I love that I can count on (Alexandra for top notch notes! Especially around test time...
March 2nd cont. Key Box: ***: Know for test
Know genus names unless otherwise stated.
∙ 2 acceptable names for this family:
» Old name: Leguminosae
» New name from scientist Linnaeus: Fabaceae
1. Legumes (if grains are considered the most important plant family; this is a close 2nd)
** **: Word origin/ scientific name
∙ Americas ∙ Orient.
∙ Middle East ∙ Europe
Grain of choice: Corn
Legume of choice: Common Bean Soy Bean
∙ Reasons why beans were so popular and still popular today:
a. Beans are high in protein
b. Bean plants have nitrogen fixing bacteria in roots (the white things on roots that look like seeds) We also discuss several other topics like How can we obtain knowledge?
i. This bacteria takes in nitrogen from air
ii. Produce NH4 (N2 ???? NH4)
iii. Because of the nitrogen, beans are given protein
iv. So much of NH4 is produced, the plant cannot consume all of it. The excess is released through the roots to the soil, supporting and giving nitrogen hydroxide to the surrounding plants
c. Due to this process above, crop rotation has become a common farming tactic i. Use legumes on specific fields, after clearing that field, rotate the legumes with another crop. This switches out the plants in order to keep the soil full of
2. Lentils (3rd most important)
∙ Lens culinaris= culinary of kitchen We also discuss several other topics like What is the traditional land management practice?
a. Among the earliest known cultivated plants; cultivated lentils date back to over 9,000 years
b. Tiny seeds, grown for so long there are now many colors – they are selected for color 3. Pea
∙ Psium Sativum
a. 4th most important; staple diet for European peasantry
4. Soy bean
∙ Glycine Max = King of beans
a. Most production/ cultivation is done for oil content; it is a popular cooking oil b. High protein food. Protein content based on soy bean meal.
c. Use soy beans to produce TVP (texture vegetable protein)
i. Looks like granola; add water, then looks like ground meat and can flavor it to
taste like it too!
i. It is added to ground meat as a filler If you want to learn more check out What would cause your triglyercides to surge?
d. In the US, it is the most important crop here
3/8 Exam, 3/10-3/14 Movie
5. Blackeye pea
∙ Vigna – genus
a. Native to Africa, but occurs naturally in U.S., even in LA
6. Lima beans
a. Come from Lima, Peru (the place is pronounced lee-ma; the bean pronounced lie-ma) ∙ Phaseolus lunatus – “luna”= moon; the bean looks like the moon, crescent shape We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of grazing in marine communities?
b. One of the most popular beans around the world
i. Succotash ???? mixture of corn and beans (particularly lima beans)
∙ Phaseolus vulgaris – vulgar = common
c. Native to Southern Mexico (same area/region of corn cultivation), this common bean led to the cultivation of navy beans, etc.
7. Peanut (the most important legume to have come out of the Americas)
∙ Archis hypogea
a. Native to South America
b. More peanuts are cultivated for their oil content rather than consumption
c. The peanut industry took rise after the Civil War, replacing/due to the failure of the cotton industry.
d. Europeans call them ground peas (peas that come from the earth)
8. Forage Legume
a. Not native to the US. Wherever the livestock moved, these old world plants followed in order to supply food for animals and to also increase the nitrogen levels in the ground We also discuss several other topics like What was the name of the invasion to overthrow fidel castro?
A. Clovers ???? super high in protein, used to feed livestock
i. Actually cannot give livestock just clovers- it would be too much protein for the
animal and can ruin their kidney
ii. Bees love clovers and make splendid clover honey
B. Alfalfa ???? another type of forage legume
✔ Sweet Potato
∙ Asparagus ∙ Sugar
(underground storage stem) Don't forget about the age old question of What is social information sources?
✔ Collard greens ✔ Mustard greens ∙ Swiss Chards
∙ Onion (collection of
✔ = those that we will cover in class
succulent leaves) ∙ Celery
∙ Brassicaceae Mustard
∙ Brassica (2nd name)
o Crucifierae Brassicaeae Mustard = “crucifierae” ???? crucifix, flower looks like a cross a. Such tiny seeds, large plants – biblical reference
b. The plant likes to grow in cold/cool, wet climates
A. The Brassica oleracea gives us:
iv. Brussel Sprouts
▪ Turnips are root crops, Europeans ate them as a basic/ common food
▪ Folklore: the Jack O’ Lantern tale didn’t begin with a pumpkin, rather a turnip vii. Radish
▪ Used to enhance quality of food, peppery in flavor
a. Canola Oil ???? cooking oil that comes from a member in the mustard family
∙ Asteraceae Compositae
∙ 2nd name= Aster
a. Composed of many, many flowers… What looks like one big flower is actually composed of many flowers
1. Lettuce – produces lactose
a. Only one lettuce not related to luctuca ???? Endive = Chicorium
i. Gives us endive lettuce and chicory (chicory is used in coffee)
a. Native to South East Asia
b. High in iron (Pop Eye tv show)
i. Irony: you cannot actually receive any iron from spinach. The iron is chemically bond, your body cannot break down the bond
ii. Bond = Calcumoxilate
Solanaceae (Night Shade Family)
∙ Solanum tuberosum
a. The Irish potato comes from South America!
b. Potato is a stem!
i. The word tuber is an underground storage system stem
ii. Every part of the potato is poisonous, except the actual potato. If potato turns green (exposed to light)???? poisonous
iii. Potato brought form South America to England; changed history and became a boon to the industrial revolution. People in Ireland could focus on other things besides what they will eat.
c. Potato famine: In 1845, a fungal disease destroyed potato plant
i. The famine killed 2 million people and caused people to leave the country d. Chuno – process in South America of crushing potatoes on rocks and letting them freeze overnight, drawing out the water in the potatoes. Then they would repeat this process, eventually the outcome would be the creation of potato starch (dried potatoes).