponential equation; predicted number is 10% within real number Demographic transition stages in population change Survivorship number of years members of a specific group lives, affected by wealth and sex West Nile Disease carried by same Zika mosquito Agricultural expansion conversion of new land into agricultural use Agricultural intensification change in agricultural practices to fertilization, irrigation, pesticides Green Revolution producing more crops to feed world with selective breeding, pesticides, fertilizers Eutrophication dead zone through middle U.S Fish farming raising fish commercially Conservation corridors established areas for protection of habitat and preservation for human use Endemism when species are found in one location and nowhere else Gap analysis searching for gaps to protect diversity Ecological restoration process of assisting recovery of indigenous ecosystems Bioremediation detoxify soils of substrates contaminated with heavy metals or organic compounds Keeling Curve shows trend in Co2 concentration Explanatory science discovers how variables explain each other Predictive science uses observed relationships to anticipate patterns outside of data Ozone is O2 CFC’s Cloro Fluoro Carbons; common manmade refrigerant that destroys ozone Train Act bill passed in which environmental regulation must be considered and the benefits are not considered Climate forcing combined effects of climate drivers; solar variations, changes in co2, volcanic eruptions and aerosols Palmer Drought Index measure of rainfall and drought in U.S Biofuels fuel from living matter Concept 1: Population Growth Limitations to Growth If there were no limits, aka exponential growth, the earth would be covered The Sigmoid Growth Curve shows limitations to growth o Every organism follows and it cannot be broken o It is to biology as gravity is to physics Darwin studied limitations in wildlife populations: 1. Disease 2. Predation 3. Competition 4. Climactic 5. Catastrophe Malthus studied human populations; saw wellbeing will diminish due to human growth 1. Disease Ex: Bubonic Plague 2. War Ex: Weapons of Mass Destruction 3. Pestilence Ex: Locusts and Rats 4. Famine Ex: Crop Failure KEY: S LAW CANNOT BE BROKEN. SOME LOCAL POPULATIONS WERE LIMITED BUT NOT MUCH HAS LIMITED OVERALL HUMAN EXPONENTIAL GROWTH EXCEPT THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. Components of “S Curve” K is carrying capacity o At k, births equal deaths o Unit metrics of k are n o At k, r=00.01 and N does not grow Human Growth 1/9 people who lived are alive today N changes over time o N^0, N^t+1, etc…. o Dn/dt= rate of change of “n” over time R is intrinsic rate of increase affected by: 1. birth rate increases r 2. death rate decreases r 3. immigration increases r 4. emigration decreases r r grew for people because of 1. Modern medicine 2. Better nutrition 3. Less predation 4. Cultural and religious enhancement CURRENT WORLD AVERAGE IS R=1.13% Ecological Impacts Affected by population size and consumption patterns Impact: population (population size) x affluence (individual consumption) x technology (create or dispose products) Lowest “score wins” History of population growth Population growth: rapid o Consumption rate is rapid too 1. Preagricultural a. 100,000 years ago b. 10,000 years to double c. had 510 million at end d. migrations and culture 2. Agricultural a. 10,000 years ago b. 1,000 years to double c. 500 million at end d. domestication 3. Industrial a. Better medicine, decline in death rates b. Fossil fuels c. Sanitation 4. Now a. 7 billion Global Variation in Population Growth cultures follow demographic transition Latin America is a great example affected by birth rates: o more wealth, less birth and less death o age specific birth rates affected by death rates o less wealth, more birth and more death o increased infant mortality survivorship number of years a group lives, same as life expectancy age structure the graph in a pyramid shape; affected by birth rates and survivorship Population Scenarios 1 . population momentum 1 a. “r” is affected by people in prereproductive age class b. pop. with most people in this class will continue to grow even in birth rates slow 2 . population momentum 2 a. “r” is most affected by age of firstreproduction age class b. population with most people in first reproduction will grow faster optimistic rate is 9 billion people by 205 Resource Use and Managing Population sustainability must be below carrying capacity education and family planning decreases birth rates Spain and Italy grow slow economic issues China grows too fast 1 child policy o This policy led to FEMINISM AND NATURAL DISASTERS POPULATION CONTROL RAISES HUMAN AND ETHICAL ISSUES R vs. K K is more stable, constant, has a “low r” (low intrinsic rate”), delayed reproduction and is long WE SHOULD BE HERE R is stable, radical, has a “high K”, early reproduction and is short R will have their “K” set by 1. Disease 2. Pestilence 3. War GA and population growth WE HAVE TWO GEORGIAS ACCORDING TO POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS Georiga is above average in population Atlanta has increased immigration rate (Georgia 1) Birth rate (South GA has high due to teen pregnancy, Georgia 2) Education opportunities are causative factors of birth rates o Race and income correlate with birth rate but are not causative CORRELATIONS OF DEMOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS ARE NOT DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL SUCCESS Concept 2: Disease Classification: 1. Ebola: easy to kill, hard to transmit a. 2nd video we watched explored unrelated pieces of story/disease,it can come to us 2. Meningitis: easy to kill, hard to transmit 3. AIDS hard to transmit, hard to kill 4. Zika easy to transmit, hard to kill Disease: o Comes from tropics o Cannot be quarantined Because of these facts, WHO created a 4 Point Public Health Plan 1. Increase public health awareness 2. Increase public health infrastructure 3. Medical research 4. Protect natural habitats West Nile Virus has differing transmission cycle; from mosquito to bird or mosquito to horse or humans Concept 3: Agriculture and the Environmen Agriculture Basics Began 10,000 years ago Soil is key to food production so if you’re an aggressive farmer soil erosion is an issue Humans’ food needs rely on farming or it could lead to under, mal, or over nourishment o Bulk of diet comes from wheat, rice, corn, potatoes o TOTAL YIELD AND WORLD GRAIN PRODUCTION INCREASE TOGETHER Agricultural necessities 1. Monoculture 1 species 2. Plowed soil 3. regular arrangement 4. Chemical application Agricultural expansion converting new land Agricultural intensificationchanging practices; adding fertilizers, pesticides, etc. for yielding crops Green Revolution o Increased after WW2 o Done by selective breeding, pesticides and fertilizers o Mexico and Indonesia are success stories 50% of food is lost due to animals and waste before reaching mouth Drawbacks to Green Revolution need new technology irrigation and chemicals have large, negative impacts loss of traditional methods Agriculture and Nitrogen N essential for protein synthesis Most N tied in atmosphere Agriculture is massive N addition in soil Humans add most of this than all other natural sources combined Soil Soil profile: OACB Soil erosion causes: 1. Contour farming 2. Systematic tillage 3. Strip cropping 4. Windbreaks Concept 4: Nature as a whole Pollination A FREE BEE ECOSYSTEM SERVICE;MISUSE OF PESTICIDES & LOSS OF HABITAT Most critical ecosystem service Needed for food production Major drop in 2006 aka colony collapse disorder; queen stays but every other bee abandons Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus shivering wings, death outside of hive U.N predicts increase in fertilizer and insufficient waste rand loss of bees in U.S and L.A Future demands presents major environmental issues; need sustainable farming Greener Revolution 1. Eating lower on food chain 2. Organic farming 3. Preserve and restore wetlands 4. Cropping methods Nature Reserves and Ecological Restoration Habitat loss is leading cause of biodiversity and species endangerment Nature reserves promote ecological restoration Main areas: o National parks and forests o Wilderness areas o Game reserves Historical locations for reserving o India, 400 B.C o Yellowstone o First national park in England in 1508 U.S Policies Concerning Biodiversity Conservation Corridors established for protection and preservation for human use o Their effectiveness tested by Ellen Damshen and Nick Haddard who studied them for 5 years; found sites connected had 20% higher diversity than those not connected o So big ones are better, not numerous small Goals of Nature Reserve Protect functioning ecosystems, biological diversity, species of interest Large habitats protect more species, larger animals and larger population o Ex: Grizzly Bears; William Newmark studied them and found that smaller and older the park was, more bears lost o Yellowstone to Yukon connected protected areas for 2,000 miles Wildlife Corridors Allows migrations, maintains large population sizes Allows recolonization if extinction occurs Close reserves better than far apart PROTECT THEM Endemism where species are found in 1 location and nowhere else Ex: centers in Africa Gap analysis Geographic Info System uses this to find land for diversity protection Most corridors are in low diversity, so not good for biodiversity Land set aside has increased Ecological Restoration Fresh Kills Restoration: largest landfill in world, closed in 2001 Restored by: tucked in soils and planting trees Recolonization was accelerated by birds Ecological restoration process of assisting recovery of indigenous ecosystems Why it is not popular: o Natural habitats still abundant o undermines goal of conserving land o restored places are inferior o true restorations are not possible Why it is popular: o Legislation requires change of mine sites and wetland o Increased use of native vegetation by government agencies and landscapes o Some areas so degraded that restoration is only option Bioremediation detoxification of soils that have substrates contaminated with heavy metals or organic compounds Principles of Ecological Restoration 1. Do no harm 2. Eliminate processes that cause degradation 3. Develop and execute methods 4. Remove toxins and add nutrients 5. Monitor systems Concept 5: Global Climate Change Predictions concerning global warming have greatest certainty Keeling curve shows increase trend in co2 concentration o Also shown by “co2 flying carpet” or “Earth’s Green Lung” o Effect is strong seasonal oscillation and explains minor fluctuations o Overall upward trend; as population goes up, so does co2 o Burning of fossil fuels explains this graph o During summers, co2 is removed from atmosphere for photosynthesis, meaning in winter, co2 goes up because it is put in air Greenhouse Effect Present: light passes through atmosphere & earth radiates heat: greenhouse effect Future: burning of fossil fuels adds excess co2: global warming Earth’s average temp. will be hotter; worst case scenario is most likely Weather will get more extreme Co2 Changes Permafrost melting will increase co2 Ex: if Tundra melted in Siberia, methane would increase Methane has a bigger capacity to trap heat than co2 Increase in co2 means increase in temp KEY IDEA: WE ARE CHANGING PHYSICS (TEMP) AND CHEMISTRY (C02) OF PLANET Ozone Is o3 and is decreasing in upper atmosphere Normally it absorbs UV light so without it, an increase in UV is bad for health Ozone in UPPER atmosphere is good Common MANMADE refrigerant, CFC’s destroy ozone so it increases bad UV exposure o CFC’s are light and float up o In summer, CFC’s release (summer evaporation) o In winter, CFC’s deposition (winter precipitation) o EX: NOAA found hole in ozone, affecting snowy regions of Alps and Colorado o Aluminum absorbs CFC’s 1% decrease in ozone 2% increase in UV 1% increase in UV 2% increase in skin cancer 3% decrease in ozone 12% increase in skin cancer stratosphere (>7 miles) o decrease in ozone in stratosphere is bad o ozone is destroyed by CFC’s o trend (negative) o stratospheric ozone is environmental success story troposphere (<7 miles) o created by Nox (made by car exhaust) and hydrocarbons o creates hazardous ozone smog o trend (positive) Atlanta’s ozone is 99% from automobile exhaust and hydrocarbons Train act economic costs of environmental regulation must be considered while the benefits are not considered Co2 Monitoring Sites Ecotime trends in co2: steadily increasing Monotonic trend, increase overtime Increase variation within and between stations CO2 Causes Some think co2 goes up because of volcanoes but this is incorrect; only slightly impacts o Co2 cyclical patterns change Climate forcing combined effects of climate drivers: solar variations, changes in co2, volcanic eruptions, and aerosols Ian Pilmer wrote Heaven and Earth and said volcanoes would produce more co2 KEY ISSUE: GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IS NOT THE ISSUE IT IS THE ANTHROPOGENIC CAUSE Meltdown of glaciers Over time, thickness decreases Ex: Solheim Glaicer, Iceland This trend is not everywhere One Greenland Glacier is the size of Mexico, and if it melts, sea level will rise 21 feet Biological Consequences of Global Warming 1. Flowering plants are blooming earlier; some not at all because too hot a. Average flowering date advanced by 4.5 dates b. Ragweed changes 16 days longer 2. Butterfly diversity increases at tree level and decreases at sea level 3. SRS wood ducks nest earlier in spring 4. Wintering ranges for birds go further north Effects of Climate Change on Georgia Increased rainfall and average temp everywhere except Georgia o By end of century, GA will be hotter (increase of 49 degrees) and dryer Global Warming will make Ga dryer; we know because it happened before o Dust Bowl o We had slightly increase in temperature because of air pressure and heat; sea level raises causing Bermuda High, which prevents cold water and air from Pacific that reaches CA and GA Drought causes fire Co2 causes allergies from pollen Fossil fuels take carbon out of air and put it in the ground o Causes net increase in atmosphere, causing global warming Biofuels Co2 car exhaust goes to trees Co2 used for biofuels come from air and not ground so it does not increase amount of co2 in air Logic Train Disruption of Gulf Stream would cause deep freeze in Northern Latitude Cold salty water will sink off of Greenland at Key Salinity place o KSP is where loop current begins (The Gulf Stream Loop Current) where warm water meets Northern Europe For water to sink it must be cold and salty; warm water floats The fear is that warm, fresh water won’t sink which will shut down the loop current KEY IDEA: GLOBAL WARMING HEATS SEAWATER GLOBAL WARMING MELTS GLACIERS AND FRESHENS SEAWATER Northern Europe Heat Budget 40% from Gulf Stream, 60% from Sun o warm summers and mild winters due to gulf stream o loss of Gulf Stream would cause cooling in Europe, leading to miniice age Time Comprehensions: 1. Speed of cooling 2. Sea level cooling 3. Glacial advances Extent of Cooling and Ice cores with ice cores, we can indicate past concentrations o past concentration of co2 o past isotopic composition of co2 and where new co2 came from Congressional Hearing Primer IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) was present Greenhouse gas Kyoto Protocol: treaty promoting co2 reduction Key Salinity Point
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