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UA / Philosophy / PHL 223 / How many unsafe abortions happen a year?

How many unsafe abortions happen a year?

How many unsafe abortions happen a year?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Philosophy
Course: Medical Ethics
Professor: Stuart rachels
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: medical ethics
Cost: 25
Name: Week 7 Notes
Description: these notes cover the lecture from Dr. Rachels only for week 7
Uploaded: 03/20/2016
3 Pages 52 Views 6 Unlocks


How many unsafe abortions happen a year?

❖ Some might say: Abortion is bad but shouldn't be illegal

❖ Do 1­3 apply?

➢ Abortion isn't bad enough... some people might think so.

➢ It's nobody else's business...doubtful, since qualms about abortion come from concern for the fetus.

➢ bad consequences of outlawing abortion... Unsafe abortions, social unrest, and hard on the poor.

❖ During the 1960's over 1,000 American women died from illegal abortions (infections, unsterile conditions, etc.)

❖ American Law 

➢ Congress makes the laws

➢ The Supreme Court interprets the laws and the history of how other courts have interpreted them

How does the supreme court interpret the law?

➢ The police and forces them

➢ Civil law vs. criminal law

■ Slander→ saying something that is unjustified towards someone else's reputation. ex.Johnny rapes children...is prohibited by civil laws 

■ Murder by criminal laws.

■ Criminal things are more offensive “big stuff” We also discuss several other topics like What is the effect on us in the presence of other people?

■ Civil and criminal law differ in terms of:

● how things get started (1)

● the accuser (2)

● possible punishments (3)

● how much evidence is needed to convict (4)

❖ Criminal……………………………………….. Civil

➢ Arrest……………………………….....files a lawsuit

➢ Government (only) ex. US. v Doe…..Citizen typically

Is abortion a state or federal issue?

We also discuss several other topics like Where in the roots of bean plants do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?

➢ Jail, pay govt…………………………..pay citizen

➢ Beyond reasonable doubt…………...preponderance of evidence (51%) ❖ Read up on OJ Simpson Case

❖ Federal Law→counterfeiting is a federal crime

❖ State Law→assault is a state crime

❖ State Court System:

➢ State Trial Courts (a right to appeal to)→intermediate appellate courts ➢ discretionary appeals to→state supreme courts, which then goes to the U.S. Supreme Court

❖ Federal Court System:

➢ Federal District Courts (trial courts)→right to appeal to→circuit courts of appeals ➢ Discretionary appeals to→U.S. Supreme Court

❖ U.S. Supreme Court:

➢ Highest interpreter of U.S. Law

➢ 9 justices

➢ Appointed for their whole life

➢ Nominated by the president, confirmed by the senate

➢ Vice president breaks ties If you want to learn more check out How is rhetoric understood, theorized, and practiced?

❖ The Justices

➢ Conservatives:

■ John G. Roberts (W. Bush) (1955­) calm

■ Samuel Alito (W. Bush) (1950­70)

■ Clarence Thomas (Bush Sr.) (1948­) doesn’t say much

■ Antonin Scalia (Reagan) (1936­) controversial, clever

■ Anthony Kennedy (Reagan) (1936­) most likely to go either way

➢ Liberals

■ Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Clinton) (1933­) oldest, had cancer

■ Stephen Breyer (Clinton) (1938­) got robbed in Jamaica

■ Sonia Sotomayor (Obama) (1954­) Latina

■ Elena Kagan (Obama) (1960­)

❖ Conservative Court

❖ Abortion Law has both Federal and State inputs.

❖ The Supreme Court sets limits: states decide within those limits

❖ 1865­1960: abortion was illegal in most states

❖ Abortion was the #1 issue of the women’s movement in the 60’s and 70’s ❖ Unprotected sex= 5% chance of pregnancy If you want to learn more check out What is environmental education?

❖ 18% of men aged 18­29 think “pulling out” is a form of contraception. ❖ 47% of pregnancies are unintended

❖ Every night +1,000,000 women have unprotected sex who don’t want a baby ❖ Each year 25,000+ women become pregnant from a sexual assault ❖ Oral birth control methods:

➢ The pill prevents fertilization (1960)

➢ Plan B→high dose of the pill

■ Take 3 days after sex

■ Prevents fertilized egg from implanting in utervive wall.

■ Cuts risk to 1 in 40 by 2.5%

➢ Ella (emergency contraceptive):

■ Prescription needed

■ Works 5 days after

■ Cuts risk to 2% If you want to learn more check out What would cause your triglyercides to surge?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of seaweed?

❖ Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)

➢ Griswold said contraception laws were unconstitutional

■ Leader of planned parenthood

➢ In Connecticut, at this time, all contraception was illegal

■ You can’t even distribute information about it.

➢ The Court held→you can’t do it because it violates privacy between husband and wife in their procreative decisions.

❖ Jane Roe v. Wade (1973)

➢ At this time, abortion was only legal if the baby posed a threat to the mother ➢ This case legalized abortion

➢ 7­2 majority

➢ The Court held→legally, the fetus is not a person

■ A (legal) person can…

● Own property

● Bring suit or be sued

● Have a will

● Inherit wealth

● Corporations are persons, not fetuses

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