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by: Mrs. Davion Lesch

SocialProblems SOC221

Mrs. Davion Lesch
GPA 3.53


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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mrs. Davion Lesch on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC221 at Central Michigan University taught by BlaineStevenson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/218895/soc221-central-michigan-university in Sociology at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
The Girls Who Went Away Interview with Ann Fessler 39 publicradin quot r w 2007071 quot 39 1 What institutional forces were at play in shaping the destinies of these young women Issues 0 sexism o patriarchy mm 1 Chapter 1 My Own Story as an Adoptee Setting is the era between WW II and 1973 passage of Roe v Wade when abortion became legal 15 million babies put up for adoption during that time Growing affluence with the New Deal and an expanding economy providing relatively good paying jobs after World War II created the 1Iiddle Class as we know it Low interest mortgages and construction of the Interstate highway system caused the suburbs to grow baby boom from 1945 to 1960 during which women stay home and raise big family Institutional and social forces that affected wom en39s lives after World War II Many women were forced out of the factory jobs and other quotmen39squot jobs they had held during the war The baby boom from 1945 to 1960 caused many women to stay home and raise big families Colleges were largely still closed to women In 1950s women began to reenter the workforce and women became liberated from the past in many ways from the kitchen from the home from child rearing liberated from sexual norms Cultural lag increase in number of young people having sex but restricted access to birth control and sex education cultural lag sexual norms were changing but the shame associated with premarital pregnancy remained Stigma of being an unwed mother was great it was unthinkable to keep an quotillegitimatequot child options I marry quickly I be sent away before the pregnancy was detected by the community Agricultural societies have high birth rates because in a farm setting children are an asset they can begin working at a young age In urban settings children are a liability because child labor laws prevent putting them to work until their teenage years and until that time they cost money to raise Chapter 2 Breaking the Silence a discussion of the barriers to equality and independence and how these began to break down after World War II among the baby boom generation larger percentages of young people became sexually active at younger ages some barriers did remain o illegal to sell contraceptives to unmarried people 0 restricted access to birth control information o restricted access to sex education the social stigma of being an quotunwed mother remained strong what were the social causes of the increase in the numbers of outofwedlock births What were the explanations at the time ie who was blamed Why is the phrase quotgiving away their babiesquot misleading Describe and explain the myths about the adoption process 0 Re forgetting and moving on etc 0 re the individual having a choice among alternatives Emotional experiences caused by the process and the events 18 Consequences caused by the process and the events 23 Chapter 3 Good Girls v Bad Girls What change took place in rates of premarital sex in the decades after World War II What was the percentage of first births to girls aged 1519 conceived out of wedlock in those years In what ways did attitudes and behaviors change relative to dating and sex postWorld War II W WII 30 31 How did changes in the economy after WWII affect young people 0 independence commitment To what extent was date rape a factor among the women Fessler interviewed 33 What institutional support were women able to access 34 What role did peers play in this issue How did society quotfailquot in the author s view Chapter 4 Discovery and Shame What was the most common quotsolutionquot to pregnancy before marriage What percentage married before the baby was born Why was marriage not an option for some What was the family s response to news that their daughter was pregnant To what extent were the fathers held accountable Double standards Abandonment Chapter 5 The Family s Fears How were young unmarried pregnant women treated by their family What is the relationship between social class and surrender To what extent was surrender a choice How did growth of the suburbs and increased upward mobility factor into the response to unmarried pregnancy Why did suburbs emerge in the postwar years What factors contributed to the growth of the suburbs White flight Racial inequality in postwar years Differences in surrender rates by race Illegal abortions gender roles in the postwar years treated harshly by their family racial discrimination gtgtgt improvements for whites relative to blacks 102 What was the first affirmative action program in the US GI Bill after WW II 0 College tuition 0 low interest home mortgages growth of suburbs 105 dispersion of working people residential segregation 107 gender roles 111 Racial and class differences in the process of surrendering 110 Illegal abortions numbers risks 110 Post war gender roles consisted of 111 to what extent were alternatives to traditional gender roles presented as attractive 112 How did the mass media reinforce a narrow view of family life 115 What kinds of families tended not to surrender babies To what extent were women s lives governed by the attitudes of the time Chapter 6 Going Away labels quot fallen women wayward girls For many of the women in this book the experience of being sent to a maternity home caused harm What were some of the features of the process that caused many women to suffer irreparable harm what feelings did people have when they 0 were told they would be sent away 0 were actually sent away Feebleminded means what Neurotic means what 0 Who promoted such labels Why What role did the quothelping professions play in the process Chapter 7 Birth and Surrender Describe the variety of feelings people had during their pregnancies Social forces that limited the young wom en s options and restricted their behavior and coerced them into actions against their wishes and will 0 Family expectations lack of family assistance threats to disown them etc 0 Peers and their communities shunned them labeled them sluts and whores and quotbad girls 0 Professionals such as social workers and priests and ministers and judges did not inform them of their legal rights threatened them with expenses they could not pay failed to full disclose all of their options simply lied to the young women etc 0 Mass media such as Life magazine promoted distorted and untrue images of the adoption process the unwed mothers the adoptive parents and the consequences of surrendering their baby Chapter 8 The Aftermath Surrendering their child for adoption was for many of the women interviewed the event that defined their identity and influenced every major decision they made thereafter 207 0 Timing or ability to pursue education goals 0 Choice of career 0 Decision about have subsequent children 0 Parenting style 0 Relationships with parents friends partners Lifelong grief for those who fought to bring their baby home Their grief exacerbated and prolonged in some cases becoming chronic because they were not permitted to talk about it or properly grieve their loss Their loss was not recognized plus they were told they should be grateful that others took care of their problem Grief responses to a major loss 0 anger o guilt o depression Unresolved grief correlates with 209 0 lack of opportunity to express feelings about the loss 0 lack of finality of the loss 0 perception of coercion o guilt and shame over the surrender Best ways to cope with a major loss seek out people who understand your feelings of loss tell others how you fee take care of your physical health be aware of developing dependence on medication or alcohol make an effort to live in the present and not dwell on the past take time to adjust to your loss to make major changes such as moving changing jobs having another child 0 seek outside help when grief seems like too much to bear 0 be patient because it can take months or years to absorb a major loss Without guidance or counseling most of the women interviewed took action precisely the opposite of these recommendations by professionals Symptoms of their unresolved grief o depression 0 damaged self esteem 0 00000 persistent guilt s ame selfloathing over quotgiving awayquot their child enduring sense of emptiness and loss persistent loneliness or sadness difficulty with intimacy attachment emotional closeness lack of trust severe headaches or physical illness that cannot be explained or diagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder characterized by extreme anxiety panic attacks flashbacks nightm are s Consequences 0 Difficulty forming healthy relationships with men due to low selfesteem anger resentment lack of trust I felt worthless I believed they didn t deserve a decent guy 0 Response to babies I 30 percent only had the child they surrendered 0 Problems with intimacy in general I emotionally closed down I afraid of closeness o Recurring dreams of physical ailments that could not be suppressed there is still no accepted therapeutic model for counseling mothers who have lost their children to adoption many women still not able to find adequate therapy 50 percent reported ongoing pain and suffering as a result of their loss Adoption triad 0 parents 0 adoptees o adoptive parents only 27 percent of clinical psychologists felt well prepared or very well prepared to work with adoptive issues absence of adoption research in sociology and anthropology Healing process meeting and discussing with others who have experienced the same loss Surrendering their baby was punitive No one expects widows to give up their babies because her husband dies The wom en becom e m arginalized Conditions of Successful Degradation Ceremonies by Harold Garfinkel AJ S 1956 0000000000 Chapter 9 Search and Reunion Types of searches Fears Characterize the reunions Deceptions by authorities How did myths about the process impact the reunions What is the relationship between healing and reunions Chapter 10 Talking and Listening views regarding wom en s reproductive rights stereotypes shame acknowledgment that the women have suffered a loss would have what consequences Acknowledgement v silence what is the relationship between surrender and subsequent career path Chapter 11 Every Mother but My Own Fabricated info why did she wait so long before contacting her birth mother Two approaches to the study of Sexism and Gender inequality 0 Gender role analysis I the approach focuses on learned behaviors that are defined as masculine or feminine I gender role analysis emphasizes characteristics that individuals acquire during the course of socialization such as I high or low aspirations I inde endent or dependent behaviors and ways of relating to others I this explanation suggests that because men see women as less profitable they pay them ess I it suggests that women are taught to aspire for less 0 Structural analysis I emphasizes factors that are external to individuals which favor males and produce sex inequality such as I the organization of all the major social institutions designed to favor men the concentration of power tends to favor male control the legal system bias toward men organizational barriers such as the dual labor market wellpaying secure jobs with benefits are more accessible to men lowpaying insecure jobs with no benefits are more accessible to women and minorities I structural analysis proposes that social systems can be designed to create a pool of low paid labor which enables economic elites global corporations owners of industry etc to maximize their profits These two approaches differ in how they explain the causes and effects of gender discrimination and therefore also differ in the solutions they propose for the elimination of gender inequalities Both approaches give us important insights in the problem Class lecture notes Lenore Weitzman s classic study of gender role socialization 0 studied 18 award winning children s books published 1967 to 1971 0 her content analysis of these books found that I females were virtually invisible I ratio of male pictures to female was 111 I ratio of male animals to female was 951 I the activities of boys and girls varied greatly I boys were active and outdoors I girls were passive and most often depicted indoors the activity of the girls typically was that of some service for the boys I adult men and women role models were different I men led I women followed I females were passive I males active I not one woman in any of these award winning books had a job or profession I women were always wives and mothers Update of Weitzman et al study 0 Females are no longer invisible included in books equally 0 And women have roles beyond family roles 0 But no behavior was shared by a majority of the females but all males were portrayed as independent and active 0 Girls expressed no career goals 0 And there were no adult female role models to provide ambition o The researchers found that only one woman in the entire 1980s collection of 24 books had an occupation outside of the home and she worked quotas a waitress at the Blue Tile Diner A 1994 study by Crabb and Bielawski also found that Caldecott Awardwinning children s books were still portraying fem ales in traditional roles o A large majority of female characters were depicted using household artifacts and most male characters using nondom estic productionoriented tools and objects These researchers found little change over the past two decades A 1993 replication of the Weitzm an study by Clark et al surveying approximately 800 children s books showed female characters portrayed in more egalitarian ways than they were in the 1960s and l979s Further research needed Two children s books by the same author Dean Walley illustrate the bias toward traditional occupation roles o What Boys Can Be I Fireman baseball player bus driver policeman cowboy doctor sailor pilot clown zoo manager farmer actor astronaut president 0 What Girls Can Be I Nurse stewardess ballerina candyshop owner model actress secretary artist nursery school teacher singer dress designer bride housewife mo er 0 The ultimate goal presented for boys is to become president 0 The ultimate goal for girls is to be mothers 0 Only three of the male occupations are performed inside compared with eleven of the female jobs Classic study by Laurel Richardson 0 a group of mothers were presented with quotAdamquot a sixmonth old dressed in blue overalls the mothers were allowed to interact with Adam and then responded to questions a second group were presented with quotBethquot a sixmonth old in a pink frilly dress again they interacted with Beth and responded to questions compared to Adam Beth was described as I sweet had a soft cry was smiled at more often offered a doll to play with more 0 Beth and Adam were the same sixmonth old Conclusions 0 from birth onward males and females have differential socialization experiences 0 have different expectations placed upon t em 0 people respond to them differently depending upon their sex 0 female and male social experiences differ from birth onward I their interactions are different 0 male and female social environments have significant differences which have consequences that we sometimes mistakenly attribute to genetic differences Sexism or Gender Discrimination or Gender Inequality Symbolic Interactionism 0 view society as the sum of all people s interactions language is significant in defining social realities because it provides people with shared meanings concern today linguistic sexism o the word he is used to refer to all humans I chairman mankind fem ale doctor woman lawyer O O O 0 Everyone loves his mother Grammatically correct but not inclusive Everyone loves its mother Inclusive but distorts reality Everyone loves their mother Inclusive but ungrammatical All people love their mothers Inclusive and grammatically correct From an anthropology textbook from quotback in the day I quotMan eing a mammal breast feeds his young Sexist language 0 Modern Man Man and his environment Mankind OOOOO English grammar rules require the use of the masculine pronoun as the default 0 The father took the child with him 0 A citizen when asked to serve his country should do so 0 Man being a mammal breast feeds his young quotThe more education an individual attains the better his occupation is likely to be and the more money he is likely to earn Time 1986 Functionalist Perspective 0 The parts of society social institutions social classes gender categories division of labor all the other parts work together to maintain the society 0 Problems with gender roles stem from historical changes such as I shift from agricultural to industrial economic base I shift from rural population bases to urban I decline of infant mortality I decline of birth rate I growth of suburbs I traditional gender role I women give birth and take care of children I men provide economic support I historical change disrupt these roles I but attitudes and expectations about gender roles have changed at a slower rate I ie cultural lag 0 Resolution change expectations to conform with actual conditions I redefine gender roles toward full equality I change social institutions to eliminate sexual discrimination I return to a stable past because a shift to greater equality is dysfunctional I the traditional roles were efficient because they meshed in a productive way Con ict Perspective and Feminist Perspective I See perspectives see exploitation and oppression as universal human problems I men used greater size and strength to force women into subservient position I then created social institutions and ideologies that served to perpetuate male power and authority I men gain y o paying women less 0 excluding them from positions of economic control and political power 0 men gain from women s subordinate role in the family Resolution 0 Liberal feminists largest group in the women s movement 0 National Organization of Women NOW 0 liberal tradition values freedom and individual liberty 0 call for a vigorous government to attack all forms of prejudice and discrimination o tougher legislation punishing gender discrimination in hiring and promotion 0 new initiatives against sexual harassment 0 longer sentences for rapists and other sex offenders 0 call for changes in the family schools and mass media 0 to end socialization into rigid gender roles 0 allow freedom to follow own unique paths Socialist feminists 0 they agree with liberals but argue that exploitation of women arises from the capitalist system 0 argue that only basic changes in the economic system can liberate women 0 need to do more than attack sexism 0 need to eliminate the racism and economic exploitation that lie at the root of the capitalist system if women are to be free Socialism o emphasis on collective ownership rather than private ownership o emphasis on nonprofit or notforprofit enterprise rather than for profit enterprise 0 Like other societies the United States has a nixed economy I some private forprofit ownershi I some state notforprofit ownership such as the Interstate highway system and the postal service museums and libraries some collective notforprofit ownership such as the city streets and sidewalks and the water and sewer systems fire protection some hospitals libraries 0 the United States is not a purely capitalist economic system of private profit making enterprises I most of the streets and highways are owned by cities or states rather than privately owned I same for most of the bridges I most of the fire engines and fire protection facilities are owned by cities rather than by private profitmaking corporations I same for city water and city sewage systems I we don t have competing sewer systems 0 Many socialist feminist see the kinds of social relationships capitalism produces as being at the root of the oppression of women in the sense that capitalism requires that one person exploit another Employment of one person by another is the root of profit In this view profit comes from paying employees less than the value they create by their labor That kind of exploitation is the source of profit in this view Under capitalism children are among the most powerless and therefore most vulnerable to being underpaid Finally in the 1930s New Deal legislation child labor was made illegal in US Women and minorities are the next most vulnerable but still they are offered few protections against being paid less 0 The corporate controlled mass media NBC ABC CBS FOX CNN etc ie the quot dependent mediaquot promotes the idea that women are paid less because they are not assertive enough to negotiate higher wages However the issue is a social issue not an individual one We need enforcement of laws that require equal pay for equal work Radical feminists 0 focus more on culture 0 need a quotwomancentered culture to replace the current patriarchal maledominated society 0 women must band together with other women to reject the patriarchal system and create an alternative wom anbased society Feminist Movements in the US Three upsurges of feminism in US history 0 the first grew out of the abolition movement of the 1830s 0 as women worked to abolish slavery women discovered they could not function as equals with male abolitionist friends 0 concluded that women s freedom was necessary as well as freedom from slavery July 1848 Seneca Falls NY first convention in history devoted to issues of women s position 0 approved a declaration of independence 0 asserted that men and women are created equal and endowed with certain inalienable rights During the civil war 18601865 feminists worked to end slavery after the war feminists divided over objectives ek economic religious and social reforms the second upsurge 0 Seek voting rights for women the second upsurge gave priority to women s suffrage women s suffrage amendment introduced into every session of Congress from 1878 on o ratified on August 26 1920 from 1920 to 1960s women s movement was dormant the third upsurge began in the 1960s the civil rights movement and other protest movements of the 1960s promoted the ideology of equality but women in these movements found these very movements for rights and freedom and liberation were dominated by men women s roles in these movements were considered secondary and subservient to men s women broadened the protest movements to include issues like 0 health care 0 family life 0 relationships between the sexes o reproductive rights another strand of feminism emerged among professional women who discovered discrimination in earnings and advancement o founded organizations like the National Organization of Women which seeks legislation to overcome sex discrimination 0 Ms Magazine founded to promote nonsexist mass media these two branches of contemporary feminism have contributed to the rise of feminist consciousness among US women Consequence changing conceptions of roles of women and men in the late 1970s during a period of high inflation high unemployment recession and the quot oil crisisquot when the price of oil doubled from 100gal to 200gal There emerged a backlash against the women movement The counter movement identified itself as quotprolifequot and quotprofamilyquot 0 its membership came from conservative political organizations and religious organizations 0 the counter movement opposed I reproductive rights policies policies that offer family rights and support antidiscrimination policies the women s movement is broad based in local communities across the nation and across social classes its issues include o opposition to I abuse of women corporate poisoning of communities and neighborhoods homophobia racism The feminist movement promotes I peoplecentered economic development immigrants rig ts education equity adequate wages O Lies My Teacher notes chapters 91011 Chapter I 9 See No Evil Choosing Not to Look at the War in Vietnam quotAll wars are fought to gain control of resources andor trade routes Living simply can help to reduce the incentive for countries to go to war quot The most powerful global corporations are based in the rich nations The rich nations have set u international institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund that facilitate the wealth flows from the poor nations And the rich nations especially the United States have military bases situated in countries all around the world the US alone has over 700 bases in foreign lands History textbooks obscure the exploitative relationship between the rich and poor by putting the blame on the poor nations by calling them quotunderdevelopedquot or quotdeveloping nations Although the rich nations claim to help the poor develop the rich are getting richer and the poor poorer 1850 rich nations were 5 times richer than the poor 1960 10 times richer 1970 14 times richer Discuss the contradiction between the goals of progress and sustainability Why do textbooks not discuss ideas In what sense are corporations the keepers of the commons Should students know that increases in energy consumption might threaten longterm survival of humans and other living things How might hum ans unintentionally make the planet uninhabitable 0000000 00000000 Why do anthropologists believe that it would be inaccurate to characterize hunting and gathering societies What are the social costs when students are taught that quotprimitivequot societies are nasty What social political and economic conditions and policies were contributing factors to the growth of the US middle class Before the New Deal legislation of the 1930s specifically the National Industrial Recovery Act NIRA of June 16 1933 Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 among others and the GI bill of the 1940s the US middle class was relatively small There was no national minimum wage before 1933 Before the 1930s the class structure looked like this 0 Upper class a small number of economic elite families 0 Middle class a class composed of professional and managers such as medical doctors and corporate executives business people 0 Working class the toiling masses earning subpoverty wages The middle class suburban way of life and the middle class itself was socially constructed as a result of 0 New Deal legislation enacted after Franklin D Roosevelt s presidential election in 1932 I creating minimum wage laws rights for working people to form unions regulation of banking to limit speculation and predatory lending creating Social Security establishing the eight hour day 40 hour work week in1938 o The GI bill Servicemen39s Readjustment Act of 1944 that offered veterans low interest rate housing mortgages and college tuition benefits 0 Construction of the national highway system in 1956 the interstate highway system that made the suburban living arrangement possible 0 Cheap oil coal and natural gas for transportation and home and industry In history books quotthe less said about the recent past the better quot Why 239 What need are they meeting Why do high school graduates today know more about the war of 1812 than about the Vietnam War Why did Buddhist monks in Vietnam set themselves on fire From class lectures World Empires 0 When did they first develop What caused them to develop How did they rule How long did individual empires survive How do empires sustain themselves How did the industrial revolution affect the growth of empires in the modern era Why and how did the British Empire become so powerful o What factors caused the growth of the British Empire What is colonialism In what ways was colonialism a contributing factor of World War I WW I How did World War II WW II change the balance of power in the world In what ways was colonialism a factor in the Vietnam War How and why do high school history textbooks distort and limit information about the Vietnam War What are the Pentagon Papers Why were they written 0 Why were they kept secret from the American people What is napalm What role did photographic images from Vietnam play in the public debate over the war What is the significance of these terms and events French Indochina Vietnam Laos Cambodia After World War I WW I there arose a liberation movement in Vietnam led by Ho Chi 1Iinh to free Vietnam from French colonialism As a student in Paris Ho Chi Minh tried to meet with President Wilson at the signing of the peace treaty ending WW I to persuade him to use his in uence with France to persuade them to end French colonialism in southeast Asia Vietnam etc Ho s Declaration of Independence from 000000 0000 0 France was modeled after the United States Declaration of Independence from England Wilson refused to meet with him Being rejected by the American revolutionary model Ho turned to the only other existing revolutionary model the Russian Revolution He became a communist in Paris Traveled to China and joined with the Chinese communists who were trying to organize a revolution to free China from colonial control by western powers England France US etc o The Chinese rebels split into two factions Those who wanted to model their revolution after the Soviet Union s an urban insurrection And those believed that China was a nation of peasants with too few urban industrial workers 3 percent of the population to stage an urban uprising This second faction believed China would find a different path to liberation through peasant guerrilla warfare Ho worked and learned from this faction led by Mao Zedong Mao Zedong wrote a manual on guerrilla warfare that became a revolutionary model for rural colonial nations all over the world During WW 11 there existed joint operations between the US military and the Red Army in China against Japanese occupation in China The US military was influenced to develop its own special forces as a result of those joint operations The phrase quotGung ho comes from those military contacts Compare 19 11 century and World War 1 and 11 battlefields with those in Vietnam Before Vietnam War the battlefield was like a football field 0 The scrimmage line was like the front between the combatants 0 You could see who was winning the war or the game by observing the movement of the front or the scrimmage line The ground war in Vietnam involved search and destroy and ambush and capture and interrogation There was no front 0 The Vietnamese National Liberation Front NLF engaged in guerrilla warfare The N39LF was a peasant army There was also a North Vietnamese Regular Army operating in South Vietnam The US engaged both of these forces Guerrilla warfare is comparatively cheap to wage Battle of Dien Bien Phu Philip and Daniel Berrigan The Catonville Nine Daniel Ellsberg The Pentagon Papers Body counts Freefire zones Strategic Hamlets My Lai Winter Soldier hearings quotIt became necessary to destroy the town to save it quot Guerrilla war strategy and tactics What made combat in Vietnam particularly difficult for American soldiers What is the social cost when students don t learn about such things What quotes regarding the Vietnam do textbooks include from Martin Luther King What else do they include or exclude about the war and the movement against it Identify at least six theories of the Vietnam War Do events in one period affect events in another period in the world of high school history books What are the social costs of not letting students learn from the lessons of the Vietnam War 0 O O O O OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Chapter 10 Down the Memory Hole The Disappearance of the Recent Past Sasha Zamani History textbooks limit and distort our understanding of the recent past Examples discussed in Chapter 10 are 911 and Iraq Wars And as we discussed in class Health care reform Biased news corporations broadcast misinformation and disinformation and thus spread ignorance about recent events Media watchdog organizations such as Media Matters can help us factcheck socalled news stories Case in point the current health care reform debate Seven giant insurance companies dominate the health insurance business If there is a public option the insurance companies and their stockholders will lose out on millions of dollars of business A public option means that subscribers can keep their present health insurance or choose a public insurance plan Another proposal is to offer national health insurance such as Medicare for everyone Medicare covers everyone over age 65 All other industrial countries have for decades offered national health insurance links to video clips shown in class 0 Freda Berrigan discussing her father Phillip Berrigan who took part in a civil disobedience action called the Catonsville Nine called quotMy Father the Activist quot httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvth886ceRCQampfeaturePlayListampp6A5DD82CDC443686 0 Former insurance company VP turned whistle blower Wendel Potter I httpwwwyoutubecomwatchv0 Ml Ojkam0ampfeaturePlayListampp95EBD54944FF7AC4 Chapter 11 Progress Is Our Most Important Product 0 Archetype of progress important theme in high school history textbooks o quotThe land of promise 0 Note the picture that suggests that quotprogressquot rather than disease and dispossession of their land and culture by European settlers doomed the Indians How does it do this 0 Growth progress in high school history texts o and progress is always good 0 No textbook suggests that quotgrowt quot could have negative consequences such as increased air pollution or oil depletion or declining real wages o The theme of progress helps people believe that their society has been a boon and not a course to humankind and the planet 0 Faith in progress promotes the status quo Thus we don t need change We don t need institutional changes or policy changes to reduce injustices We just need more of the same 0 Belief in progress helps the upper class defend itself against the injustices of social class inequalities Progress implies that everyone s share of the pie is getting bigger39 therefore just be patient 0 Progress fits in with Social Darwinism that the lower classes are lower due to their own shortcomings o In an economy dependent on consumer spending the idea of progress promotes consumption newer is better bigger is better etc o Internationally money and wealth flow from the poor to the rich countries and from the rich to the poor ie in both directions But the NET flow is from the poor to the rich 0 The rich countries are rich in part because poor countries are dominated economically and militarily by the rich nations


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