optional final study quide
optional final study quide psych 267
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PSYC 2012 Social Psychology
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by kaswimmer on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 267 at a university taught by Jamie Abaied in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Cumulative Final Potential Questions and Study Guide Professor Abaied will select a subset of these questions for the actual exam These are indeed the actual questions Please note that for material from Exams 1 and 2 the questions listed below are the same ones I previously distributed minus the questions that appeared on previous exams Thus if you have your study notes from the previous two exams you can reuse them to study for the final These questions are not necessarily mutually exclusive ie there could be overlap in your answers To effectively answer these questions you may need to consider different parts of the lectures or even different topics that we covered For the cumulative final there will be 5 questions total of which you will be required to answer 3 This includes 2 from Exam 1 materials you choose one 2 from Exam 2 material you choose one and 1 on Media required for all students who take the exam From Exam 1 Material 1 Arnett proposed five primary characteristics of emerging adulthood Describe these characteristics and give one example that illustrates each Be sure to contrast emerging adulthood from adolescence and adulthood in your answer Emerging adulthood identity explorationsmore choices more exploration trying new things instability because you are exploring jobs are switching who you are dating changes moving around selffocus you are not usually responsible for anyone else feeling inbetween you don t feel like an adult or an adolescent waiting room for adulthood possibilities you have a chance to be exactly who you arewant to be Adolescence 6 paarts 5 items storm and stress con ict with parents mood disruptions risk behaviors begins with puberty and ends when we take on adult roles 2 Allison is 13 years old and in 8th grade Allison has a relatively lean muscular body and she can run very fast She is also rather shy and quiet around other people being in large groups makes her especially nervous and uncomfortable Based on what you know about Allison a describe an example of how an active geneenvironment she choose environment correlation might in uence Allison s development She is a mid adolescent An active geneenvirnoment is one where she is seeking an environment based on your characteristics An example of this might be that because she has an athlete body type gene and can naturally run fast she will join the track or other sports team It is her lean gene that is driving to seek out that environment b describe an example of how an evocative geneenvironment genes affect environment correlation might in uence Allison s development An evocative geneenvironment is one where vour genetics are evocating actions from others in vour environment that is to sav that its vour genetics that affect vour environment This mav mean having other students ask her hev vou re reallv fit want to train t0gether for a triathlon Or having bovs look at her and look away if she isn t curvy with boobs like some of her peers might be c Will the effects of evocative versus active geneenvironment correlations increase or decrease as Allison gets older and WHY As Allison gets older evocative gene environment correlation is unchanging IDK why Active geneenvironment correlation is 6seen less in childhood and more in adolescence and more again in emerging adulthood This is because you have to make more of your own choices increases with age You are required to write an informational brochure for parents to prepare them for what to expect when their child goes through puberty Describe the major changes that occur in children s bodies as a result of puberty and explain the biological processes that underlie them Boys can expect 8to have Girls can expect 5 growth of their testes and scrotal sac growth of pubic hair growth of pubic hair growth of breasts growth spurt menarche penial growth underarm hair a change in voice and oil and sweat production as well as acne spermarche growth of facial and underarm hair and oil and sweat production as well as acne Puberty starts when fat cells produce leptin which signals the hypothalamus The hypothalamus gradually increases production of GnRH growth hormone The pituitary gland then releases gonadotropins FSH and LH FSH and LH both stimulate the development of gametes and gonads The gametes egg and sperm development prepares the body for reproduction which the gonads produce sex hormones for secondary sex characteristics Describe Arnett s 1999 modified storm and stress theory and contrast it with G Stanley Hall s theory Be sure to describe relevant empirical research with adolescents when contrasting the two theories Describe the three major events in brain development in adolescence Explain what they are and when they happen First there is thickening of synaptic connections or gray matter growth spurt This usually happens around ages 1012 years old and primarily in the frontal lobe Second there is synaptic pruning when gray matter starts to decline at age 12 use it or loose it Third there is a myelination increase as white matter steadily increase from age 4 to middle age Thickening of synaptic connections is when essentially your brain is creating all these new pathways so you can do things faster You are creating more lines for information to travel along This happens between the ages of 1012 years old Then the synaptic pruning is when your brain steps back and goes okay what don t we use that we can toss away It is a use it or loose it step This is similar to when you used to have a path from your house to your neighborhood friends house and at one point you decided it was easier to make a new path then to walk on the street but after you stopped seeing that friend the path was overgrown or in the case of synapses pruned away This happens at the age of 12 Finally there is myelination This is when your brain recognizes okay some of these paths I use all the time and some I only need a few times every so often Therefore I am going to make my most used routes a highway by coating them in a layer of fat so that the action potential can travel faster De ne metacognition sarcasm and metaphors and describe how understanding of these phenomena changes in adolescence Be sure to describe any empirical evidence we discussed in class to support your answer From Exam 2 Material 1 Discuss three reasons why families experience disequilibrium when a child in the home is transitioning to adolescence During adolescence sometimes a family may feel a sense of disequilibrium that they will have to adjust to Some of these reasons may include mood changes in the adolescent the dating and sex they may be engaging in and puberty Families experience disequlibrium in the family while the child is an adolescent This is due to 1 mood changes in the kid 2the dating and sex they may be involved in and 3puberty Its hard for a parent to see their young child someone they have always had to watch over as an independent and sexually active person 2 Describe the three primary changes in peer relationships that occur during adolescence be sure to describe research ndings that support each one From childhood to adolescences there are a few different things that change in what is sought after in a friendship During adolescences one finds the addition of intimacy trust and loyalty to be a must Describe how friendships NOT broad peer relationships change in adolescence and WHY these changes occur Define and contrast cliques versus crowds How are they de ned and what is their purpose ie what do they provide to adolescents A clique is a small group of friends who know each other well spend time together you care for them and you are all friends with each other They can be exclusive but often are not This is separate from the stereotypical or causal use of the word clique that may make someone thing of a certain group of people like jock or popular What those indivisuals really are referring to is a crowd A crowd is a loosely defined group and don t all have to know each other These relationships are NOT friendship based There are 5 key groups of crowds The elites gpopular athletics gjock academics gnerd deviants gtrouble kidbad boy 2 and other gaverage don t identifv with the ones above A clique provides close friendships and therefor support as well as companionship A crowd provides identity and where your place is helps you understand how others see you and helps identify other students you don t know so well Describe developmental trends in AVERAGE selfesteem in the US across From 6th grade to 10th grade on average selfesteem slowly declines By emerging adulthood thankfully it does being to rise again In adolescences its easy to imagine why selfesteem drops off especially in girls Things such as school success pubertal development and approval from parents and peers all play a major role Especially in middle and high school status and crowd identification can be critical to an adolescent s selfesteem By emerging adulthood selfesteem increases due to maturity and learning reelections and learning from mistakes increase in autonomy and puberty is over a What domains of selfesteem are most important to adolescents b How does culture in uence selfesteem in adolescence Of the 8 domains of selfesteem physical appearance and social acceptance are the two most important Only 10 of white girls are satisfied with their bodies and 70 of African American girls with theirs In a study where researchers told parents that a test would determine their future Chinese parents downplayed success and emphasized academic failure whereas white US parents emphasized academic success and downplayed their failures Cultures that are more individualistic are going to may more attention to selfesteem as they are the ones that emphasize the self and individuality Using Sternberg s theory of love and Brown s theory describe the typical characteristics of adolescent romantic relationships Sternbergs theory of love says that says that relationships are made up of three aspects and with difference pieces of each you would have a different form of love The best kind of love is the consumate love composed of passion commitment intimacy Most adolescent relationships are in what is considered infatuation gpassion alone and romantic love gpassion and intimacy Passion being your physical attraction intimacy being close and a source of emotional support Intimacy is a sense of closeness and emotional support and commitment is a sense of both being dedicated to making the relationship long term 8 Describe sex scripts for male versus female adolescents How do these scripts help to explain gender differences in sexual behaviors such as age of onset and sexting and the outcomes of romantic involvement and sex Males 5 initiate the date decision making Females 8 grooming and dress responding controlling dinner buy the meal initiating to the males gestures responding to the males sexual contact Respond positively about the sexual advances limit setters Emotional first time they have sex intimacy romance friendship ambivalent about first intercourse Positive outcomes include 4 popularity and Negative outcomes include in early social acceptance increase selfesteem adolescent girls in a serious relationship its friendship competence better at being a linked to depression and usually involves the friend pressure to have sex or drink Outcomes also include substance abuse and delinquent m 9 Compare the characteristics and outcomes of romantic relationships in heterosexual versus LGBTQ youth In Heterosexual relationships outcomes include positive ones such as popularity and status selfesteem and friendship competence Negative outcomes include for females in long term relationships depression but also delinquent behavior and substance abuse In LGBTQ youth they must first go thru a much harder identity exploration and identification phase but then show the exact same dating script Potential Questions on Media 1 Read the attached teen magazine article NOTE one is not attached here nd a magazine or online article to practice on and describe how adolescents might respond to it based on cultivation theory social learning theory and the uses and gratification approach Cultivation theory cognitive mean world Syndrome if you see a lot of news youll know how much bas stuff really does happen quotThe primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend 39living39 in the television world the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on televisionquotI Social learning theory behavioral you will mimic qualities that are rewarded in media running from cop freedom then you will run jock is condescending to girls and gets girls you ll be condescending and expect same result Uses and Gratification approach two kinds of variety Variety of choice you don t get all of the media you have CHOICE you get some of it you get what YOU choose Variety of responses some people don t like blood and guts which others love it If how we REACT to each of them example Kids Respond Video to Robin Thick video 2 What are the social functions of the Internet How do adolescents and emerging adults tend to use social media In what ways is social media bene cial versus harmful for adolescents andor emerging adults Be sure to base this on research discussed in class rather than your own expertise as an Internetsavvy Millennial Purpose of social media Identity presentation amp social connections Frequency of use Almost constantly several times a day 80 How do they use Desktop 87 gaming console 81 smartphone73 Who uses Girls dominate visually oriented social medias intrgram 61gt44 snapcaht 51gt3l But boys play more games have gaming console 91gt70 play Video games on phone or online 84gt59 Why use5 entertainment identity development sensation seeking coping youth culture Pro mixed or no effect on well being sometimes positively correlated with self esteem more help seeking perceptions of higher social support Con cyber bullying preferring online rather than in person social interactions seems to be bad
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