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UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE / Biology / BIOL 304 / Where in the roots of bean plants do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?

Where in the roots of bean plants do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?

Where in the roots of bean plants do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?

Description

School: University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Department: Biology
Course: Economic Botany
Professor: Garrie landry
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: botany, UL, Lafayette, and Biol 304
Cost: 25
Name: BIOL 304 New Notes after Exam 2
Description: These notes consists of two days of notes for March 2nd and March 17th. We watched a movie the 10th and 15th. We are now learning about beans, stem roots, and leaves plant varieties.
Uploaded: 03/21/2016
4 Pages 38 Views 12 Unlocks
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March 2nd cont. Key Box: ***: Know for test  


Where in the roots of bean plants do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?



besides definitions

Know genus names unless otherwise stated.

Bean Family

∙ 2 acceptable names for this family:

» Old name: Leguminosae 

» New name from scientist Linnaeus: Fabaceae 

1. Legumes (if grains are considered the most important plant family; this is a close 2nd)

***: Definition

** **: Word origin/  scientific name

***: Titles

∙ Americas ∙ Orient.

∙ Middle East ∙ Europe


What plants have special bacteria in their roots to change nitrogen?



Grain of choice: Corn

Rice

Wheat

Wheat

Legume of choice: Common Bean Soy Bean

Lentils

Peas

∙ Reasons why beans were so popular and still popular today:

a. Beans are high in protein

b. Bean plants have nitrogen fixing bacteria in roots (the white things on roots that look  like seeds)  We also discuss several other topics like How can we obtain knowledge?

i. This bacteria takes in nitrogen from air

ii. Produce NH4 (N2 ???? NH4)

iii. Because of the nitrogen, beans are given protein


Which large yellow flower is used in the making of cooking oil?



iv. So much of NH4 is produced, the plant cannot consume all of it. The excess is  released through the roots to the soil, supporting and giving nitrogen hydroxide  to the surrounding plants

c. Due to this process above, crop rotation has become a common farming tactic i. Use legumes on specific fields, after clearing that field, rotate the legumes with  another crop. This switches out the plants in order to keep the soil full of  

nutrients

2. Lentils (3rd most important)

∙ Lens culinaris= culinary of kitchen  We also discuss several other topics like What is the traditional land management practice?

a. Among the earliest known cultivated plants; cultivated lentils date back to over 9,000  years

b. Tiny seeds, grown for so long there are now many colors – they are selected for color 3. Pea 

∙ Psium Sativum 

a. 4th most important; staple diet for European peasantry

4. Soy bean 

∙ Glycine Max = King of beans

a. Most production/ cultivation is done for oil content; it is a popular cooking oil b. High protein food. Protein content based on soy bean meal.

c. Use soy beans to produce TVP (texture vegetable protein)

i. Looks like granola; add water, then looks like ground meat and can flavor it to  

taste like it too!

i. It is added to ground meat as a filler If you want to learn more check out What would cause your triglyercides to surge?

d. In the US, it is the most important crop here

March 17th 

3/8 Exam, 3/10-3/14 Movie

5. Blackeye pea 

∙ Vigna – genus

a. Native to Africa, but occurs naturally in U.S., even in LA

6. Lima beans 

a. Come from Lima, Peru (the place is pronounced lee-ma; the bean pronounced lie-ma) ∙ Phaseolus lunatus – “luna”= moon; the bean looks like the moon, crescent shape We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of grazing in marine communities?

b. One of the most popular beans around the world

i. Succotash ???? mixture of corn and beans (particularly lima beans)

∙ Phaseolus vulgaris – vulgar = common

c. Native to Southern Mexico (same area/region of corn cultivation), this common bean  led to the cultivation of navy beans, etc.

7. Peanut (the most important legume to have come out of the Americas)

∙ Archis hypogea

a. Native to South America

b. More peanuts are cultivated for their oil content rather than consumption

c. The peanut industry took rise after the Civil War, replacing/due to the failure of the  cotton industry. 

d. Europeans call them ground peas (peas that come from the earth)

8. Forage Legume 

a. Not native to the US. Wherever the livestock moved, these old world plants followed in  order to supply food for animals and to also increase the nitrogen levels in the ground We also discuss several other topics like What was the name of the invasion to overthrow fidel castro?

A. Clovers ???? super high in protein, used to feed livestock

i. Actually cannot give livestock just clovers- it would be too much protein for the  

animal and can ruin their kidney

ii. Bees love clovers and make splendid clover honey

B. Alfalfa ???? another type of forage legume

 Roots:

∙ Beet

✔ Turnip

∙ Carrot

✔ Radish

✔ Sweet Potato

Stem:

✔ Broccoli  

∙ Asparagus ∙ Sugar

∙ Potato  

(underground  storage stem) Don't forget about the age old question of What is social information sources?

Leaves:

∙ Lettuce

✔ Cabbage

∙ Spinach

✔ Kale

✔ Collard greens ✔ Mustard greens ∙ Swiss Chards

∙ Onion (collection of  

✔ = those that we will cover in class

succulent leaves) ∙ Celery

∙ Parsley

∙ Cilantro

Mustard greens

∙ Brassicaceae Mustard 

∙ Brassica (2nd name)

o Crucifierae Brassicaeae Mustard = “crucifierae” ???? crucifix, flower looks like a cross a. Such tiny seeds, large plants – biblical reference

b. The plant likes to grow in cold/cool, wet climates

A. The Brassica oleracea gives us:

(genus) (species)

i. Cabbage

ii. Broccoli

iii. Cauliflower

iv. Brussel Sprouts

v. Kale

vi. Turnip

▪ Turnips are root crops, Europeans ate them as a basic/ common food

▪ Folklore: the Jack O’ Lantern tale didn’t begin with a pumpkin, rather a turnip vii. Radish

▪ Used to enhance quality of food, peppery in flavor

a. Canola Oil ???? cooking oil that comes from a member in the mustard family

Sunflower Family

∙ Asteraceae Compositae 

∙ 2nd name= Aster 

a. Composed of many, many flowers… What looks like one big flower is actually composed  of many flowers

1. Lettuce – produces lactose

∙ Lactuca 

a. Only one lettuce not related to luctuca ???? Endive = Chicorium

i. Gives us endive lettuce and chicory (chicory is used in coffee)

2. Spinach 

a. Native to South East Asia

b. High in iron (Pop Eye tv show)

i. Irony: you cannot actually receive any iron from spinach. The iron is chemically  bond, your body cannot break down the bond

ii. Bond = Calcumoxilate

Solanaceae (Night Shade Family)

∙ Solanum tuberosum 

1. Potato 

a. The Irish potato comes from South America! 

b. Potato is a stem! 

i. The word tuber is an underground storage system stem

ii. Every part of the potato is poisonous, except the actual potato. If potato turns green  (exposed to light)???? poisonous

iii. Potato brought form South America to England; changed history and became a boon  to the industrial revolution. People in Ireland could focus on other things besides  what they will eat.

c. Potato famine: In 1845, a fungal disease destroyed potato plant 

i. The famine killed 2 million people and caused people to leave the country d. Chuno – process in South America of crushing potatoes on rocks and letting them freeze  overnight, drawing out the water in the potatoes. Then they would repeat this process,  eventually the outcome would be the creation of potato starch (dried potatoes).

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