Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Dana!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
Social Psychology Ch. 7 continued
Connection between selfesteem and persuasion:
∙ Medium selfesteem: persuasion works best on those that have a medium level of selfesteem.
∙ Low selfesteem: persuasion doesn’t work because those with lovw selfesteem don’t pay attention.
∙ High selfesttem: doesn’t work either
Is there a significant difference in your and your parents’ way of living, values, or tastes? It is trues that generations have different attitudes.
Life Cycle Explanation: When you reach an older age you may think like that of your parents or other older generations.
Generational Hypothesis: We form our attitudes when we’re young and keep them for the rest of our lives. There is more evidence for generational hypothesis to be true. Ex: music tastes. The attitudes formed at a young age are enduring and don’t typically change.
Counter argument: Preparing for response to something in an argument. Ex: Ministers tell you what an atheist may say and what you can say in response to them about your belief in God.
distraction is a good counter to counter argument.
Cults: happen to more ignorant people, younger people. Exposing those in a cult to a severe attack will only strengthen their cause in the cult.
Attitude Inoculation: making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing the to small doses of the arguments against their position. It will work but not 100%. Like teen smoking “just say no.”
Ads and children: ex: Ads play on kids view of certain toys by showing them the toys that kids will love (shows the kids happy) in the ad. Thus, making the kid ask the parent to buy the toy.
Don't forget about the age old question of Where in the roots of bean plants do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?
Groups: Two or more people who for a significant amount of time interact with and influence each other and perceive one another as being a group “we”, “us. “
What is the effect on us in the presence of other people?
Social facilitation: presence of other people causes us to do something better. Ex: public speaking: audience 6 or 600 people listening, which would make you do better at public speaking? It would depend on how comfortable you are a t public speaking to begin with.
Arousal (heart beating, muscle tensing in the presence of people) will make the most likely response happen.
Effects of crowdingbeing put really close together vs far apart: If people are pushed close together, the natural attitudes (personality) will be intensified. Ex: friendly people will seem friendlier; annoying people will seem more annoying. If pulled apart, they seem less intense. Ex: friendly people seem less or just friendly.
The effects of other people around are strongest when we feel like we are being judged.
Social loafing: people individually are less interactive in a group. It is why communism seems like a plausible idea. People loaf less when people see the task more appealing a real challenge. We also discuss several other topics like How is rhetoric understood, theorized, and practiced?
Deindividuation: taking away individuality; loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint in situations fostering arousal and enmity.
There was a study about what would people do if they came upon someone threatening to commit suicide by jumping from a building above them. They said they would intervene. However, when they encounter these people at night, they are less likely to persuade them to not jump.
Another study about shots and students: The students getting the shot were covered with a sheet, so that you cannot see their identity. In that case, those were given double shots.
At the big game, people lose selfrestraint; deindividuality.
The Risky Shift: People in a group are riskier. People individually won’t take those risks. Group Polarization: discussing in a group, you become stronger.
Moralistic ignorance: a misconception about what others are thinking, feeling, and doing. They are often wrong. Ex: Most MSU students think that other students are drinking more than they actually are. If you want to learn more check out What are the meaning of conservation strategies?
Bay of Pigs Fiasco: Cuba Fidel Castro was apart of the freedom fighters/guerilla fighters that overthrew the Batista regime. Castro took power and was seen as a good guy, but then he came to promote communism, which made him a bad guy to the U.S. During the Cold War, Russia supported Castro. The U.S. response was for the Kennedy administration to take refugees, train them, and send them back to Cuba to overthrow Castro. Cuba knew they were coming though and massacred them except a fewm who were taken as prisoners. America owned up to what they had done, and tried to pay the ransom for those prisoners. All of this made Irving study group think.
What sorts of groups lead to group think? Don't forget about the age old question of What would cause your triglyercides to surge?
When we have amicable and cohesive groups that are isolated from other view points, and there is a direct leader that makes it clear what they want. Others discuss how that person is right and leads to group think.
Illusion of invulnerability: thinking that one cannot be harmed
If there is an unquestionable belief in a groups morality and rightness, that’s when group think happens. Also, when there is rationalization in past decisions. And close mindedness to other views. Conformity pressure can also lead to group think “you go along to get along.” We also discuss several other topics like What was the name of the invasion to overthrow fidel castro?
If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of grazing in marine communities?
Selfcensorship: when you are internally disagreeing and don’t say anything in opposition. When information is being controlled or suppressed.
The illusion of unanimity: thinking you’re the only one disagreeing and everyone would be against you if you spoke up.
How do you prevent group think?
1. If you’re the leader, you need to be impartial and don’t tell your opinion. “Here’s the issue, what do you think?”
2. Encourage critical evaluation. Make sure people look for things that are wrong. Make it someone’s job to look for that in your course of actions.
3. Occasionally subdivide the group break into small groups and write down conclusions/thoughts and come back to bigger group with those ideas. 4. Welcome and actively seek critiques from outside experts who aren’t apart of decisionmaking process (critical critiques). Ex: Honda Civics are cheaper than others and generally good cars. Consumer reports (rate items that people buy) are highly influential. Honda has a new civic, so they came out with a cheap civic, but it wasn’t as good as other cars. They began redesigning after their sales dropped, and enlisted help of consumer reports before the design was finished. 5. Before implementing decisions, have a cooling off period. Let the group go its separate ways and then bring them back together. Ask if it still seems the right thing to do.