ANFS251 Exam 2 Study Guide
ANFS251 Exam 2 Study Guide ANFS251
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANFS251 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Lesa Griffiths in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Animal Nutrition in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
ANF5251 Exam 2 Study Guide Dietary Energy Feeding standards based on some measure of energy 0 Additional requirements for proteinamino acids essential fatty acids vitamins minerals Energy derived from the dietary organic components Carbohydrates provide the bulk of energy 0 Low cost per unit of energy Energy 0 Amount of heat produced when a compound is complexly oxidized in the body 0 The loss of energy from the body 0 Different units 0 Calories Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1C calorie cal Kilocalorie kcal lOOOcal Megacalorie Mcal lOOOkcal or lOOOOOOcal 0 British Thermal Units BTUs o Joules Work anything above maintenance that uses energy ie lactation gestation running growing pulling Maintenance Gross Energy Fecal energy loss W Digestible Energyr Gaseous energy loss iF Metabolizable Energy Heat increm still 1F Net E rlergglr Productive Gross Energy GE amount of heat produced when a feed is completely oxidized burnt Digestible Energy DE measure of the amount of energy apparently absorbed from a feed after it has been consumed and digested Metabolizable Energy ME determined by subtracting energy losses in urine and combustible gases from the DE value Net Energy NE determined by subtracting energy losses resulting from rumen fermentation and tissue metabolism from ME Total Digestible Nutrients TDN Method to estimate energy content of a feed Sums up all fractions of a feed that are digestible TDN Digestible CP Digestible CF Digestible NFE starch and sugars 225xDigestible Ether Extract fat Tends to overvalue roughages not accounting for indigestible ber Widely used because values to plug into the equation are easily accessible Cellular Anabolic Caata lml ii F Uill39dln39 pathways 39 pathways W bl39 39EkS Factors Affecting Energy Metabolism Greatest energy loss in feces o Feces Dietary components that are not digested Diet components greatly in uence the amount of feces produced 0 Level of feed consumption also in uences digestibility Diarrhea presence of toxins and parasite infections reduce digestibility Monogastric diets are more digestible than herbivorousruminant diets Losses associated with metabolism Losses after absorption vary greatly 0 Level of intake 0 Quality of diet Fermentation Heat 0 Produced as a result of microbial fermentation in the GIT 0 As nutrients are oxidized o Referred to as heat increment Largest heat associated with metabolism of proteinsamino acidsgtcarbsgtfats o Microbes are generating heat just by living in the gut of ruminants Barrels of hay that are sitting in barns can spontaneously combust from the heat that the microbes sitting in that hay are giving off 0 Energy requirements are affected by 0 Age 0 Species 0 Activity level 0 Production level 0 Environmental conditions 0 Nutrient de ciencies Requirements directly related to body surface area metabolic body weight 0 Management practices in uence the surface area of the animal and change the rate of heat loss ie factors that affect heatcold stress Blanket on the horse to keep in metabolic heat requires less food Comfort zone range of temperatures in which an animal does not need to use energy to coolheat itself 0 Feeds that have high feed increments are harder to digest versus low feed increments Straw high feed increment o If the body is super hot appetite decreases produces less metabolic heat Solution concentrate the diet to insure the animal gets the correct amount of nutrients in the small amount of food it s ea ng Heat Loss l 8 r c l Heat PFOdUiIEEHiEJ Ih i ll quot x i I 39 r I Lf 1 pquot 739 I I i l l II 139 H I 4 ClaimClix I 3 metabolite l quot I LII 39 7 i i 7 F I I III 7 of u39l 2 J l39 n39 Energy De ciencies Wild species may go through alternating periods of energy surplus adequacy and de ciency 0 Trend follows seasonal availability of feed Freerange domestic animals may also experience uctuations in energy surplus and adequacy o Fluctuations occur because of unregulated pastures De ciency extremes are less severe Owners feed them supplements 0 Animals in con nement should not experience such extremes Periods of energy de ciency can negatively impact the animal 0 Fat reserves are metabolized for energy l weight loss Very common in lactating animals After all the fat is metabolized muscle starts getting broken down malnutrition Li ids Organic compounds Insoluble in water Soluble in organic solvents Range from fatsoils to complex sterols Fat 225x more energy than carbohydrates Expensive feed ingredient not common in livestock diets Omegas common in dog diets as a marketing technique because they are linked to immune system health Glycolipids combinations of carbohydrates and lipids Lipoproteins combinations of lipids and proteins important constituents of cells Phospholipids contain phosphorus and fatty acids constituents of cellular membranes Sterols compounds such as Vitamin D and cholesterol Fats Oils Concentrated form of stored energy Source of essential fatty acids Composed of fatty acids of varying lengths combined with a glycerol molecule 0 Fatty acids chains of carbon atoms 2 to 24 carbons Saturated all bonds on the carbon atom are taken up by a hydrogen ie butter beef marbling in the muscle tissue Unsaturated one or more double bonds ie pork no marbling in the muscle Solid consistency at room temperature Plant and animals are generally in the triglyceride form 0 Some are found as diglycerides two fatty acids attached to a glycerol with a molecule of galactose monosaccharide attached to a glycerol Liquid consistency at room temperature Composed of short chains of fatty acids or unsaturated fatty acids Palm m Hm Pass Omega9 means 9th carbon down the chain omega3 means 3rOI carbon down the chain etc Butyric AcidSaturated Fatty Acid 0 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H II I I I I I I I 439 I I I I I I I I H D C c C CC C CCCCC C CC C C H I H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Uleic Acid Manounsaturated Fatty Acid 0 H H H H H H H H H H H H H II I I I I 439 I 439 I I I I I I I I H D C c C CCCCCCCCCC C c c H I H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Linaleic Acid Palyunaaturatad Fatty Acid Table 34 VARIDUE FATE ACIiDE Fatty Add All breweries ni 5 am rated acid 5 A cstic C235 Pmpicmic C3 Eutyrir Chi13 Capr ic C z Capry lic C830 Capri C1 FLU Laurie C1 213339 Myristic C1 dz Palfmitic C1 Steeris 2130 Arachidli 22312 Lignaceric 23110 Unsaturated acids Palm itcrIeiir C1541 Dieir 11321 LiTIDIElE C1 Er Liinujlnic C1 3 re Hidcmic CED4 fquot The number Fallawfng the letter C indicates the num beer of carbon atoms the number 1131quot Elwing the slain indicates rst ncnmb r f dcmblebcmds F G39r E mpl leer aceLicac the12 meal n5 that it Etontame 1th warblen arms and CI mea s rhat it has u icj dDIJEJTIE b a39md Digestion and Metabolism o Monogastrics 0 Primary site of fat digestion is the small intestine o Bile and pancreatic lipase attacks lipids by breaking fatty acids chains off of glycerol 0 Transformed back to triglycerides o Transported to cells to be metabolized o Longchain fatty acids in lymphatic system 0 Shortchain fatty acids in circulating blood system Packaged in chylomicron Triglyceride reassembled Triglyceride hydrolyzed l 0 Easy absorption of fats highly digestible o Oils absorb more completely than fats Adequate amounts of fat essential for absorption of fatsoluble vitamins A D E K o Fats synthesize various compounds required by the animal or stored as fat deposits as an energy reserve 0 End products of energy metabolism C02 water heat ATP oKetosis Cells of small intestine 0 When animals metabolize large amounts of fats to provide energy abnormal conditions cause energymetabolizing process to shut down and ketones are produced 0 Microbes found in ruminants are capable of altering dietary fatty acids They can saturate unsaturated fats Fat that ends up in the animal s body regardless is saturated Ketones have a characteristic odor Most commonly seen in dairy cattle o Toxic condition in animals 00 Metabolism Summary 39 Carbohydrates Fats and Lipids glucosejructose fatty acid galactose I v glycerol Proteins 1 amino acids 3 SL glyceneeie a V Mtg39 V oGlcoen lGlucose Phosohate 1 oo 7 it 7 I A 39 glycogenolyefle v y anch A LIPOQEHESIE i tissue gt geneef M protein I Lactic acid 1 39 Pvruvic Acid Fatty 39 Acid Citric 39 Acid 2 DP ADP DP V102 Circle V g Electron Transport chain aTP HP Ti 20 Malnutrition Cells shrink because protein being eaten away Compensatory gain upon refeeding an animal before all protein has disappeared the animal regains its weight at a rapid rate Essential Fatty Acids 0 Required but cannot synthesize in adequate amounts 0 Linoleic acid C182 o Linolenic acid C183 0 Omega 6 fatty acids First double bond inserted 6 carbons from the fatty acid s terminal end Good immune health 0 Omega 3 fatty acids Some aquatic species require fatty acids with the rst double bond 3 carbons from the terminal Good immune health ie sh oil Integral part of the lipidprotein structure of cell membranes 0 Lipids help the cell membrane retain its permeability 0 Proteins inside the lipids are the channels that allow certain chemicals to pass through the cell membrane 0 Important in the structure of prostaglandins hormonelike compounds important in reproduction Essential Fatty Acids in most common feedstuffs 0 Corn and soybean oils excellent sources of inoeic and inoenic acids predominant animal feeds 0 Essential Fatty Acids are watched most closely with poultry other animals not as much of a concern Composition of Body Fat 0 Fatty acid composition of the fat deposits re ects what the animal consumes 0 Fat is saved in the adipose tissue in a similar form that it was consumed ie unsaturated fatty acids in oils deposited as unsaturated fatty acids into adipose tissue If an oil is fed to poultry or swine Carcass fat becomes less saturated is softer and has a lower melting point Dramatically changes processing characteristics Minor changes in diet do not have a marked in uence on body fat deposits of ruminant animals because the rumen microorganisms produce saturated fats Firm Pork Belly vs Very Soft Pork Belly 0 Dietary intake determines pig body composition especially fat composition because pigs can deposit dietary fat into their fat depots 0 Transfer from diet to body fat characteristic of grow nish pigs 0 Saturated fatty acids positively in uence fat quality by increasing rmness when included in the diet Unsaturated fatty acids all tend to negatively affect fat by causing it to have a softer composition 0 Photo of a very rm pork belly and a very soft belly Carcasses high in unsaturated fat acids are characterized by higher levels of oxidation Life Cycle Nutrition Continuous development and growth from birth of one generation to the birth of the next generation Match nutrients to true needs for current stage of life of the animal you are feeding o Transitional gradual 0 Body weight primary driving force 0 Maturity aging maintenance work Broken into discreet stages each stage has nutritional priorities 0 Neonate Growing animal 0 Young adult 0 Adult Reproduction Senescent aged f Adulfhood Maintenance Growflh Neonate Energy thermogenesis o Shivering to generate body heat 0 As animals grow they gain the ability to control their body heat 0 Brown fat rapidly metabolizable form of fat that can be burned for energy 0 Some born with glycogen stores that can be burned for energy Glucose required energy source for the brain Lactose glucose galactose milk sugar Suckling phase 0 Easily digestible and high quality nutrients found in milk 0 Requirements of energy amino acids vitamins minerals per unit body mass are higher for younger or smaller animals Weaning Adaption to change in diet 0 Wet highly digestible l drier highly variable nutrients poorer quality less moisture Adaption o Enzymes proteins 0 Changes in gene regulation is a gradual process times time Begin feeding food before removing milk source 0 Nutritional stress Digestive upset diseasein ection Diarrhea gas constipation gastroenteritis Diarrhea 1 killer of baby animals Can damage digestive tract 0 Psychological Stress Distrupted eating digestion heart rate liver metabolism Consider process provide system 0 Plan weaning Feeding transition Growth Ilncr eosing weight or size quotConception Building muscle and organs 0 Need for proteinamino acids energy for synthesis Muscle l internal organs l bone fat adipose tissue 0 The fat that gets inside the muscle marbling is what gives meat its juice and avor 0 Where the fat is stored depends on the animal Under the skin vs in the muscle Environmental or genetic factors Growth curves and maturity 0 As maturity is reached Muscle growth slows Most growth is body fat Reproductive systems Nutrient requirements for maintenance 0 Puberty physiological maturity M llUi iI jF I39 I I ll I lllnelrnasilng time agci i ii i E hinlmlnxli ml Emwrh Mir Mechanisms o Hyperplasia Increase in a number of cells Those born with more fat cells or faster rates of hyperplasia early in life more prone to obesity Genetic disorder Hyperplasia quotaquot o Hypertrophy Increases in the size of cells Does not result in obesity At birth animals are born with a total number of muscle cells Any growth in muscle is by increase in cell diameter not number more DNA Celli lyperplasia I J o The smaller the mature size the sooner they reach maturity 0 Toy dogs quicker than a Great Dane 0 True in livestock as well Adulthood and Maintenance Maintaining body weight 0 Slow gain l slow loss degeneration aging o More energy needed if larger in size 0 Feed intake per unit body weight decreases 0 Metabolic rate slowly decreases Counter with exercise for pets to prevent obesity 0 Additional requirements for pregnancy gestation and lactation Affected by disease Turnover Needs become a function of weight 0 Tissues constantly recycling 0 Basic functions Keeping energetic processes going at the same rate Tougher for heavier animals 0 Can be hard to notice Affected by activity environmental temperature disease 0 Rate of new tissue rate of old tissue Adult Females Breeding season no special nutrients needed 0 Pregnancy gestation 0 Balance and amount of nutrients critical 0 Metabolic system of mother adapts Provide a balanced ration early Premade rations made for livestock 0 Recommendation to increase normal ration in small amounts for companion animals Avoid fattening during rst and second trimester Last trimester Actual weight gain of fetus Increase in appetite change in diet to supplement the weight gain of the fetus lncrease nutrients Lactation 0 Most nutritionally demanding 0 Synthesis and secretion of milk 0 Mother has to maintain weight 0 Nutrients needed above can increase 25X above maintenance Increase intake Uses body components 0 Early lactation mother s appetite does not equal nutrient demands decrease in weight 0 Recovery and Rebreeding 0 Delay rebreeding to recover Lost body fat and protein 0 Feed normal ration Amount depends on need Return to estrus depends highly on nutrition 0 To return to estrus they must have enough fat Too fat lazy loss of sex drive Adult Males Keep at maintenance 0 No extra for breeding Aging 0 Metabolic rate decreases 0 Reduced total nutrient requirements Consumed less feed or diet containing less energy 0 Ability to digest food changes lessened ability to adapt to diet changes 0 Higher digestible diet necessary 0 Muscle proteinmineral turnover slows down 0 Good balance of amino acidsmineral supplements necessary 0 Monitor animal for changes in weight 0 Companion animals are tougher to monitor
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