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COMM 205 EXAM 2 Study Guide

by: Susannah Foos

COMM 205 EXAM 2 Study Guide COMM 205

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Communication > COMM 205 > COMM 205 EXAM 2 Study Guide
Susannah Foos
Penn State
GPA 3.89

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Study guide for Ch 8, 11, 12, 14, 15 Notes I took from the class book ; Race Gender Class and the Media by Sharon Bramlett-Solomon and Meta G. Carstarphen I suggest looking at the previous s...
Gender, Diversity and the Media
Prof. Renea Nichols
Study Guide
comm 205, PSU, Exam 2, Study Guide, Ch 8, Ch 11, Ch 12, Ch14, ch 15, Race Gender Class and the Media by Sharon Bramlett-Solomon and Meta G. Carstarphen
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Susannah Foos on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 205 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Prof. Renea Nichols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Gender, Diversity and the Media in Communication at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 03/20/16
Chapter 8 • Class = categorize people according to their economic status, determined by income level, profession, occupation, education, inherited wealth or family lineage • American Dream = ideology that anyone with determination and who work hard could succeed in America • Nickelodeons = films 10-15min that were short narratives/scenes of variety subjects; appealed to immigrants and working class o themes  police rarely side with the poor people (The Kleptomaniac)  show sympathy of poor folks trying to survive (The Moonshiner)  Horatio Alger Myth = rags to riches • After WWI film goes from small-scale producer business to studio enterprise and its purpose to entertain and make profit • 1920 poor immigrant entrepreneurs (Jews) take Hollywood; Hollywood = harsh practices and exploitation makes it hard to unionize • 1930 Great Depression = low movie attendance and bankruptcy o Films depict Americans struggling against large corps that challenge American dream and Alger myth o Heroes don’t get ahead by being good = Gangster films (Scarface) • 1940 shift to wartime • Pulp-novel genre = greedy characters doing anything for money and power • TV- reflecting life of struggling working class – class linked to real social issues o Goldbergs (Jews), The Life of Riley (Irish), Beulah (black housekeeper) o Perpetuate upward mobility and American dream ideology • 1960 civil rights & women’s movement challenging America to live up to creed of freedom and equality • 1980 and beyond – Reagan Era primetime dramas and sitcoms about the wealthy o Reaganomics focused on “trickle-down” materialism and relentless pursuit of American dream o Cosby Show = evidence that anyone regardless of race, ethnicity, structural barriers can make it economically in America o The Simpsons (1989-present) longest running prime time show, parody of working class American family Chapter 11 6 critical and provocative themes of women in film/television 1. Blatantly sexist early portrayals 2. Traditional home and family roles 3. Heterosexuals romance relationship roles 4. Underrepresentation and marginalization (ostracism) 5. Sexual objectification 6. Ideal body and beauty standards • Ninetieth-Century Victoria Era = 1920s & 30s o women = pure and innocent wives, mothers or virginal daughters to take care of the home o sexuality= duty opposed to pleasure o Victorian heroines = defenseless, delicate, child like behaviors • Virgin – whore complex = cultural construction defining women on the basis of their sexuality • Industrial Revolution women working and their independence for equal rights = feminism • Flapper = stereotype of a sexy and confident women (Clara Bow) • Dorothy Arzner = female filmmaker; 16 films in 15 years; behaved in masculine manner to be accepted by coworkers • Chick flick / women’s pictures = films aimed at women explore lives, careers, emotions of women • 1940 revert women to playful love objects; TV reflects film • Shows for women are soap operas and cooking shows ( I Love Lucy) • 1950 shift to middle class family; dad works white collar job, mom runs household and well- mannered kids; Film open about sex o Blonde Bombshell = curvaceous, dumb, sex appeal, stop man in tracks, oblivious to her sexiness ( Marilyn Monroe) • Women fed up with housewife stereotype = complain in books • 1960 national organization of women, birth control available, TV portrays women chasing dreams • 1970-1980s Hollywood = sexism, inequality, dissatisfaction of locked in stereotypes; female –buddy sitcoms (Golden Girls) • 1990 and on increased women in action-adventure films, still sexualized, Chick flicks emphasize female friendship as support system with careers and outspoken Chapter 12 • Ads present misrepresentation, stereotypes and exclusion; in a city receive 5,000 ads per day, sell products, services, and dreams • Ads “call action/attention to something” • Exist in “free market economies” • Aristotle “ persuasive means persuasive to a person” • Target class / niche media = group of mass consumers segmented by specialization • Mediated Advertising = “a world in common” reflects hegemony of ads • Forms of Ads  Classified = ads comprised virtually of all texts in short msgs  Display = texts & graphics – larger ads seen in newspapers, magz, etc  Billboard =designed for public spaces, adorn sides of highways, buildings, etc  Radio/TV= built for sound/image; electronic ads supplement news and entertainment formats  Interactive = created out of the internet, combine print & electronic media features, invites participation  Hidden Commercials = product placement (Coke on AmericanIdol) • Ad categories (ALL SHARED GOAL = PERSUATION)  Product = designed to sell a specific product (shoes)  Service = highlights value of receiving a service (banking)  Goodwill = “image” advertising, highlights connection between for profit companies and public service (environment)  Advocacy = ads where company takes a position on public policy  Infomercials = resemble programing but designed to sell a product (talk shows, magic bullet)  Public Service Announcements (PSA) = aired at no cost on behalf of nonprofit org. who needs to communication info to the public  Political ads = paid msgs for/against specific candidates; Issue Advocacy Ads, that take point of view on timely public issue st • 1 print ad = 1455 Chinese printing tech in Germany by Johannes Gutenberg • 1704 Boston News-Letter = 1 stcontinuously published colonial newspaper with Ads • Thomas Smith = 1774 ads selling indentured servants including their abilities and skills • Volney Palmer = opened 1 Ad agency in Philly 1843 • Benjamin Daly = penny press • HandBill = ad flier w/ vivid imagery and key ideas convincing recruitment to carrying literacy abilities = Union Recruitment Handbill • P. T. Barnum = drew attention to his traveling show using ad tactics that remain today; self- published newspaper The Advance Courier • Hackahliah Baily= pioneered display ads merging art w/ text • Stereotypes = simplified inaccurate conceptions/images that have been standardized and widely held  Walter Lippman “they generate the pictures in our heads” • Groupthink= coined by Irving Janis o Def- describes situations where individuals think collectively and behave cohesively in response to a perceived threat and to conform to a dominant in-group perspective o Factors that can provide Groupthink conditions  Insulation of the group  Domineering leadership lacking traditional impartiality  Lack of methodical procedures guiding decision making  Homogeneity of group members (social background, ideology) o Context that can provoke Groupthink  High stress from out-group source w/ low expectation of better solution to the problem than group leader’s suggestion  Overall low self-esteem marked by recent failures, unresolvable moral dilemmas, and difficulties in decision making o 8 Symptomsof Groupthink 1. Illusion of invulnerability 2. Illusion of the inherent morality of the group 3. Rationalization 4. Stereotyping of out-group 5. Self-censorship 6. Illusion of unanimity 7. Direct pressure/censorship of those with differing opinions 8. Reliance on self-appointed mind guards o Groupthinkers sustain their position by believing that their group is flawless; while negatively drawing out the short comings of other groups • Quid Pro Quo = someone receives something for something else • Class consciousness = tri-level interpretation o Encompasses the denotative; ID the product promoted o The connotative; learn how to relate product to culture o Ideological; learn ideology which explains how 1 & 2 work together • Myth based on ad = physical beauty is the ultimate goal • Sex sells describes the strategy of sexual appeal • In order for a medium to be successful it must attract a large audience • Aunt Jemima boycotted by Blacks changed to modern image without headrag • The Tom Joyner Morning Show (TJMS) o Rhythm &blues, comedy, news, info, PSAs, o Large black audience o Tavis Smiley delivered racially targeted sale on air “prospects, not suspects” • American Advertising Federation (AAF) o Wally Snider announce intent to create solutions that would “promote equity in media buying and selling” o Created “Mosaic Principles and Practical Guidelines” & AAF Mosaic Center on Multiculturalism Programs • American Association of Advertising Agencies (4As) o Issue principles and best practices for diversity and inclusion in ad agencies o Pledge to stimulate and promote minority ownership of media and media related entities • Blacks and Latinos comprise 30% of US pop, by 2050 US = half people of color • Vince Culler Advertising = 1sblack owned full service agency (‘56) • Burrell Advertising = country’s largest black owned agency (’71) • Frank Mingo & Carolyn Jones = coined KFC “We Do Chicken Right” • Uniworld Inc. = currently largest black agency in world (’69) by Bryon Lewis represents Seven Up, Burger King, AT&T • Don Coleman & Associates= 1988 multicultural marketing agency Chapter 14 Katie Couric = 1 solo evening news anchor st Diane Sawyer = 1 female correspondent for 60mins Lisa Lang = runs social media fostering women in media Barbara Walters = interviews celebs to world leaders Christiane Amanpour = Chief international Correspondent for CNN Gwen Ifill = managing editor for Washington Week, political reporter Judy Woodruff = Gaylord Prize winner, cofounder of International Women’s Media Foundation • Travel writing = first popular genre bringing foreign lands into comfort of household; similar to today’s travel correspondents • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu= 1 stwomen travel writer • Women working with fathers, bros, husbands to learn print business, technical skills, editorial; women were often illiterate • Dinah Nuthead petitioned for license to cont. dead husband’s, William, business = 1 st colonial print women • Freedom’s Journal (black newspaper) reflected women’s views about female role in black community • Sarah Joseph Hale = 1837 editor & guide content of Godey’s Lady’s Book, promoting women’s duty, 1 important US mag for women • Slave narratives: black women in speech & print, empowered by The life of Fredrick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself • Racial Uplift = belief that through education, economic independence, & sanitary living conditions black people could thrive • Minnie Two Shoes = publicist for American Indian Movement, reporter and founding member of Native American Journalist “turned her humor into a sword” • Helen Thomas = direct questions and blunt opinions • Women expanded media’s audience, brought content innovations to all platforms, broaden public discourse Chapter 15 • Jean Kilbourne – Killing US Softly 4: Advertising’s Image of Women, highlights and addresses topics of consumerism, thinness, beauty ideal, and global impacts • Julia T Wood – media creates 2 opposing images of women Good (pretty, deferential, faithful, home and family oriented) or Bad • Sexual-objectification theory =women learn to evaluate themselves according to their perceived value as sexual objects of desire. o Mental consequences to women as a result of constant images • Sexual Objectification = social forces that cause women to feel as if they are something instead of somebody, or as if their personhood is negated by their physical attributes • Objectification =the social process where the media constructs images of women as objects • Self-objectification = explains how someone who perceives these images begins to internalize these and project them upon one’s own body • Body shame= the emotion that can result from measuring oneself against an internalized or cultural standard and perceiving oneself as failing to meet that standard • Women are socialized into gender roles and experience sexual objectification more frequently that help promote self-objectification and surveillance which promotes body shame • More exposure = more objectification = more scrutinizing over body • Hip hop music criticized for hyper-violence and supercharged sexual images • Sexygirlhood = little girls & teens depicted as sexually mature and sexy women; adult women depicted as sexy little girls • Objectification perceived as empowerment by other women; college female view sexuality as power • Pursuit for weight perfection = metaphor for the pursuit of happiness • Culture and media work in tandem


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