AP Bio: AP Biology - Study Guide
AP Bio: AP Biology - Study Guide AP Bio
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This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Max Waldo on Thursday October 23, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to AP Bio at a university taught by Ullrey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 182 views.
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I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Max!!!
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Date Created: 10/23/14
Genetics allele autosome back cross cline codominance continuous variation cross dihybrid cross discontinuous variation dominant F1F2 Generation genetic counseling genomic imprinting genotype heterozygous homozygous incomplete dominance independent assortment lethal allele Hnkage monohybrid cross multiple alleles nondisjunction nonnuclear inheritance pedigree analyisis phenotype phenotypic plasticity polygenetic inheritance Punnett square purebreeding aka truebreeding recessive segregation selfing sex chromosome sexlimited traits sex linked gene test cross trait Questions and Practice 1 How is genetic information organized in the eukaryotic chromosome Eukaryotic chromosomes are made up of DNA wrapped around histone proteins Two sister chromatid are bound together at their centromeres to form one chromosome Genetic information is housed in a nucleus within the chromosome 2 How does this organization contribute to both continuity of and variability in the genetic information Vital genetic information is located at the ends of chromosomes which is exchanges between homologous pairs during crossing over The closer the genes are to the end of the chromosomes the greater the occurrence of genetic variability Genes near the centromere are not exchanegd because crossing over does not occur by the centromere 3 How did Mendel s work lay the foundation of modern genetics Mendel knew nothing about genes but he did observe patterns of inheritance in pea plants Mendel disproved the popular notion that an offspring genes was a blend of the two parents by showing that two heterozygous dominant peas produced a homozygous recessive offspring From his experiments Mendel developed The Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment 4 What are the principal patterns of inheritance The principle patterns of inheritance are Mendel s Laws of Independent Segregation and Independent Assortment The Law of Independent Segregation states that when an individual produces gametes the alleles separate so that each gamete receives only one copy of a gene The Law of Independent Assortment states that the alleles of different genes assort independently of one another This is because genes for independently assorted traits are located on different chromosomes 5 How do the structures of nucleic acids relate to their functions of information storage and protein synthesis The bases of the DNA molecule are grouped in a group of threes called codons These codons are complementary with the anticodons on the tRNA carrying an amino acid When the codons and anticodons match up translation occurs However not all of DNA is transcribed and translated Only the exon portions of DNA is transcribed and translated What are the similarities and differences between prokar otic and eukaryotic enomes Eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes are both made of DNA which is transcribed into RN and translated into a protein Eu aryotes store their linear DNA in a nucleus The nucleus houses 46 chromosomes in humans while prokaryotes store their circular DNA in a nucleoid In prokaryotes genes are constantly being transcribed unless turned off by repressor proteins inducible vs repressible operons while in eukaryotes genes must be activated because they are normally What IS one way genetic Information can be altered Mutations during DNA replication can alter genetic information Types of mutations include point mutation where one nucleotide is substituted for another and frame shift where a shift in the reading frame occurs Point mutations can be silent where the amino acid is not changed missense where there is a change in the amino acid sequence and nonsense where the amino acid sequence change results in a stop codon Frame shifts are caused by insertion of an extra If the mutation is not silent wrong amino acids are coded for that results in a different protein with a different shape and therefore a What are the differences and similarities between protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus or rough ER so transcription and translation occur in the nucleus while eukaryotes perform transcription in the nucleus and translation on the ribosomes of the rough ER in the cytoplasm 6 turned off 7 nucleotide or deletions of an existing nucleotide 8 What problems can it cause different function than needed 9 10 Draw a picture to show the relationship between chromosome DNA gene allele nucleotide base and a trait Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA Single nucleotides are known as bases A G C T U DNA is a double stranded nucleic acid that contains the instructions for the cell A chromosomes consists of that DNA wrapped around a histone protein Genes are found on a chromosome There are many different types of genes all known as alleles For example a gene would be eye color and an allele of that gene would be blue eyes
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