❖ Some might say: Abortion is bad but shouldn't be illegal
❖ Do 13 apply?
➢ Abortion isn't bad enough... some people might think so.
➢ It's nobody else's business...doubtful, since qualms about abortion come from concern for the fetus.
➢ bad consequences of outlawing abortion... Unsafe abortions, social unrest, and hard on the poor.
❖ During the 1960's over 1,000 American women died from illegal abortions (infections, unsterile conditions, etc.)
❖ American Law
➢ Congress makes the laws
➢ The Supreme Court interprets the laws and the history of how other courts have interpreted them
➢ The police and forces them
➢ Civil law vs. criminal law
■ Slander→ saying something that is unjustified towards someone else's reputation. ex.Johnny rapes children...is prohibited by civil laws
■ Murder by criminal laws.
■ Criminal things are more offensive “big stuff” We also discuss several other topics like What is the effect on us in the presence of other people?
■ Civil and criminal law differ in terms of:
● how things get started (1)
● the accuser (2)
● possible punishments (3)
● how much evidence is needed to convict (4)
❖ Criminal……………………………………….. Civil
➢ Arrest……………………………….....files a lawsuit
➢ Government (only) ex. US. v Doe…..Citizen typically
We also discuss several other topics like Where in the roots of bean plants do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?
➢ Jail, pay govt…………………………..pay citizen
➢ Beyond reasonable doubt…………...preponderance of evidence (51%) ❖ Read up on OJ Simpson Case
❖ Federal Law→counterfeiting is a federal crime
❖ State Law→assault is a state crime
❖ State Court System:
➢ State Trial Courts (a right to appeal to)→intermediate appellate courts ➢ discretionary appeals to→state supreme courts, which then goes to the U.S. Supreme Court
❖ Federal Court System:
➢ Federal District Courts (trial courts)→right to appeal to→circuit courts of appeals ➢ Discretionary appeals to→U.S. Supreme Court
❖ U.S. Supreme Court:
➢ Highest interpreter of U.S. Law
➢ 9 justices
➢ Appointed for their whole life
➢ Nominated by the president, confirmed by the senate
➢ Vice president breaks ties If you want to learn more check out How is rhetoric understood, theorized, and practiced?
❖ The Justices
■ John G. Roberts (W. Bush) (1955) calm
■ Samuel Alito (W. Bush) (195070)
■ Clarence Thomas (Bush Sr.) (1948) doesn’t say much
■ Antonin Scalia (Reagan) (1936) controversial, clever
■ Anthony Kennedy (Reagan) (1936) most likely to go either way
■ Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Clinton) (1933) oldest, had cancer
■ Stephen Breyer (Clinton) (1938) got robbed in Jamaica
■ Sonia Sotomayor (Obama) (1954) Latina
■ Elena Kagan (Obama) (1960)
❖ Conservative Court
❖ Abortion Law has both Federal and State inputs.
❖ The Supreme Court sets limits: states decide within those limits
❖ 18651960: abortion was illegal in most states
❖ Abortion was the #1 issue of the women’s movement in the 60’s and 70’s ❖ Unprotected sex= 5% chance of pregnancy If you want to learn more check out What is environmental education?
❖ 18% of men aged 1829 think “pulling out” is a form of contraception. ❖ 47% of pregnancies are unintended
❖ Every night +1,000,000 women have unprotected sex who don’t want a baby ❖ Each year 25,000+ women become pregnant from a sexual assault ❖ Oral birth control methods:
➢ The pill prevents fertilization (1960)
➢ Plan B→high dose of the pill
■ Take 3 days after sex
■ Prevents fertilized egg from implanting in utervive wall.
■ Cuts risk to 1 in 40 by 2.5%
➢ Ella (emergency contraceptive):
■ Prescription needed
■ Works 5 days after
❖ Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
➢ Griswold said contraception laws were unconstitutional
■ Leader of planned parenthood
➢ In Connecticut, at this time, all contraception was illegal
■ You can’t even distribute information about it.
➢ The Court held→you can’t do it because it violates privacy between husband and wife in their procreative decisions.
❖ Jane Roe v. Wade (1973)
➢ At this time, abortion was only legal if the baby posed a threat to the mother ➢ This case legalized abortion
➢ 72 majority
➢ The Court held→legally, the fetus is not a person
■ A (legal) person can…
● Own property
● Bring suit or be sued
● Have a will
● Inherit wealth
● Corporations are persons, not fetuses