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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heidi Jones on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTM 21000-001 at Purdue University taught by Linda Mason in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Insect Behavior in Entomology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Anti-Aphrodisiacs •Matrone - mosquitos - Delivered by male to"turn off" female when mating complete •Mealworm beetle males smear scent on females to"turn off" other males - Lack of genetic diversity Asexual Cons - Slow adaptation to changing environments • Unfertilized egg develops into a new individual • Alternation with sexuality fairly common • Uncertainty in some species • True asexuality very rare Asexual examples... -aphids Asexual Pros - Don't have to find or deal with a mate - High reproduction rate Bedbugs Traumatic Insemination Chemical cues finding a mate... -moths Communal • Common nest site • No cooperative care • No Reproductive division of labor • No generational overlap courtship dance jumping spiders -flies Dragon flies -secondary penis -loop and scoop - Stridulating grasshoppers,cricketsand cicadas:scrapper Finding a mate... and file - Drumming in stonefliesboatman Waysto amplify the sounds - Groupsof males - Megaphonesof mole crickets Pheromone cocktail with sperm Fruit flies • Reduces female libido • Stimulates her to lay eggs • Poisons kill her when she is finished • Paternal Care Giant Water Bug • Males carry eggs • Keeps clean • Gives them air • Increases survival • Female takes off and mates again • Exposed during Hair pencil display Courtship • Aphrodisiacand tranquilizer • Get female receptive • Stereotyped,species specific,behavior Honey Bee Within Generation Sexuality Honey Bees • Fertilized eggs - females (diploid) • Unfertilized eggs - males (haploid) • Workers really control what eggs gets laid Honey bees • Males capture female in flight • Mates for extended period of time • Leaves penis (adeagus) inserted in queens vagina by ripping off tip of his abdomen In flight mating hover flies Mantids -sexual cannibalism Mating Swarms • Mayflies • Cicadas • Bees • Ants • Benefits female (indirect benefit to male) nuptial gifts • Wrapped gifts of food (sometimes fake - empty gifts or pebbles) • Eat while mating • Common nest site Quasisocial • Cooperative care • No Reproductive division of labor • No generational overlap Bees beetles AsexualvsSexual Review Reproductive strategies Sociality • Solitary • Communal • Quasisocial • Pseudosocial - Common nest site - Overlapping generations - Cooperative brood care - Reproductive division of• Common nest site Semisocial labo • Cooperative care • Reproductive division of labor • No generational overlap Paper Wasps ♀ = pair of "X" chromosomes Sex Determinations ♂ = one "X" and one "Y" • Butterfliesand Moths ♀ = one "W" and one "Z" ♂ = pair of "W" chromosomes • Haplo-Diploidy (Waspsetc.) ♂ = one "X" "X" chromosomes Sexual Reproduction- advanced - internal - Copulation - Spermatophore plus Sexual Reproduction Cons - Have to find a mate - Have to interact with a mate - Relatively low reproductive rate Sexual Reproduction-primitive - external - spermatophore Sexual Reproduction Pros Benefits - High genetic diversity - Can quickly adapt to changing environments Solitary Most species are truly solitary • No common nest site • No overlapping generations • No cooperative brood care • No reproductive division of labor • Set it and forget it... Within Generation Sexuality Spring-tails • Immature unfertilized females produce offspring - Eggs or live young • When mature reproduce sexually At least 3 Castes Termites - Primary reproductives generate offspring - Secondary reproductives fill in for primaries if die - Sterile workers - Soldiers • Common nest site Truly Social • Cooperative brood cares • Reproductive division of labor Significance of SocialBehavior • Most speciesare NOT social • 75% of allinsect biomassissocialinsects • More biomassand energy consumption than vertebrates • Especially important in tropics! Termite Colony formation Truly Social cont.... • Swarm in spring and summer • Establish new colony • Form pairs that stay together for life and mate repeatedly • Queen turns into an egg laying machine Primary Reproductives Truly Social cont • Some species have more than one queen per colony • Secondary reproductives - not fully developed wings - Fill in if primary reproductives die Common nest site Truly Social (eusocial) Overlapping generations Cooperative brood care Reproductive division of labor Truly Solitary Nest alone Uncoordinated generations Individually care for young No parental care Visual cues finding a mate.... -fireflies -butterflies - Common nesting site What does it mean to be social? - Cooperative care of young - Reproductive division of labor • Queen - layseggs • Maybe a king • Sterile workers - Overlap of generationss White Fringed Beetles -no males known Workers... Workers • Sterile • Build and repair nests • Forage for food
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