SPAN 471: Beginning Simultaneous Interpretation - Study Guide
SPAN 471: Beginning Simultaneous Interpretation - Study Guide SPAN 471
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday October 24, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to SPAN 471 at University of Arizona taught by Alejandra Torres in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Beginning Simultaneous Interpretation in Spanish at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/24/14
Study Guide SPAN 471 gt O Translators I Means of communication excellent writers must have a working knowledge of grammar literary forms and literary resources I Preservation of content translators relay on total preservation of content and form I Time constraints have time to edit they must edit I Terminology and cultural differences master terminology O Interpreters I Means of communication they communicate orally therefore they need to master speech public speaking and performance related aspects of communication Physical appearance is important as well I Preservation of content is not on total preservation but on providing an acceptable equivalent I Time constraint on the spot no time to edit I Terminology and cultural differences master terminology gt Definition SI refers to the technique whereby the interpreter speaks at the same time as the source language speaker Prediction is to grasp the intent of a message before all of the words that comprise it have been uttered 0 Applied basic skills and strategies listening prediction analysisl comprehending chunking paraphrasing shadowing gt 1 According to the Gonzalez register study what are some of the characteristics of courtroom language I The characteristics need to be college level uncommon words long sentences verbals and passives 2 What are the five 5 styles of courtroom language Explain each one of them 0 Frozen use of formulas and the citing of legal codes and regulations which cannot be changed For example prayers 0 Formal it is usually a oneway participation that invites no interruption For example good complete sentences 0 Consultative attorneys often use the consultative register to explain legal definitions or to offer an explanation 0 Casual this speech is marked by frequent use of idiomatic expressions jargon or slang 0 Intimate the speech of some witnesses may be ambiguous and even incomprehensible What are some of the prerequisites required for court interpretation 0 The required prerequisites are superior command of two languages knowledgeable about language registers rich and extensive vocabulary ability to interpret at speeds of 200 words per minute while multitasking ability to comprehend and analyze highly complex discourse on the spot and superior concentration and memorization skills What does Title VI grant limited and nonEnglish speaking defendants Why is this important 0 Title VI grants the right to hear everything that an Englishspeaker can hear Also allows nonenglish speaking defendants the same opportunity to make critical judgments about the factual aspects of a case as are afforded English speakers What is the goal of court interpreting 0 The goal is to maintain a good legal equivalence and firm language Define legal equivalence 0 The goal of court interpreting type of interpretation in which all the elements for example units of meaning of the source language message are kept in the target language rendition It prohibits distorting the original message It requires the conservation of the language level style tone and intent of the speaker Also guarantees the fair administration of justice What are some of the aspects that characterize legal equivalence 10 ll 12 13 14 0 Some of the aspects that characterize legal equivalence are rendition prohibits distorting the original message and requires the conservation of the language style level and tone Define conservation 0 Conservation is the preservation of the intent style and tone and language level of the speaker How do you achieve conservation 0 Conservation is achieved by providing conceptbyconcept rendition vs wordfor wordalong with all the paralinguistic elements included in the original message How do you achieve legal equivalence 0 By conservation How does conservation differ from adaptation 0 Conservation provides the concept by concept and in adaptation the interpreter is allowed to explain information in the rendition in an attempt to bridge the linguistic and cultural gaps What are some of the problems associated with adaptation 0 Some of the problems associated with adaptation are an interpreter may overstep the role of the conduit cannot provide legal advice it contradicts the goal of legal equivalence and a nonEnglish speaker is denied the opportunity to hear the original message What do juries and judges evaluate from witnesses and attorneys How do they do this 0 The juries and judges evaluate from witnesses and attorneys their credibility trustworthiness competence intelligence and persuasiveness They do this by listening to the speaker specifically by paying attention to the register of hisher speech which can indirectly inform a judge and jury of education socioeconomic and cultural background and experience of that person What are some of the features of witness language 0 Some of the features of Witness language are social and regional variety grammatical errors stuttering repetition incoherent discourse 15 What are some of the things that interpreters do to alter witness speech Mention three of these things and provide an example for each one of them 0 Some of the things that interpreters do to alter Witness speech are by using the following hedges linguistic material uncontract forms rephrasing polite form of speech and particles such as hesitation forms 16 What are the consequences of altering witness speech 0 It reduces the impact of Witness discourse 0 It distorts the speaker s original message causing the perception of the judge or jury to be altered 17 What are some of the types of errors that interpreters make when rendering the TL message Mention three types of interpreter errors and provide at least one example for each one of them 0 Some of the errors that interpreters make when rendering the target language are Literal Grammatical Lexical Register Distortion Omission gt Notes on Video What do you mean by court Federal court or district court and state court are the most important terms the United States have two main courts Courts Work in district courts or court of appeals We call the federal Government the federal court Federal courts are established by the US government All other courts are established by the individual courts Federal laws including constitution have to do with the federal courts If someone brings case to court most begin in the state courts Three types of federal courts 3 tiers of levels 1 Supreme 2 Appellate 3 District State level courts 1 State supreme court Federal supreme court 2 Appellate courts 3 Trial courts superior lower courts city Federal courts and state courts both are essential in helping with administration of justice Article 3 of constitution judicial power will be vested in one Supreme Court and given from time to time to other courts Under this article there are three tiers 1 Bottom is the US district court 2 Middle are courts of appeals 3 Top is the Supreme Court Most cases start in district court File complaints motions petitions and other documents Pretrial happens here Not possible to do everything in federal court in one area so US has divided districts into 94 different places throughout the USA to hold courts The number of judges vary considerably District judges are appointed by the president they have life tenure and they cannot lose their salary because of decisions they make There are three types of judges 1 Active judges refers to district and appellate judges 2 Senior judges formally have retired may perform if they Want they have judicial duties 3 Magistrate judges handle cases and serve 8 yr terms they have different responsibilities they dont have protections from article 3 District courts here different categories criminal and civil Criminal cases affect society as an entirety Robbing a bank or selling drugs the differences are misdemeanors and felonies Civil cases involve cases between individuals or organizations District judges preside over cases but don t make all decisions because a jury can be involved if necessary Jury trial judges need to make legal ruling so jury can make an adequate decision during the case Bankruptcy courts are units of district court but for the most part operate separately B ankruptcy judges do not have article 3 protections they are appointed by court of appeals for 14 yrs Trial court is where cases originate Appellate courts have two level Supreme Court and court of appeals 12 of the 13 courts here appeals Within the circuits They can be referred to as circuit courts using their circuit judges Courts of appeals judges are article 3 judges Circuit judges job don t conduct trials but they review What happen in the case and make any changes that are need they can affirm or change decisions or remand it as Well In the district court Only one judge handles case Appeal courts three judges handle cases This is called en banc proceedings The final level of appels The Supreme Court is the highest level of courts the role is different than other courts Its primary function is to clarify law when other courts disagree Important differences discretionary jurisdiction is What Supreme Court has the courts can also select which cases to see Supreme Court s decisions are final only overturned by amendments to the law it was decided on The Supreme Court can also change their decision but these are the only Ways a Supreme Court decision could be changed There are currently 9 justices 1 chief and 8 appointed they can hold offices for life and pay cannot be reduced by congress Federal courts Deal with laws that are broken against the constitution gt Los Problemas Traductologicos del Vocabulario del Espanol Juridico 1 La polisemia 0 Es una palabra que tiene varios significados como por ejemplo derecho y deponer a Derecho right tax duty fees law b Deponer un cargo empleo testificar atestiguar declaras 2 La hominimia 0 Son palabras identicas pero tienen significados completamente distintos por ejemplo casar del derivado casa y casar a Casar deposar unir en matrimonio b Casar anular abrogar 3 La paranomia Los falsos amigos 0 Son palabras que se parecen en manera de su forma sonido y etimologia pero rara Vez significan lo mismo por ej emp1o television y television a Audiencia y audience b Difamacion y difamation 0 Los falsos amigos son palabras parecidas en dos idiomas pero con significados distintos a Constipado y constipated ambos pensarias que tienen el mismo significado pero son dos distantas cosas 4 E1 lenguaje figurado A Las metaforas l xicas 0 Las metaforas describen una cosa a comparacion con otra cosa a La luna es de queso b La justicia es ciega B La personificacion 0 La personificacion atribuye cualidades humanas a un objeto o concepto a El dinero Vuela b Una oportunidad siempre toca a tu puerta 5 Recursos lingiifsticos utilizados para un mejor conocimiento de1 Vocabulario juridico 0 Principales recursos que ofrece 1a lingiiistica para un mejor conocimiento de las unidades lexicas del espa ol juridico es el de los campos semanticos que como interprete y traductor son muy importantes 6 Los Campos semanticos A la sinonimia 0 identidad entre dos o mas unidades l xicas osea sinonimos con palabras que tienen el mismo significado a carro auto automovil coche b pe1ea ri a pleito B la hiperonimiahiponimia 0 palabras que el significado atribuye a otras palabras a arbol pino roble hayas b fruta naranja sandia mango C la antonomia 0 palabras que tienen significados opuestos a legal e ilegal b luz y obscuridad Definition 0 Sight translation means the oral translation of a written document a hybrid of translation and interpretation often known as sight interpretation Jimenez Ivars 1999 says And do this without previous preparation 0 Hybrid mode of interpretation where the interpreter take a written document and interpret it s in a without previous preparation 0 Sight translation consists of the oral reformulation in the target language of a text written in the source language for at least on recipient this recipient may be a listener who shares the communicative situation with the translator or a reader who will later read a written transcript of the oral reformulation carried out by the translator 0 ST is analogous to sightreading in music The interpreter is given a source language document never seen before and with minimal preparation the interpreter provides a complete oral translation of the document into the target language 0 Applications Judicial sphere Problem solving Dictating drafts 0 Conference interpreter s sight translate documents as they are preparing for assignment in order to assimilate technical terms and rehearse phrases that are difficult to pronounce Elements of Sight Translation 0 There are differences between ST and other modes of interpreting 0 Although in ST the interpreter can control hisher rhythm of perception smooth delivery is possible only when he she starts reformulating while still reading Moreover syntactic differences between languages may force the interpreter to store some information in memory until it can be appropriately inserted in the targetlanguage speech 0 The two main differences between the input in ST and in interpreting from an oral source are related to the opposition between oral and written language and between the reading and listening processes 0 The main difficulty of ST lies not in the written nature of the source text but in the smooth coordination of the Reading memory and production efforts while struggling against increased visual interference from the source language Conversation 0 The interpreter must pay particular attention to conserving the register of the SL text 0 The interpreter must ensure that the TL version re ects the intricate erudite style of the original 0 Novice translators and their employers do not realize how demanding it is Written Language 0 Written material is usually more densely packed with information than spoken language Reading Comprehension 0 Many interpreters suggest that their expansive vocabularies have been developed through extensive and intensive reading of a wide variety of material such as newspapers journals and literature in the respective languages over a period of many years Prediction 0 Prediction is a strategy interpreters must employ to process the SL message efficiently 0 Good interpreters are able to predict the outcome of an incomplete message because of their knowledge of the SL syntax and style 0 ST interpreters must be thoroughly versed in the various writing styles used in the SL like legal documents personal letters business correspondence technical reports ect Judicial Setting 0 ST in the judicial setting is very important 0 Supreme Court task force emphasizes importance because it is simply not feasible to publish a translated version of every court form in every language that will appear in the courts 0 English Documents 0 The English documents in official settings tend to be a combination of veryformal language at a high register and bureaucratic jargon with an occasional informal very idiomatic usage 0 The jargon of specialized agencies like probation police social services unemployment and the so forth is often very difficult to und4rstnad and may include many abbreviations IF INTERPRETERS ENCOUNTER A TERM THEY DON T UNDERSTAND AND NO ONE IS AVAILABLE TO EXPLAIN IT S MEANING TO THEM THEY SHOULD INFORM THE COURT OR THE HEARING OFFICER OF THIS PROBLEM THEY SHOULD NOT ATTEMPT TO GUESS AT THE MEANING I NonEnglish Documents Rhythm and projection are very important when STing Some problems encountered with nonEnglish documents are that they tend to be in very informal source language a lot of time hand written by people with limited educational history which combining these factors could make for a difficult translation process I The court must be kept in communication if the ST is too difficult to do in that moment then it necessary to tell the court The court can decide to just summarize the document of to give more time to the interpreter to adequately translate What is needed Skills Required 0 Full command of Working languages 0 Public speaking skills 0 Mental Agility I This is the ability to multitask I The procedure of ST goes like this the interpreter is uttering the TL version of on segment of the SL document she is also reading ahead in the document analyzing the contents and preparing What she will say next Her mind is Working on two channels at once and this requires a great deal of agility and exibility I The most difficult aspect of ST is that the SL text is on paper and it is therefore much easier to be constrained by the structure of the original The interpreter must avoid being HYPNOTIZED BY THE WORDS Exercises to Help Improve ST Abilities I Public speaking Reading aloud Controlling emotions I Reading ahead in text Extensive reading Analyzing Identifying sentences and embedded sentences I Acquire analytical skills Reading for content I Chunking Using transcripts Completing phrases I Expanding Condensing Manipulating the register gt Modelo de Comunicacion Source emisor Transmitter transmisor la Voz Receiver receptor Destination destino Agent Agente Channel canal medio oral escrito gestual Visual 1 I that are used to achieve an accurate translation andor interpretation Modulation is a technique to solve cultural differences in which the interpreter shifts points of View Ex Si mal no recuerdo If I don t remember Wrong If I recall correctly Amplification the expansion of the TL Version to cover the entire scope of the SL message They charged 2000 dollars for overhead Cobraron 2000 por concepto de gastos generales Equivalence the replacement of an SL situation by a communicatively comparable TL situation They are like two peas in a pod Se parecen como dos gotas de agua 2 What is simultaneous interpretation Also when is SI used in the courtroom S1 is the technique whereby the interpreter speaks and interprets at the same time as the source language speaker is presenting the message The strategies for SI are analysis prediction numerical information d calage queuing and self monitoring It is used when 3 1 is jurisdiction Jurisdiction is defined refers to an area the boundary of which is defined either geographically or by law in which a specified agency has authority to carry out its primary responsibilities 0 Example Border patrol can t stop you While you are driving because that is not under his jurisdiction I The police can t ask you for a valid immigration status 4 i is sight translation Explain each skill and make sure to include y it s important to perform sight translation Sigh translation is the oral rendition of a Written message from the source language into the target language The interpreter is given the document to sight translate on the spot Without previous preparation Skills needed for ST Full command of Working languages Good public speaking abilities It s also important to understand the Written messages and master both languages and have extensive vocabulary in both source and target languages This mode of translation is needed when there is a document that is presented that has not been translated to both target and source language but is needed in that moment gt La polisemia es un fenomeno que consiste en palabras que tienen diferentes significados pero que cuyo origen es el mismo Estas palabras han adquirido diferentes significados a traves del tiempo Por ejemplo la palabra sancionar puede significar castigar o penalizar y a la misma vez puede significar autorizar aprobar o ratificar dependiendo del contexto Otro ejemplo es la palabra deponer que puede significar destituir a uno de su empleo o cargo y por otro lado puede usarse para referirse a declarar testificar o jurar La homonimia es un t rmino para referirse a palabras cuyo sonido y manera de escribirse es muy parecido pero sus significados difieren por completo A diferencia de la polisemia las palabras homonimas tienen etimologias distintas Por ej emplo la palabra pata puede estarse refiriendo a la pata de una silla o a la hembra del pato La paronimia se da cuando dos palabras se parecen por su etimologia o sonido pero no necesariamente son iguales Dentro de la paronimia pueden ocurrir los cognados falsos o falsos amigos los cuales pueden causar serios problemas traductologicos Un ejemplo de un cognado falso es el verbo to realize que en el espa ol significa darse cuenta de algo Sin embargo es similar al verbo realizar que en el espa ol quiere decir llevar a cabo alguna accion Las metaforas se usan para explicar las unidades lexicas cuyo significado va mas alla del significado literal Por ejemplo la palabra ventilar literalmente significa hacer correr el aire en algun sitio mientras que en la corte se usa para referirse a resolver manifestar o exponer alg1 1n punto de vista Dos de los recursos lingiiisticos que son de gran ayuda para que los interpretes adquieran mas conocimiento del vocabulario legal son los campos semanticos Dentro de estos se encuentran la sinonimia la hiperonirnia la hiponimia y la antonimia
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