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Test 2 notes

by: Isabel Cano

Test 2 notes GHY 104H

Isabel Cano
GPA 3.21
Weather and Climate
Carl Reese

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all my notes for test 2 of weather and climate, I have everything color coded, I hope you find it helpful!
Weather and Climate
Carl Reese
Study Guide
50 ?




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Popular in Geography

This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabel Cano on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GHY 104H at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Carl Reese in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at University of Southern Mississippi.


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Date Created: 10/04/15
Page 1 39 key points possibly on test purple 39 new sections within a section in the chapter green 39 normal class points teacher made black 39 will for sure be on test red Profile of the Atmosphere based on Temperature Troposphere Surface up to about 18 km 11 mi 5 mi equatorial vs polar 90 mass of atmosphere temperature decreases with height Normal lapse rate average cooling rate of 64 CO 1000 m 35 FO1000 ft temps decrease with altitude Environmental lapse rate actual local lapse rate at any time and place deviates because local weather conditions vary Prevents cooler denser air below from mixing with warmer less dense air in the Stratos T ropopause pause between troposphere and stratosphere Stratosphere 18 to 50km 11 to 31mi Temperatures increase with altitude from 700F at tropopause to 320F at stratopause Role of ozone Stratopause outer boundary pauses between stratosphere and mesosphere Mesosphere 50 to 80km 30 to 50mi not much is happening temperature decreases with height heating near the base of this layer due to ozone dissipates with height mesopause the pause between thermosphere and mesosphere Thermosphere heat sphere Roughly same as heterosphere 80 km 50 mi outwards 5 0 3 00 mi outwards Thermopause upper limit Fact can cause friction drag on sats in low orbit Temps rise to 22000F but not hot Temp and heat are different concepts solar rad cause high kinetic energy measured as temp but not sensible heat Page 2 Atmospheric Function Ozonosphere 39 Part of stratosphere Oxygen OZ 7 Ozone O3 highly reactive has one extra O atom 39 O3 absorbs UV energy and converts it to heat energy infrared radiation with longer wavelengths lter 39 stable over past several hundred million years but changing Ionosphere outer functional layer 39 Absorbs cosmic rays gamma rays Xrays some UV rays and changes atoms into ions 39 Used to re ect radio waves AM and other shortwave broadcasts FM TV broadcasts pass through C10 and O3 The chemical compound ClO chlorine monoxide is a byproduct of chemical reactions that involve CFCs 39 Notice inverse relationship between CIO and O3 NEED TO KNOW PICTURES 4 lo 7 ROY 3 Blquot tong Shad Wow Wow length om t W ll WW mm l will Lo new loony Chapter 4 Energy Essentials transferRadiation Exchanges Radiation Transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves most important factor in uencing weather and climate solar radiation light heatenergy temperature differences pressure difference Page 3 Mechanisms of Energy Transfer 1 Conduction The molecule to molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance Vibrations speed of molecules increase collisions with neighboring molecules cause transfer of this energy higher temps gtgtgtgt lower temps all states are able to transfer heat this way depending on the material EX Boundary layer heating soil it is at ground level this is the main heating source of the atmosphere putting a pot on a stove coils heat up rst then bottom of pot through convection them the water heats up the water touching the bottom of the pot starts heating then boiling which transfers to the top of the water still equals convection the bigger the temperature difference the faster the ow hand 89 degrees pot 200 degree hand touching the pot the pot sends energy faster then the hand hot always goes to cold 2 Convection The transfer of heat by the bodily movement of a uid Liquid or Gas Convection vs Advection Vertical vs Horizontal Warm gtgtgtgtgtgt Cold Dense gtgtgtgtgtgt Less Dense EX atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation 3 Latent and Sensible Heating 39 Sensible heat when energy added to a substance is used to increase the temperature 39 heat you can feel 39 amount of temp increase depends on the amount of energy added and the speci c heat of the substance EX with 4190 jkg water vs soil you add 4190 jkg of soil to water water raises 1 degree add 4190 jkg of water to soil soil heats up 524 degrees lands heats up quicker then water 39 if given a choice between sensible and latent heat the earth will latent heat rst 39 Latent heating when the energy added to a substance is used to change its state Solid gtgtgtgtgt liquid or gas liquid gtgtgtgt gas 39 water is most important in meteorology EX why you sweat Page 4 4 Radiation Radiation Transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves 39 all bodies with temperature gt 27 3 degrees C emit every via electromagnetic radiation Energye travles in waves different types of energy different wavelengths 5 Radiation Laws 39 Stefans boltzmann s law how much energy Tell the full spectrum emittance of a body how much energy intensity in watts the sole factor determining this is temperature E qu4 constant is 00000000567 wm2doubling temp 16X increase in emissions Wien s Law Tells the wavelength of a peak emission tell what kind ymax 2897 tk what wavelength does the sun emit the most of hot thing emit longer waves lengths cold things emit shorter wave lengths SUN 2897 6000 04828 sun emits the most of blue lights What Happens to Sunlight in the Atmosphere 1 absorption 39 Assimilation of energy into object s molecules and conversion from one form to another If energy is not re ected then it must be absorbed 39 important Insolation that is not part of the 31 re ected from Earth s surface and atmosphere is absorbed 2 Scattering 39 Energy is scattered in all directions weaker however wavelength doesn39t change Rayleigh scattering air molecules preferential to shorter wavelengths why is the sky blue scattering happens in all directions Mie scattering aerosols larger particles no preference to wavelengths scatter the entire spectrum haze Page 5 3 Re ection 39 Change in direction of radiant energy without being absorbed or performing any work 31 of incoming radiation is lost to re ection atmospheric clouds earth Albedo the selective quality of surface has to deal with color 39 albedo value what of light is re ected 39 dark colors re ect less but absorb more light colors re ect most and absorb less 4 Transmission ability of a medium atmosphere to allow radiation to pass through it Rays directly hitting the earth wit no alteration Depends on conditions clear unpolluted day possibly 80 hazy day maybe 0 on average 25 39 CAVU ceiling as far as you can see up visibility how far you can see in front of you 9222015 1 Refraction a When EMR enters the atmosphere it literally goes from empty space to hitting the gases and aerosols of the atmosphere When this happens the waves lose speed and change angles bend c Refraction i Sun gt atmosphere 1 2 mins amp about 40 secs ii Rainbow gt water droplets 1 Sunlight travels over our head refracts off suspended liquid water droplets and then we are able to see a rainbow 2 Red deepest angle of refraction 3 Indigoviolet shallowest angle of refraction iii Mirage gt Differences in air densities 1 Inferior mirage example when a road way looks like it has a pool of water on it from far away Refraction from different densities from hot to cold 2 Superior Mirage iceberg or boat you see around a surface you aren39t suppose to see around Lecture 4 Energy Balance Page 6 Where does EMR goo once it enters the atmosphere 39 Works just like a check book SWD SWU LW D LW U Net R Q 39 Isolationre ectioninfraredinfrared Net radiation Earth receives shortwave radiation only from the sun everything else is emitted long waves Earth emits long wave radiation to the atmosphere SHORTWAVE BALANCE goes with pictureleft side of picture 39 21 Re ected off cloud tops 24 absorbed by atmosphere and clouds 7 scattered by atmosphere back to space 3 re ected off surface to space 20 scattered by atmosphere to Earth diffuse radiation 25 Direct Radiation to surface Total SW energy that reaches surface 45 Average planetary albedo 31 Average surface albedo 3 LONGWAVE BALANCE 39 Important factors in uencing LW balance 0 Greenhouse effect 39 Glass transmits SW radiation 39 Glass traps LW 39 Only energy loss is through conduction through the glass 0 Glass is a super cooled liquid NOT a solid lets in all SW radiation but blocks all LW Breadfruit when chopped open looks like starch green and has a waf e outer shell like a grenade Captain William Bly back during colonization of the Caribbean slaves had to be fed so the idea was to get breadfruit seeds an plant them across the island it was said its tree could feed a family of 4 HMS Bounty ship captained by Bly the headed to spread the breadfruits across their island but instead found Tahiti which had rum and Tahitian women Bly39s crew boys stayed on the Tahitian island However in the atmosphere 0 LW radiation escaping Earth is preferentially absorbed by 39 Carbon Dioxide water vapor CH4 N20 CFC39s Unlike a true greenhouse the LW is not trapped inde nitely however it is delayed LONGWAVE BALANCE on the right side of picture 39 96 emitted from atmosphere to earth 45 from SW Page 7 0 96 is bottled up greenhouse energy spit back down to us 0 2X as much radiation from the greenhouse than the sun 39 9645l4l units absorbed by surface 39 110 LW emitted to atmosphere WHYgt 100 39 8 emitted to space lost from the earth39s surface 39 19 used in Latent Heating turbulent mixing evaporating water 4 used in Convection turbulent mixing 39 110 8194141 perfect 39 Positive outcome means it is heating up negative cooling down Atmospheric Balance 0 Atmosphere has already reradiated its 96 units to earth 0 Everything else is eventually lost to space 39 A total of 69 units of LW are lost to space 39 See diagram same picture for SW and LW 1003196165 a Net R Q ofO BOWEN RATIO 39 The ratio of sensible heating to latent heating at a given place at a given time 39 Warm dry places high BR 0 Las Vegas Tropical Oceanic Areas Low BR 0 Amazonia map of Global Sensible Heating Daily Variations to Energy Balance 39 Surplus Net R 39 Warmest time of the day occurs with maXimum energy absorption not input LAG 39 Diagram only shows positive radiation What would the negative look like at 36 degrees North 92415 Changes of state Freezing liquid to solid Melting solid to liquid takes 80 calories 39 Condensation gas to liquid fuels all major weathers 39 Vaporization liquid to gas evaporation 39 Sublimation solid to gas dry ice Page 8 Deposition gas to solid frost 39 Moving left to right warming absorbs energy Cools the surrounding environment Moving right to left cooling releases energy warms surrounding environments State changes Require addition or release of stored energy latent heat 39 Calorie unit of energy Amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1 oC To heat 1 gram of water from 0 0C to 100 0C requires 100 cal Note 1000 calories 1 food calorie Latent heat of vaporization 540 cal Latent heat of condensation 540 cal Latent heat of melting 80 cal Latent heat of freezing 80 cal Latent heat of sublimation 680 cal Latent heat of deposition 680 cal Energy absorbed 39 Sensible heating When energy is absorbed to heat a surface earth there is less energy to surrounding environment earth stores heat When earth cools it releases heat however it warms the atmosphere around it 39 Energy released warms surrounding environment Water vapor to liquid water When water vapor cools and condenses to form rain energy is released to surrouding environment latent heat release more energy warms surround environment Page 9 Temperature Temperature Measures of the average kinetic energy motion of individual molecules of matter Heat a form of energy that ows from one system or object to another because of temperature differences Heat energy energy heat that is added or removed from a system or object Example Jumping into a cool pool lose heat energy lhrenheit english svstem Worst of all three Named for Daniel G Fahrenheit a German Physicist based on the coldest temperature he could achieve in his lab degrees F AND the temperature of a the human body around 100 So melting point of ice 32 degrees Boiling Point of water 212 degrees Arbitrary Why Melting Point Not Freezing Point water freezes at different temperatures but ICE always melts at 32 degrees Celsius or Centigrade Named after Anders Celsius a Swedish Astronomer Better but still an arbitrary zero Melting point of ice 0 degrees boiling point of water 100 degrees divide scale into 100 degrees using a decimal system Kelvin Scale SD Best of the Systems Named for the Lord Kelvin a British Physicist 0 degrees is Kelvin is Absolute Zero Starts here Increases proportional to the actual kinetic movement in an object Absolute Zero Temperature at which all atomic and molecular movement stops but this theory has not yet been proven We know it exists but we cannot prove it Melting point of ice 273 Kelvin Boiling point of water 373 kelvin Conversions 39 Celsius 59 Fahrenheit 32 Fahrenheit 95 Celsius 32 Kelvin Celsius 273 39 What is 129 Fahrenheit in kelvin Temperature Terms 39 Mean Daily Temperature maximum Minimum 2 39 Mean Monthly temperature Sum of all mean daily temp of days in month 39 Mean annual temp sum of all mean monthly temps 12 months 39 Temperature Range Maximum Minimum m 39 Isoline a ling on a map connecting equal values of something EX Isotherms equal values of temperature Effects on Temperature 1 Latitude effects amounts and angles of solar insolation 2 Altitude temperature decreases With height Remember your friend the Normal Lapse Rate 35 degrees Fahrenheit 1000 ft Page 10 Page 11 92915 3 Cloud cover o at any one time 50 of the earth is covered with clouds 4 Land water Heating Differences o Temperatures on land are more extreme that Landwater Heating temps on or near water Differences 5 The Principle of Tm Continentality quot 139 x quot L acclaim Gram moann owls mom Man 4va C 313 Mun Wow M r Temnergture in Wind Annual Cycle of Temperature o Just like the daily temperature tired logs behind the radiation tired by three hours o Annual Temperature trends logs behind radiation trend by 1 month or so over land 23 months over water 39 why Wind chills o Wind chill factor indicates the enhanced rate at which body heat to lost in the air Increased wind speed 39 decreased temperature Heat Index o Indicates body s reaction to air temperature and water vapor humidity Moisture makes temperature worse 0 does not take into effect if you are born in an area where heat is normal Page 12 Pressure and Winds Where ever you have temperature difference you have pressure difference Key Terms 1 Pressure gradient Force A change in pressure with horizontal distance Properties ow always from HIGH PRESSURE TO LOW PRESSURE at right angles to the isobars 39 high pressure always goes to low pressure at right angles of isobars 39 if the pressure differences are strong the winds will be strong Circulation Produced by the PGF 39 Sea Breeze or lake Breeze daytime VS land Breeze nighttime 39 land heats up faster then water HIGH TEMPS LOW PRESSURE RISING AIR VS LOW TMEP HIGH PRES SURE SINKING AIR 2 Coriolis Effect The de ective forces resulting from the earth s rotation de ects moving air to the right in the NH De ects moving air left in the SH if Coriolis and pressure gradient force fought Coriolis will always win this causes Geostrophic Wind Coriolis effect is greatest at the Poles No Coriolis Effect at the equator 1 Friction 2 Gravity Wind moving air caused by the unequal heating of the earth s surface and atmosphere There is always ow the earth always try to keep balance but cannot achieve it Transports atmosphere properties Arctic Blasts from Canada in winter times Differences in Pressure is what forces air to move Pressure Unit force per unit area 39 weight of atmosphere per unit area Remember that Gravity compresses air making it denser near the surface Pressure decreases rapidly with increasing altitude Remember tooth explosion when professor went up the Alcada mountain Measuring Pressure mercury Barometer Invented by Evangelista Torricelli a simple device Page 13 Reported in millibars lbs per square inch 39 1 cm 1332 mb 39 1 inch 3387 mb Barometric Pressure 39 The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level 1013 mb 39 Isobar is a line of constant pressure Just like isotherm but with pressure VALLEY BREEZE 39 on the slope during the day the wind is going upwards Anabatic on the slope during the nighttime the wind goes downward katabatibc Monsoons 39 Just a large scale land sea breeze Siberian High strong in winter over control Asia because it is so cold 39 Summertime Central Asia warms quickly the Siberian High Dissipates Result Monsoon 10115 amp1r Surface Winds Upper air anything above 500 has nothing to impede the Coriolis Effect o Coriolis is allowed to turn the ow parallel to the isobars there is no friction in the upper air o No friction in upper atmosphere o high pressure clockwise circulation rotates to the right o Upper is parallel 39 BUT near the surface there is friction Friction drag slows down wind and therefore weakens the Coriolis Effect surface air o Coriolis isn39t allowed to turn the winds completely parallel to the isobars the opposite happens to low air coming into the low gets bent to the left side counter clockwise ow due to friction force air cannot go 90 degrees pressure gradient up so its goes 45 even though the Coriolis effect wants the air to go downward all the way Page 14 Two terms Anticyclone High Pressure Around high pressure air ows nan outward spiral across the isobars Friction doesn39t allow parallel or geostrophic ow Cyclone Low Pressure Coriolis Force around low pressure cyclones air ows in an inward spiral across the isobars Centripetal Force tear things apart Pulls objects toward the center of a curvature This force helps explain the curved ow of air near the ground with friction General Circulation of Atmosphere Characteristics of earths general atmosphere circulation are set up by 39 Rotation 39 earth spins west to east Pressure Gradient and Coriolis Apparent de ection of objects Think of spinning Where on the earth s surface is spinning at a maximum and where is it at a minimum When being a pilot you cannot depend only on your compass because the earth is constantly spinning Coriolis is therefore maximum at the poles and nonexistent at the equator Southern Hemisphere left turns Northern Hemisphere right turns clock wise high air pressure ANTICYCLONE counter clock wise low air pressure CYCLONE GEOTROPIC winds upper atmosphere and aloft the ags on the map are pointed on the direction the wind is coming from winds are named where they come from pressure decreases as you go up convergence aloft divergence surface anticyclone divergence aloft convergence suface cyclone Pressure Gradient Coriolis Friction force surface wind Atmospheric pressure of Motion Primary HighPressure and LowPressure Areas Upper Atmospheric Circulation Local Winds Monsoonal Winds Primary High and Low Pressure Areas 1 Equatorial lowpressure trough clouds and rain ITCZ Page 15 Large amounts of energy in region lighter less dense ascending air full of moisture amp latent heat As air rises it cools and condenses heavy rain vertical cloud formation Where winds converge together and have no place to go but up low pressure Intense heating convectional uplift low pressure ITCZ bands of clouds asso with conv of winds along eq Northeast Trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere Southeast Trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere 2 Subtropical High Pressure hot dry desert air Bermuda High or Azores High Pacific High or Hawaiian High Subtropical High Pressure STHP Wind belt Westerlies in the Midlatitudes 3 Subpolar lowpressure cells cool and moist air Aleutian low winter weaken in summer Icelandic low winter weaken in summer Subpolar Low Pressure SPLP Polar front area of contrast btw cold and warm air do battle 4 Polar highpressure cells frigid dry deserts Weak bc atmos mass is small Winds Polar Easterlies Polar Arctic and Antarctic High Pressure PHP Siberian High winter Upper Atmospheric Circulation 39 Rossby waves Undulations in westerly geostrophic winds in upper atmosphere Brings waves of cold air southward Helps drive energy to achieve balance between areas of energy surplus and deficit Hadley cell defined by equatorial low subtropical high pressure The Inter tropical convergence zone air rises at the equator thermally induced low pressure at surface air converges toward the low and rises Farrel cell is defined subtropical high and subpolar low polar Page 16 Ocean Currents Frictional Drag of Winds Driving force for ocean currents This links the atmos and oceanic sys 39 Coriolis density diff tempampsalinity con guration of continents and ocean oor and tides also important for shaping currents Surface Currents Cold high latitude to low latitude 39 Warm low latitude to high latitude Effective mechanisms for redistributing energy across the earth s surface Gyres circulate in Which directions North and South paci c North and South Atlantic o indian Deep Ocean Currents Thermohaline circulation Earth s deep ocean currents 39 Caused by differences in temperature thermo and salinity haline 39 Very slow 1000 years to complete 1 cycle North Atlantic Deep Water NADW pump for the global conveyor belt system Ef cient but slow mechanism for re distributing energy Effects of climate change and melting polar ice


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