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by: Arvilla Rice

IntrotoGraphics&VisualComm JRN302

Arvilla Rice
GPA 3.89


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This 60 page Study Guide was uploaded by Arvilla Rice on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JRN302 at Central Michigan University taught by KennethMcDonald in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/218902/jrn302-central-michigan-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Central Michigan University.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
In Design Notes The following packet contains 25 pages of notes concerning the pro gram Adobe InDesign You should bring this packet to class each day because you may use them during class tutorials quizzes and projects The four major elements on your document PULLDOWN MENUS Appear at the very top of the page and allow you to manipulate files edit items including type and objects alter the view of the document and select various windows TOOL BAR Allows you to create shapes text boxes and perform other functions like mov ing and rotating items Appears on the left side of your document CONTROL PALETTE Appears below the pulldown menus Changes based on whether you are working with text or an object Provides valuable data about how big text or objects are where they are on the page etc WINDOWS Appear on the right side of your document Certain windows open by default when the program is launched Other windows can be opened by pulling down the WlNDOW menu If your tool bar or the control palette ever disappear from your screen you can make them reappear by going to WINDOWand pulling down to highlight them Creating documents How to launch InDesign DoubleClick on the purple icon labelled JD from the panel at the bottom of your screen How to create a new document After launching InDesign use the pulldown menu called FILE Pull down to New and over to Document Edit Layout Type Object TabIe View Window Help Document 3 N 5quot Document from Template Browse in Bridge S O 00kquot Open Recent gt Library Share My Screen New Document At this point a Dialogue box Document Preset 39 Default B Fomes up Where you can SPEC M 1fy how many pages should be N H7 F 39 P my ages 1 a gimme caquot e in this document how big the Save Preset pages should be whether they 7 Page Size39 Letter m im More 0 mm should be oriented vertically A 39 W quot 39 75 quot or39emat39 or horizontally whether the 399 76690 pages should be separated into Columns 7 columns and how much if any Numb e 1 mm 1po the margin should be from the edge of the page 7 Margins Top 6 3530 E Inside 9 300 Bottom 3pc Outside spo BASICS OF THE TOOL BAR NOTE The default toolbar is 1 single row of tools Iprefer to arrange my toolbar as you seen below with 2 column s siderbyrside I find it much easier to locate specific tools b this way To do so click on the double arrows at the top of the ar Selection tool Allows you to grab h an object or type and move 1t around on a page or reshape an entire object Pen tool Allows you to create unique multirpoint shapes in two ways First click mouse releasev m us move mouse to a new 8 ill 57 934 lt WE ond method is to click and drag mouse 39 e moving to a new por sition to create curved rather than straight lines below right A Rotate tool Allows you to take xt or an object and place it at an angle Single click works in con junction with mouse Doublerclick allows you to ll in a value Color indicator Shows you what color an object is and allows you to change the color in conjunction with the Color Window White with a red line means none The upperrleft is the FILL the inside of an object The lower right controls the STROKE the border of an object lk R 32 T f I l Rectangle Tool M Normal View mode Makes 4 guides gridlines and frame edges appear Direct Selection tool Allows you to reshape an object or work within an object or text box that you have created Text tool Allows you to create a box and type in text Line tool Allows you to draw a line on the page Ellipse Tool L Polygon Tool I w l Rectangle tool Allows you to draw a box for either placing text or photos or as a shape Ellipse and Polygon tool Holding down the Rectangle tool will bring up these other options to draw rounded shapes or polygons NOTE Holding down the shift key while drawing a rectangle makes a square with the ellipse tool makes a perfect circle Magnifying tool Allows you to zoom in or by holding down the option key zoom out Preview mode Makes guides gri ines and frame edges disapr pear so you can see the page as it would look when printed BASICS OF THE CONTROL PALETTE The percentage of enlargement or reduction HORIZONTALLY of any photo that s imported into this element W W B 7 B The percentage of enlargement or reduction VERTICALLY of any photo that s imported into this element REFERENCE POINT The figure on the far left shows you at what point an object is being measured from It s best to set this in the upper left corner 71in w 4Kn easozin Ha Ln Right half of the control palette The angle of the X The vertical position of the object on the page measured from the left edge of the document Object The default iS Y The horizontal position of the object on the page 0 You can rotate it to measured from the top of the document any desired angle by typing in a number and W The Width of the object hitting the return key H The height of the object Left half of the control palette rp1gwa2m quot 532 L itjriAgtII Tasha Alignment Borders around elements Easm Graphics Framej laquot Rotate amp Flip This area of the palette The thick The style of the When more than one allows you to rotate ness of border around an object is created and any item 90 degrees the border object or of a line highlighted or selected clockwise or 90 degrees around an There are several this area allows you to counterclockwise object or of a choices available line them up relative to top row It also line Usually see below each other tllowflyqu tot lllp an meisurefll 1amp1 L1 Cl ft The top row aligns l em orlzon a y or 111118 ca 6 H mm objects horizontally left vertically to make a p01nts 1 i edges centers and right mirror image of itself p01nt 172 an edges bottom row The of an inch 4M 39 large P shows you how jl k lm The bottom row lines you have changed the Enigma them up vertically top object ashram edges centers and W quotquotS39 quot bottom edges llllSvalghr ash c on d waw loooooo vm aura and n llavaneseDos I I named HIGHLIGHTS FROM PULLDOWN MENUS Layout Type Object Table Undo Add New Item Redo Cut 3 X Copy 38C Paste B V 35 wi L 1 AV Paste Into YB V Paste in Place YOB V Clear E Duplicate 3939lt3 D Step and Repeat tseu Select All 3 A Deselect All OS A lnCopy gt in Oliglti li Edit With gt Edit m Siory Editor 23V Quick Apply 3e 9 FindChange 3 F Find Next Y3 Spelling Transparency Blend Space gt Transparency Flattener Presets Color Settings Assign Pro les Convert to Pro le Keyboard Shortcuts Menus KEY ITEMS UNDER THE EDIT MENU UNDO COMMANDZ Perhaps the most important short cut to know in all of lnDesign This allows you to undo your last move If you ve made a mistake deleted some thing important etc simply hit COMMANDZ and your document will go back to the way it was You may undo as many previous moves as you like CUT COMMANDX Makes a copy of an object photo or text while leaving the original in its place REDO SHIFTCOMMANDZ Will redo a move that you have undone COPY COMMANDC Makes a copy of an object photo or text while leaving the original in its place PASTE COMMANDV Places that copy onto your page STEP AND REPEAT Allows a designer to make multiple copies of an object and then tell the computer how far both horizontally and vertically the copies should be placed from the previous one SELECT ALL COMMANDA Activates all the items on your page Often used when you want to group every thing as one NOTE You may also select multiple items by using your cursor Place it near the items you want to select but not on top of them and click and drag an imaginary box that touches all the items Everything that your imaginary box touches will be selected FINDCHANGE COMMANDF Allows a designer to search for certain wordsphrases within a document and replace them with alternate words or spellings SPELLING Contains a spell check function to correct mis takes in spelling KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS A quick reference for all the keyboard shortcuts that lnDesign uses W Window Help KEY ITEMS UNDER THE VIEW MENU Overprim Preview V038 Helps control the appearance of page Proof Setup gt Proof Colors Zoom inZoom out This can also be done by using the magni fying glass tool 2 I 22 gut 3g Flt Page In Wlndow Shrlnks your page so that the ent1re docu Fit page in Window g0 ment ts on your screen Fquot Spread wmdow ggo ShowHide Rulers Places or removes rulers at the top and Actual Size 3amp1 Emire Pasteboard Veg left s1de of your document Showhide Frame Edges Allows you to see or hide the invis Rome Spread ible edges which InDesign creates whenever you make an ob Screen Mode gt ject text box or other device Display Performance gt Grids amp Guides gt Hide Guides 313 Stfudure I V Lock Guides Y H39de Hyperlmks Story Ed39mr 39 v Lock Column Guides Show Text Threads Y8 Y Hide Notes J Snap to Guides 0 Show Frame Edges quot38H A V Smart Guides 3 U Show Assigned Frames Hide Rulers SR Show Baseline Grid Y3 Grids amp Guides Show Document Grid 3quot Story Editor b GRIDS amp GUIDES Guides Invisible lines that you can place horizontally or verti cally on your page as a method of helping you place items more preceisely TO SET A GUlDE Place your cursor on either of the two rulers above or to the left of your document Click down and drag your cursor onto your page A line will appear which you can move around the document and place anywhere NOTE The control palette will activate as you set your guide telling you exactly where on the page the guide is Lock Guides Once you have placed guides on your page you can lock them so that they cannot be accidently moved Showhide Baseline Grid This device places horizontal rules invisible to the printer exact ly 1 pica apart from each other 1 pica is a standard measurement used in graphic design especially for spacing of items There are 6 picas in 1 inch so 1 pica is equal to 16 inch KEY ITEMS UNDER THE OBJECT MENU Table View Window ARRANGE Table View Window Help Transform gt When a de39 Transform P Transform Again gt signer has Transform Again rlrange CreaIEd 111L11 Arrange gt Bring to Front 033 6 e tiple items Select gt Bring Forward 343 that lie on top 7 39 a Send Backward 38 of each other GO Send to Back ma fl I ll this function ll allows you Text Frame Options B to send one Anchored Object gt element to the Fitting gt back or bring Content it to the front Effects gt You may also Corner Options bring elements forward 01 Use ArrangeSend to Back to send the green Clrcle 0 3 1 LZ VE39 Olgt1l 3l395 from in front of the yellow rectangle to behind Clipping Path gt baCkward one mum g Colo Sailings layer at a time Interactive gt SELECT If you have placed an object on top of another and you gain d want to activate the item that is below it you may use this func Cat quot er tion to Select the element that is hidden from your view onvert Shape gt Display Performance GROUP COMMANDG This function allows you to group mul tiple items together to make it a single unit You may then move all the items as one or enlarge or shrink the grouped element TIP If you want to reduce or enlarge a grouped element proportionally hold down the shift key while you stretch the ele ment at one of its end points UNGROUP SPHFTCOMMAND G This allows you to ungroup a grouped element and work with the individual items LOCK POSITION COMMANDL Allows you to lock an item in place so that it cannot be moved When you attempt to move a locked item a small icon of a lock will appear UNLOCK POSITION OPTIONCOMMAND L Allows you to unlock an item KEY ITEMS UNDER THE FILE MENU Edit Layout Type Obie gt New Open ago Browse in Bridge YSEO Open Recent gt Share My Screen Close 3 W Save RES Save A5 035 I lr Save a Copy YS Revert Place 3 D Adobe PDF Presets gt ESE 93999 e s i s Export for Digital Editions Export for Dreamweaver Document Presets NEW Allows you to create a new document to begin working OPEN COMMAND0 Allows you to open a previously created file CLOSE COMMANDW Allows you to close out a file but keep the InDesign program running To close a file and quit the program use COMMANDQ SAVE AS SHIFTCOMMANDS Allows you to give your file a name Always save your files to the DESKTOP of the computer you are working on This makes them much easier to find as the icon will appear directly on your desktop SAVE COMMANDS Get in the habit of saving your work every 395 to 10 minutes so that you can avoid losing anything in the unfortu nate case that your computer crashes or freezes up on you EXPORT COMMANDE Allows a designer to convert a InDesign document into a variety of other file formats like Adobe PDF JPG Dowme 53mm u or Flash Converting a CS4 document into a CS3 interchange docu ment allows you to open your work in the previous version of File info Y s l InDesign Package B P primm 3gp PRINT COMMANDP Allows you to send your document to one of the two printers in the lab either the black and white or the Show All Menu Items color Print Print Print Preset Custom l3 Print Preset Custom lg Printer Printer JRN HPLaseriethMDN 144 PPD HP LxserJel P4010 Series 3 PPD HP Laserjez P4010 Series 1 General General General Setup 5qu etu Markslndk es Copies 1 quot Collate Exesarse Order Iavkanc lud PBWSiZE mm 8 7 P Width 35 in Height 11 in mm 9e t Pages0AM sierrrsrernen i as and ORange 2 fun es 5 Orientation E E Q E 0 t Sequeneez AllPages lag 5quot V 39Lmnme DSpreads 39jprint Master Pages Optic e Width 100 Heightlll i l Options The first dialogue box allows you to select which printer you would like to use how many copies you want and whether you want to print all of the pages in your docu ment Print Layers Visible er Prinuslsle Layers lg 393 Print Nonsprinling objects 3 Print Blank Pages 393 Print Visible Guides and Baseline Grids Constrain Proportions 39t Page Position Drnumbnails l Tile m Page Setup Save Preset SETUP Clicking on the word Setup under neath General in the white dialogue box above the P allows you to change things such as the size of the paper the page orientation and to reduce or enlarge the document to fit onto a specific size of paper BASICS OF THE WINDOWS m LINKS When you launch InDes1gn a series of WINDOWS Wlll appear to the right of QC your document These are the most commonly used windows Clicking on mans one of the windows like COLOR in this example causes a box to appear to the left of the main windows menu To make the pop out window disap 3 STROKE pear click on the this symbol here SWATCHES M If our e W11 dows 2533 I NOTE To 3 WW I Assignments i 39 39 tmbutes 6 Wm our 2 OBJECT STYLES from your 522201 vs V m We w1ndows Extensions b EFFECTS ou can Gradient make sure Info y t39 t WWW F i to SEt ucmoa n I r ac 13a e 35 03 them at v a T t3 coma Ject ayout a m ty th gbigcttswles 3 ADVANCED I C om o e quot g I an N1 OW 33 5 by going to IE T M 6 Q l PARAGRAPH STYLES u d igggches 5 the Window 39 5quot ex ra p d TWTSW p WW pundown tIE K x CHARACTER STYLES menuan vneirampabls D menu and I l I pplCalOl I rame SElECtlIlg Application Bar selectlng v S the Wlndiow SirlpleButons WWW Workspace TEXTWMP you nee LJleLi ffi THE COLOR WINDOW Click down on the triangle in the upper right corner to reveal your color choices Lab CMYK and RGB lt quot m The two boxes underneath the word color indicates whether you will be applying color to the inside of the box FILL the top left box or the bor der the bottom right box Whichever box is on top of the other dictates whether you are filling the box or col In this class we will work most often oring its border with the CMYK format This stands for gt Cyan 3 Shade 0f blue You may also use the CMYK Spec gt Magenta 3 Shade 0f T601 trum bar to select a color The white gt Yellow box with a red line through it stands gt BlaCk for no color The solid white box at By specifying a percentage between 0 the far right Stand for White The and 100 for each of the four colors we blaCk box bEIOW 1t 15 blaCk39 can create all different colors GRADIENTS AND SWATCH ES c SWATCHES You can create a color background that blends from one color into another by using the Gradient window To do so you must also use the Swatches window You can use one of the premade swatches or create your MlDD YD Kan I Registration own by clicking on the button and selecting New Color I c100 0 Yo Kr Swatch I Once you have the colors you want pull those colors from rm H the Swatches panel onto the Gradient bar Place one color on the left side of the bar and one on the right The pro I Gumsmm 0 gram will also add white to the left side of the bar and I CEMMTW m K5 black to the right Clicking on these and pulling down I mm will remove them banksquot 6539 I 15 M100 v Joo K A You can change the Type of Gradient from Linear side to side to radial inside to out You can also alter the angle of the gradient Moving the boxes at the bottom of the gradient bar will 9 equot change how quickly the colors blend from one to another Location 9 Angle n o E Reverse ta A Linear gradient above and a radial gradient right The top ex ample contains white and black in addition to the colors blue and yellow The bottom example has the white and black removed Intermediate lnDeSIgn W v w Transform gt Transform Again b Arrange b OB ECTEFFECTS Select gt One of the most powerful pulldown menus in Adobe InDesign can be found under the Object label Effects This function allows a designer to 1 create an object or teXt or a photograph and m l mg alter its appearance in a number of ways For the Come purposes belowI am illustrating how these func fransparemym tions can alter an ObJECt like a rectangle filled CornerOp ions r DropShadoww WM With a gray background In later handouts I Will lnnerShadow Cl39 39 P h 0 GI deal in more spec1f1cs With how these effects can quot9 quot a n rmmn be used to change the look of typography or a Interactive Embossu p1Cture paths Basir Feather path nder Directional Feather convert Shape Gradient Feather Display Performance gt Global Light DROP SHADOW This function allows a designer to give an object a shadow making it look 3 Dimensional in nature Designers have a lot of control over how thick the shadow is where it is placed in relation to the object what color it is and whether it has a hard or blurry edge E39TE IZIS twingum Etta21 m 03 Shulau ierdim Muciu Muleeg taming 79 39r l usixion A l Disuncu 390 119 in 7 it onset 60331117 A rectang e Mgr 39ltf 39135quot warm 00532 n filled With gray u 1 I L h 58 I 0139quot r Y and a drop d g ShadOW aPPhEd Eplinn to It 513v ITLilfw ju in leer Knerlcg uffharlm kEA 20 3 El n 3quot quotquotquot L quot 1 quotquot3quot Spread 03gt 39 Shddi rw quotlunar G her Effect w Maul mix1 pmm Click PREVIEW ticix mg i so you can see 7 your changes I Earie immediately 7 L You can dictate the color of the shadow by clicking on the Black box neXt to the word Mul tiply OPACITY refers to whether the shadow is a solid color or has the appearance of being transparent DISTANCE ANGLE and X and Y OFFSET tell the computer where and how big the shadow should be SIZE determines whether the shadow has a sharp edge or a blurry one while NOISE can make the shadow appear grainy The INNER SHADOW function adds a shadow that falls just inside the edges of the object giVing it a recessed appearance FEATHER The Feather h MD van Ray my TV ha and craaheht s em BASC So e he SLWmW Edges 0 all 0 W stdes orthe obr cm 0mm JecI equally You quotw 4 can spectry that chstahce under Feather Wtdth and you can also mange wed make the feather wilhyaytmplan l appear 3am v Exhath W km addmg Notse Wm 3991 n 3 wnhyaytmpl g new Wm m nmEcnoNM I a W W lt3 a u ODXKV 125 stdes an to have the feather wtdth wry from stale to stale CRADIENT Feathers the p to the bottom w 7 av 7 x M M i r 3922 mm m 5 W a a OUTER CLOW Adds aglow a quotWIAwva that emanat from the outside ofthe object Me You can also create aglow ma emanates from the Inside orme object by selecnng INNER GLOW em BEVELAND w EMBOSS unmrmmgrv WM Addmmus gum M combinations ormgaugns andshadows ogw e an and wages amreedxrnensxonal appearance Hard and Set the 5sz Ofthe bevel 3 Mrwy vi an im A Rectangle lled E we 397 mm a W a wilhyay lha hm 39v WM 8 3w maul gm been Bevded ad 1131 axed Hwy 7 Mm ax m mashmu madnwplaced 9 k n W um m ma MULTIPLE EFFE CPS There 15 no llrmt 0 how many effects you c place on an 0b a OBJECTCORNER Emzcr 5 am ppm Thls funcuon glves the deslgner the ablllty to customs l lzethe corners of an Object There are 5 posslbllltles and you can control how blg the effect ls by changng the slze WINDOW MENU T amp LAYOUTPATHFINDER h the opportunlty to create 113 2 or more shapes and havr lnglnDeslgn comblne them lnto one The program can do thls belo qbp gtAdd Traces gt51Ilnxact 0b the outllne of all Jects tn the from Objects to create a quotpunch holes slngle shape tn the backmost Object ln most cases the resulung sha e aolopts the attnt E g 9 gtOngral slapes owever Object from are E ame n a c pound shape the shape ofthetext frame changes ut thetext ltselr stays the same gtlntersect gtExdllde Overlap gtMinlls Back Obs creates a shape Creates a shape Jects tn the back from overla 7 ran areas that do quotpunch holes plng areas not overlap tn the rrontmost Object Also located tn thts Wlndow ts a runctton called Paths The rst cholce Wllljoln the end potnts o an Object that you have drawn The second runctton cant e an Object su as a clrcle and open up tts tndwtdual potnts so t can be reshaped tnto another Object The thtrd wtll close a path thus connectlrlg thepolnts back agalrl slmlllar to the flrst one The example nght shows a clrcle Whlch has had tts paths opened and been changed tnto new shape The Pathf 7H lnder Cl C O 7 wlndow also lncludes 9 a a runctton called 1 J 39 Conv ows eslgn cr STROKE When you create a ltne wtth the ltne tool you can set lts thlclc ness or Wldth and lts style through the control palette How ever you can also add endpotnts to your llne by actwattng the mm mm ROKE wlndow and settlrlg a start polrlt and an end polrlt V 39 example below has a square soltd start potnt and a curved end potnt l 53 39 EDIT MENU srep and mm STEP and REPEAT While on can where you an to be placed tn your deslgn use thts runctton Repeat count al lows you to tell the computer how many coptes you would 11k and the hortzontal and yetttcal offset controls how ar from the prevlous Object the next one should be placed Text and InDeSIgn One of the things that separates Adobe InDesign from other graphic programs like Illustra tor and Photoshop is its ability to easily display and manipulate typography During this lab we will explore issues regarding text and InDesign THE TOOLBAR AND TEXT Type tool Allows you to draw a box on R tati n 01 Allows You to your document and place text into it rotate type onto an angle 7 quot T TypeTooi T is Type on a Path Tool ShiftT Eyedropper tool Allows you to quickly transfer type speci fications from one text box to another Highlight the new type select the eyedropper tool and place it on top of the old text Click down and the new type will look just like the old type E s Type on a path tool Works in conjunc tion with the pen rectangle ellipse tools Allows you to place text along the out side of an object or shape 5115 q Color indicator When text is be E ing used the color indicator will r 39 show a capital T in these two gm q Rectangle ellipse polygon tool If you boxes 1 want to place text inside a shape you may use these tools to create a shape and then select the Type tool and click onto the shape which will place a cursor inside the object The upperleft is the FILL the color of the inside of the type The lower right controls the STROKE the border of the WW Z This box will be highlighted 5 when you are working on text rtext can he placed inside oi an ehiectiust like here Filling type with a color and giving it a stroke x Jam lEtE itquot The words Journalism 302quot have been l n m e c 392 x A COLT WK Filled With the color Red and Stroked 4 l with Gold left In addition the stroke Sun M s 90 4E1 was changed from 1 p01nt to 2 p01nts V SD End 5390 K no i making the outline thicker This was mm um i done by using the STROKE window far le KFIX THE CONTROL PALETI39E AND TEXT While the toolbar is crucial in creating text it is the control palette where designers can really manipulate type The con trol palette can be set up in two different ways by highlight ing the capital A or the backwards P on the far left side The A is the character control palette which focuses on things such as font type size etc The backwards P is a symbol that represents Paragraphing It controls things such as alignment indentation etc The Character Control Palette FONT Allows POINT SIZE KERNING Adding or TRACKING The space you to select You may select subtracting space be between all the characters which of the among a vari tween two specific let in ablock of text like a hundreds of ety of sizes or ters Place your cursor sentence or a paragraph fonts you would type in your between the letters and A positive number adds like to set your own adjust here space a negative brings type 39n letters closer together lmpact 3 TT 391 9100 I niv Mam 4 39TI Reguiar 3 13140sz lt3 Tl STYLE Many LEADING The ALL CAPS VERTICAL HORIZONTAL fonts come in vertical space Allows you SCALING SCALING a variety of between lines of to place Changes height Changes width styles bold type Automatic text into of letter but of letter but italic etc leading 20 all capital not width More not height Here s where percent greater letters than 100 More than you can select than point size makes letter 100 makes them appears in taller Less than letter wider 100 shorter Less than 100 M BASELINE narrower SHIFT Alters SKEW false italic The C in MCDON39 the position of Takes text and makes it appear as though ALD has been a single let its slanted Skewed type is not the same as shifted along the ter or multiple italic type baseline letters along a continuous line flock regular of type A posi tive number ock SkgIV makes the let ter mgve up a flack ztalzc negative moves it down Notice the difference between letters especially the f l and k in flock ITALIC TYPE IS MORE THAN JUST SLANTED TYPE The Paragraph Control Palette ALIGNMENT These 8 buttons LEFTRIGHT SPACE BEFOREAF COLUMNS Di control how your type is aligned INDENT Allows TER Allows you to vides a text box The most important are you to indent place a set amount into an equal Top row far left Ragged right every line of a of space either number of col Top row 2nd left Centered block of text before each new unms or legs Top row 3rd left Ragged left from either the paragraph left or of type Bottom row far left Justified left or right side after right max 39om WI Nonaragraphsmeg B M vahenme 11 PARAGRAPH ROP CAP These two boxes HYPHENATE Allows you INDENT Tells the Dallow you to create a large to tell the program wheth program how much letter at the beginning of a er you would like to place you would like to paragraph ike shown The first hyphens in long words indent the first box is for how tall you want the that appear at the end of line of each new letter to be measured in number a line of type just like the paragraph Typical of lines of type The second box word hyphen above amount is 1p0 is for how many letters you want 1 pica to be set in big type THE OBJECT MENU AND TEXT Text Frame Options TEXT FRAME OBJECTS Serves a variety of 1 functions including i Gutter 1pD Width 12M COLUMNS While you can use the Paragragh C Fixed Column Width Control palette to separate text into columns you can also do the same here and you can control the width of the gutter the white space that separates the type into columns Bottom W m Right W Vertical Justi cation INSET SPACING When placing text This is an example of how Augquot IE inside a box this you can inset text 1 pica t Paragraph Spacing Limit 3 010 function allows from the edge so that it 1 ml 1 w gnore TextWrap you to have the doesn t touch the border of text inset so that the box the text and the D Pmia quot border of the box do not touch See example right VERTICAL JUSTIFICATION Allows the designer to place text vertically either at the top bot tom or center of a text box O B ECT Effects The same effects that can be placed on an object covered in lnDesig39n Notes 2 can be used on text ONE IMPORTANT THING TO KEEP IN MIND IS THAT YOU MUST SELECT THE TEXT BOX WITH YOUR BLACK POINTER TOOL BEFORE YOU CAN APPLY AN EFFECT TO IT Also all the text in the text box will have the same effect so if you want an effect on one word in a title that contains a number of words it must be in its own text box Here is a rundown of the effects Drop Shadow Adds a shadow that falls behind the text The most commonly used effect and a great way to make text look special while still maintaining high readibility Inner Shadow Adds a shadow that falls just inside the edges of the text giving it a recessed appearance Outer Glow Inner Glow Adds glows that emanate from the outside or inside edges of the text Bevel and Emboss Adds various combinations of highlights and shadows to give text a three dimensional appearance Satin Adds interior shading that gives text a satiny finish Basic Feather Directional Feather and Gradient Feather Softens the edges of text by fading them from a color to transparent in a number of different ways Some things to keep in mind when using effects especially on text 1 The effect should compliment the text and contribute to both the appearance AND legibility of the words 2 Do NOT overuse effects on type Also you should be able to explain why you selected the specific effect you used Because I could is not a proper reason for using an e ect Do not use too many effects in one design Effects look best when used on 1 or 2 key words i i I Effects Settings for Object l3 DropShadow Tranxpnvcnty m 5 2 Emmy Made Multiply FEE Opacity llama I 7 it Innusmdw uclw x Offset lopz Position 1 i 4 D moi andimbass 3 a 5m Angle v Offset 0oz hsigfeerher D Gradient Feather 4 c M u 1 Text without any DI El Object Knocks Out Shadow a Shadow Honors Other Effects El Preview a t 2 Text with a Drop shadow using the default settings which has 75 opacity to make the shadow appear slightly transparent and an Option size of Op6 which creates a blurry shadow 3 Text with a Drop Shadow the way I prefer it 100 Opacity OpO Option Size no blur and a smaller shadow Op2 or 2 points 4 Text with an Inner shadow 75 Opacity Distance of lpO l pica and Option Size of lpO INNEROUTER GLOW EFFECTS 1 Effects 2 Settings for Object omer Glow 2 mmmm g WWW Mo Screen B E on D Innushadaw a WWW 0pmquot 39 a Technique sane Noise lax El 3 5 5mm Size 1p6 Spread 0 D Eislcfeadlu CV Direcrlmlal Flame 5 Cmmunlrcnhu 1 Text without any effect 2 Text with an Out er Glow The color Mpreview E was set at Black and the Opacity at 100 The size was changed to 1p6 0 25 inches to make a larger and more pronounced glow 3 Text with an Inner Glow The color was set at Black and the Opacity at 100 The tech nique was Precise the source was edge and the size was set at 1p6 BEVEL AND EMBOSSSATIN EFFECTS I Effects Seu39lngsfor Object E BevelandEmboss Transparency 2 3th Style Inner Bevel H Size me u C39Imrsmuw Technique Chisel Hard B Su en apo 39 Domich V m memoquot m Depth 100 j 3 a W Shading Q Bumfeamu Angle 039 Altitude 30 C mmw mmquot a Use Global Light 2 Cladienxfluhtr Highlight Suean B Opacity 75 mamaimmummm i mm m u Shadow Multiply Opaclly 75 p 1 Text Without any Wm inwi n in i quot 1 Narmnommwm t 2 Text with Bevel and Emboss The EP QV QW Style was set at Inner Bevel The Size was increased to lp0 l pica or 16 of an inch The technique was set at Chisel Hard All other values were not changed from the default settings 3 Text with the Satin effect The opacity was set at 50 The distance was lp0 and the Size was set at 0p2 2 points FEATHER EFFECTS I Eff cis Basic Feather Settings for Object izj T Options ransmmnry 2 D 9 de FeatherWidth 0p9 D Innelshadnw choke 0 On at g h m Corners Diffused 3 n n D Bavaiand Emboss Noise 0 L San 8 am Fualher D Direclional Feazher Cl Gradient rmher 3 u 4 if GE 1 Text without any effect 2 Text with a Basic feather The feather E Preview Cancel 139 width was increased to 0p9 9 points and all other values were left the same 3 Text with a Directional feather The Top and Left feather widths were set at 0p6 6 points while the Bottom and Right were left at 0 This means the feather only exists on the left side of the C and the top of all three letters 4 Text with a Gradient feather This is a linear feather with the angle set at 0 to produce a gradient from red to transparent from the C to the U Changing the angle can make the feather go in the opposite direction or from the top to the bottom You can also do aradial feather inside to outside FILE PULLDOWN MENUPLACING TEXT INTO AN INDESIGN FILE Edit Layout Type Objei One of the great things about Adobe InDesign is that it allows a you to place a text file created in Browse in Bridge use another program like Microsoft Open Recent Word or simple text into your share MyScreen document To do this create any Close saw 5 3 S text box and go to FILEPlace ASW ms the keyboard shortcut for this em in Save a Copy Y3 S is COMMAND D one that might be good to remember Nayagate your way to the folder where the text file is located and once there select the file and click Open The text will ow into your document Reve rt Place RD Sometimes with a text box you might see a small red box with a sign in the mid dle of it This box will appear in the lower right coner This symbol means that there is additional text which cannot be seen because the box isn t big enough To cor rect the problem trim the text or expand the size of the box Photos and lnDesign In addition to creating and manipulating text InDesign also allows you to do several inter esting things with photographs and illustrations TH E TOOLBAR AN D PHOTOS Direct Selection tool Allows you to Selection tool Allows you to move the image within the box grab the photo and move it around our document Also allows you to check the horizontal y 39 K L A and vertical scaling percentages so that you can see whether your photo is PRO You may also make your photo T PORTIONAL box a new size by using this 39 tool to grab the photo in one of 39 the corners and pulling the box 9 Cheklng and hOIdlng do hot ffog0to V Into a new Shape 1 Rectangle T M allows you to see Holding down the ShiftCom the entire photo A quoti Ellipse Tool L mand key while performing the J n0t JuStgle por operation above will resize not k quotquot5 Polygon Tool t m V131 e on only the box but also the photo quotquot t 6 screen within the box keeping it pro 3 a portional RectangleEllipsePolygon T001 Al l lows you to create a shape and place a photograph within it Most commonly used with the rectangle option 99 of photos look best when placed in a simple rectangle box Rotation tool Allows you to ro tate a photo onto an angle Eyedropper tool Allows you to select a color from a pho tograph and place that onto another object such as text To do so highlight the text you want changed select the eyedropper tool and click it onto the color within the pho j to that you would like the text to become To place a photo into an object draw the appropriate shape and go to FILEPlace or hit CommandD Surf to the photo you want and doubleclick to import it Object menu and Photos EMT fTable View Window OBJECTFITTING 233 Again 39 ge vvv Most of the ways to adjust and manipur late photos can be accomplished under the Object menu Seled Lock Position Se n 39 Anchored omen v Fit Content to Frame VB E Content 1 a i a 2n Ho a A 3 n Effetts Comer Options Fl Content Proportionally met mi Frame Proportionally tom v Clipping Path Frame Fitting Optionsquot One of the first things you will encounter when dealing with photographs and InDesign is that the size of the photo is usually not the same size as you want it to appear in your document To resize the photograph to fit your design there are several options all of which can be found under the Fitting fimction My favorite method is highlighted in the box to the right FIT CONTENT TO FRAME This function will re size the photo so that the entire image fills the box you have created HOWEVER it does so re gardless of whether the image proportionally fits your box Therefore it can be dangerous to use this because it will create an unproportional photo FIT FRAME TO CONTENT This function enlargn es your box to accommodate the entire photo graph CENTER CONTENT Will center the photo with in the box you have created FIT CONTENT PROPORTIONALLY Reduces or enlarges the photo w 39 e maintaining the hori zontal and vertical scaling percentages Does so by using the smaller of the two percentages Therefore it may create a photo that doesn t completely fill your box leaving some white space on the sides or top and bottom FIT FRAME PROPORTIONALLY This function works great if the shape of the photo matches the shape that you want to use it in InDesign and you do not plan to crop the photo at all Ken s advice for cropping and resizing photos and keeping them proportional While there are plenty of different ways to get the job done this is the best way I have found REMEMBER CROPPING IN INDESIGN GIVES YOU THE FLEXIBILITY TO CHANGE YOUR CROP RIGHT UP UNTIL THE LAST MINV UTE BEFORE YOU MUST HIT THE PRINT KEY A proportional photo left versus an unpron portional one Notice the ball is round Create an object for the photo to be placed into This will almost always be a rectangle Do not be concerned about the size of the box you draw at this time Select the object with the Black Selection Tool Go to FILEPlace Come maner and sur through until you find the photo you want and then place it into the object CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE Crop the photo Use 4 the Black Selection tool to change the size of the box pulling from the top or bottom left or right until just the por tion of the picture that you want to be included is Visible MAKE 5 Enlarge or reduce the photo Once SURE YOU ARE CHANGING THE cropped grab the photo with the SIZE OF THE BOX AND NOT Black Selection tool in the lower right ALTERING THE PHOTO The corner While holding down the Shift and proporouon for the phpto ShOUld Command keys either expand or shrink the be 100 6 for bolh Vemcal and box to your desired size Holding down the honzomal Scalmg39 two keys will keep the photo PROPORTION AL as you make it either bigger or smaller x o4023 m l w21938in El 439sssu s 5143975553IB 6 Recheck the proportionality Select the photo with the White Selection A o2117jn l H 2750 in tool Consult the control palette to make sure your new photo is propor tional The percentages can be anything but they must be the same OBJ ECTEFFECTSBASIC FEATHER If you would like to create the appearance of soft edges around your photo rather than a sharp edge you can do so with the Feathering function There are several different cornering effects available I prefer diffused and you may also tell the program how wide you want the feather to be Effects Settlngs for Object Feather Teansmtency Droo Shaw nnzr59adow 39 it 39 Outgrclm39 if 1 V b l Corners Diffused B Inner low BevelandEmbnss Noise 0 H 39 Satin 8 Basic Feather DJecmnll Feather Gradient Feather STROKE Norm 10cm no ctfcczsl EILL Normal 10033 no attests Daria Normal 300 Basic Feather 7 7m Homml mom tno Mmst A 7 l f t39 Cancel 1 3 OBJ ECTEFFECTSDROP SHADOW Just as with text you may also place a shadow on two sides of your photo to give it a three dimensional look Effects Settings for Object R Drop Shadow T rslending i i 7 ranspmency 39 3 WWW Mode Multiply E El Opacity 75 Z InnerShadow Outelclow Position L quot quotE39Cl quot Distance 0p9899 Xoffset 0p7 39 Bevel and Emboss r 53 Angle 135 Y Offset Op7 Baszc Feather Use Global Light Drrec39Jonal Feather GtadlentFeather options 0mm Mama mm mp Shmw W Size Ops E ObJect Knocks Out Shadow STROKE Normal 10093 no e ecls vi nLLZNmmaI mm quota Mm Spread 0 Shadow Honors Other Effects TEXT Normal 10034 nue eus Noise 0 When the effect is placed on a photo that is within an object the effect takes place on the object such as the rectangle above left When the effect is placed on a knockout or cutout photo the ef fect is on the image rather than the object that the image is within above right OBJ ECTEFFECTST RANSPARENCY You can lighten the reproduction of your photo by changing its transparency Click on the pho to and open up the transparency window Change the opacity amount from 100 to a smaller number This technique is quite effective when you want to use a photo as background for text or other material and you want to make sure the photo doesn t hurt the legibility of the text Settings for Object E cum nsmsi 1am mellou max Mimi 4 inoclkm rm Mimi mob ins ettsnxi Easl Elendlng Mada Dan y lsolaie Blending Effects Transparenlv Normal 9 i h Z Knockout Group Preview Timer 6K l I To up TEXT WRAP date 3 Here is the fake text for this exr link click mple Here is the fake text for this i kd 24 K exampl 39s the fake text for g 5m 39 quot 9 n this this example Here is the fake text button for this example Here is the fake E soccerkideg 24 a aasaiislandMjpg m l rlOTojpg E0 giabzipg lng any gram project 7 b3 V 9 3 99 A always grabslpg check F T yT your e 63 Links gag3 r4 0g M links WINDOWLINKS InDesign doesn t actually place the photograph into your document but it places a computer link to the Pho toshop file I Nothing next to the name of the photo in the links window means the photo is fine I A Stop Sign7 means the computer file is missing or can t be located by InDes39gn I A Yield Signl means the file has been altered since the time you placed it into InDesign text for this example Here is the fake text for this ex ample Here is the fake text for this text for this exr ple Heie is the fak text for this example Here is the fake text for this example Heie is the fake text forthisexam le Here is the fake text for this ex ample Here is the fake text for this exampl 39s the fake text for this example ere is the fake text for this example Heie is the fake text for this example ere is the fake text for this ex ample Here is the fake text for this example fgfg dgfg fgdfgfdgfgfdg to our Dplions39 TVDe Same as Clluaing Q WINDOWTEXT WRAP Often you will want to place a photo within a block of text and make the text wrap around the picture This is done by using the Text Wrap function under the Window menu Click on the photo not the text and select the middle of the five buttons at the top and specify the amount of wrap in the boxes below Typographical CONTRAST While the main job of typography is to communicate information skilled designers can also use type as an illustrative device to attract readers and set the mood or tone for their work This can be achieved through a method called typographical contrast the ability to create attractive compelling display type by varying the size style case color fonts or special effects of the words that make up the main title Why is typographical contrast so important Most designers are limited in which fonts they may choose from Most newspapers magazines publications companies and web sites have a limited set of fonts that they use These same people want to see creative typography as long as you use the accepted fonts Therefore it becomes more important what you can do with type not so much what font you select that separates great design from soso design CREATING CONTRAST BY VARYING THE TYPE SIZE The most powerful way to create contrast is to vary the size of the words By doing so we can make certain words or phrases stand out thus bringing the emphasis to them gt Make sure that the larger words are the ones you want the reader to focus on the most gt The larger type should be at least twice as big as the next largest type to achieve dramatic contrast gt You can create contrast by using two different point sizes large and small or three different point sizes large medium and small However you should avoid having text in more than 3 different sizes as the phrase can become confusing to look at BDBN39I39II BIIBNm n N GREATEST 42 point type and 96 point BORN 42 point to 24 point type RUN is nearly three times RUN 96 point RUN is at least N larger than the other words two times larger than BORN gt With longer phrases such as 6 words or more give strong consideration to using three sizes of text small medium and large THE and OF ALLTIME 24 point GREATEST SONGS 42 point 500 96 point When it comes to creating contrast with type size it is usually best to place entire words in big ger type Avoiding making individual letters like the first letter in a word or the first and last letter bigger unless those letters specifically have a meaning or relevance on their own AVOID In this example the size contrast involves mak ing just the R bigger than all the other letters in the phrase What significance does this have As far as I can tell none You would be better served by picking an entire word like Born or Run and making it bigger NICELY DONE This example for Central Michigan Community Hospital is an exception to the rule above The designer used Size contrast in addition to Case to emphasize the last two letters in the word Better Those two letters ER are crucial to the understanding of this advertisement as it is promoting the emergency room treatment that is available at the hospital AVOID Again the big letters in this example are not being used to communicate information but simply as a design mechanism The capital letters B and N don39t seem to stand for anything or impart any message W Now experience the highest standard in emergency care Central Michigan Community HospitaltCMCH has partnered with the experts The Emergency Medicine Specialists at CMCH are always ready to treat anyone anytime with any medical emergency Experience enhanced emergency services with the same familiar physician faces plus four new ER physicians that now work exclusively at CMCH quotThis tOpnotch physician team is committed to providing the highest level of emergency care for you or your loved ones quotclose to home Trust the emergency experts 39 39 s CMCH Emergency 39 D partment Physicians 39 piCtured left to right top row Donna Brown DO 39 John Carey DO Brian Doughty DO battom row Susan Fedewa DO Jennifer Joseph DO and Medical Director g Bob Orr DO CREATING CONTRAST BV VARVING TYPE STYLE Another method is to place certain words in italic or bold face or bold italic etc and others in regular text gt Often the best words to place in imlim are short prepositional phrases that link two more important words such as in the example right quotThequot and quotof thequot are important in making the display text read properly but 5 m a 5 m a a a a lt a a Visif Ireland s E 319 39 Most Breafhla king LOCMIOIIS Come visit the Emerald IS39le CREATING CONTRAST BV VARYING THE CASE Another tech nique is to use a mixture of words some of them placed in ALL CAPS while others placed in either all lowercase or a mixture of upper and lowercase letters gt Case contrast is only effective when you place ENTIRE words in ALL CAPS Using a capiml letter at the beginning or end of a war does not create real contrast gt Make sure the word you decide to place in ALL CAPS is one that you want to draw more attention to since words in all capiml letters B fll l0 lowercase CREATING CONTRAST BY VARYING THE COLOR We can also draw attention to an important word or phrase by placing it in a different color or by changing the shade of some words to gray and leaving others in black if color is not available BGRNIo gt After size color is the most pow erful method in creating contrast gt When using color consider the notion that fewer colors is often most effective For shorter phrases two colors is often enough while for longer phrases three can work best gt Black is a terri c color for text and offers great contrast to other colors gt Try to match the color of your typography with colors in the illus tration or photos in your design TIIE THE GREATEST SGNGS GE AllTIME GREATEST SGNGS 0E AllTIME 3 colors works well but 5 different colors is a bit overboard Creating contrast by varying type faces It s also possible to cre ate even more dramatic contrast by mixing different fonts Some tips gt Mixing type can be a tricky propo sition Certain faces are simply not compatible It s also difficult to mix faces if they resemble each other too closely gt The best mixtures occur when using faces that come from different group ings or families of type Combining a serif face with a square serif or a sans serif face makes for dramatic contrast gt When mixing faces it is important for designers not to go overboard In most cases two different typefaces are more than enough especially if you are also using other methods for con trast BGRNm This design features 2 differ ent fonts Impact and Franklin Gothic But because they come from the same family of fonts sans serif they do not work well together creating contrast THE GREATEST SONGS OF ALLTIME This design features 2 different fonts one com ing from the serif family and the other from the sans serif group pro viding good contrast Notice how the designer has also used size and color contrast for even greater variety CREATING CONTRAST BY USING SPECIAL EFFECTS The program InDesign allows a designer to manipulate text in a variety of ways such as I Shadows Drop or Inner I Glows Outer or Inner I Bevel and Emboss I Feathering Basic directional and gradient I Transparency Be very careful when using special effects on text Don t go overboard One special effect is often enough for any piece of display type You should never use more than two Also watch out as some of the special effects can make your text hard to read which is something designers want to steer clear from The best and most common special effect used on display type is the drop shadow When it comes to drop shadows I prefer thinner solid shadows as opposed to thicker blurry ones see example below 303N111 303N111 LEFT A thin 2 point offset solid black shadow on the word RUN RIGHT A larger 7 point offset shadow with an option size of 0p5 which makes the shadow appear blurry OTHER WAYS TO MANIPULATE TYPE Scaling tracking and kerning are other devices that a designer can use to alter the appearance of type However since you should always try to use these in small quantities they are not enough to create true contrast I do NOT consider these concepts to be part of Typographical contrast They can however be quite effective in making words fit into spaces or line up with each other properly When using these in display type please adhere to the following limits I Horizontal scaling In general do not squeeze type more than 85 or stretch it more than 120 I Vertical scaling Avoid altogether I Tracking All type faces differ but in general do not squeeze type more than 20 negative 20 or stretch it more than 10 Excessively spaced out type is usually not pleasing on the eyes I Kerning Should be used when two letters appear to have too much or too little space between them Use whatever value it takes to correct the spacing issue BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER Creating interesting looking type often requires more than one form of typographical contrast in addition to other typographical manipulations Check out the headline below How to in without really trying Layers of typographical contrast I SIZE Because there are eight total words I choose to use 3 different sizes of type BUSINESS 130 point SUCCEED 65 points OTHER WORDS 42 point Business is 2 times bigger than Succeed I CASE I made what I thought were the most important words suc ceed and business in all caps while leaving the rest upper and lower case I COLOR Notice that I didn39t go overboard with colors preferring to stick to two black for the majority of type and Green for contrast on the key words I FONTS Again I kept it simple sticking to just two fonts and selecting from the serif and the sans serif typefaces I SPECIAL EFFECTS Drop Shadow A simple thin and solid black shad ow on big words Other typographical attributes I Tracking and scaling small amounts to make text line up better I Art element 33 replacing S in Succeed 8 Golden Rules for creating attractive DISPLAY TYPE Typographical contrast is a great way to make your type look more interesting see the example above But the difference between excellent display type and average type requires that you understand these simple guidelines Great display text requires solid 1 organization and alignment of the words that make up the title These words need not always be lined up on their left edges nor do all the words in the phrase need to be perfectly aligned to each other but you should spend some effort at giving the text a sense of structure gt BAD ALIGNMENT The LUCK m MSH TheLUCK of the IRISH gt GOOD ALIGNMENT The LUCKME IRISH The LUCKW IRIS CK OfthelRIS 3 e much vertically they lose the appearance of being part of the same The tighter the leading the better When words are spaced out too 2 headline or phrase gt Too much leading I I t 6 between lines of type of the SH rm I gt Closer leading makes the phrase read easier and look more professional and polished of the storm Tight leading can also lead to overlapping type When doing so make sure there39s plenty of contrast fonts color size in the type that is overlapped Keep the overlap simple and be careful Which type you place on top of the other In the example below from the Detroit Free Press notice how the words quotyouquot overlap on top of the words quotSTAYquot and quotG0quot The esigner has correctly chosen two different fonts one a serif and one a square serif and also made one black and the other white for even greater contrast notice that if the overlap was reversed quotSTAYquot and quotG0quot on top of quotyouquot the effect would not work as the word quotyouquot would look like quotvou Illustrations drawings and photos can sometimes be used as type When doing so make sure the art object looks somewhat like the letter it is replacing both in shape and size EQNTENIIEII IHE Hm rm llunau MAMA In addition to using an art element as an entire letter sometimes it is possible to incorporate the drawing into the typography as in the example above Be aware of positioning words Norma yw en project I write out the words in the gt A mixture of the two WhatI am must display text more esiVe Tm BREAKTHROUGH NlOMEN39IS FROM the attractive display text that sets it apart and makes 1 truly Special C A weekend i ana quotda this in mind as you decide how to organize the words that make up your main title Organizing phrases in other ways can be dangerous to the top rule of typography it MUST be easy to read of the storm These two examples show ways in which display type should NOT be organized because they may cause confusion to the reader egg to rm 7Ayoid hyphenation in Display type While hyphenating a word is 6 Remember we read from left to right and from top to bottom Keep fine with text small type it looks awkward with big type and hurts readibility This goes not only for the main headline in your design but for all display type including sub headlines 7 The Moun Q e MW tain Town is one of Amer ica39s nest small towns and should not be miss ed on your tour of the USA Text looks best and reads easiest when words are written from left to right Avoid placing text on strange angles If you feel you must place text on an angle make it 90 degrees gt GOOD gt BAD The The I Type MUST be easy to read The main goal of all visual communication is to impart information If the type you use is too difficult to read people will become frustrated and give up A design that looks great but can t be read would be considered by most designers to be a failure Check out the example of typography used for the main cover story in the publication Real Detroit Weekly Yes it39s interesting visually to look at But if you were going to glance at it for a few seconds the time most people spend looking at something would you be able to read the words with ease Making type easy to read doesn39t just pertain to your font selection Things that a designer can do to type in Adobe InDesign such as track ing kerning scaling can dramatically effect the readibility of text if done inappropriately In the world of visual communication selecting the appropriate typography for your project is often the most important decision a designer has to make When choosing among the thousands of fonts at your disposal there are several things a designer needs to keep in mind I Type can emphasize key informa tion Varying the size of type in your work is one way of guiding the reader to what you consider the most important information The examples below show the front pages of the Detroit Free Press from September 11 2001 left and n r39x 7 A MITCH M39 Elmo QB We d v v i Ume 72 a gag391 110 n c i f ob f f September 12 2001 right Notice how the designer treated the main Display typography differently from one day to the next 1 The point size of the main headline was dramatically increased from the 12th to the 11th 2 The main headline takes up the entire width of the page on the 12th but only part of the page on the 11th 3 The main headline is 2 lines tall on the 12th but only 1 line on the 11th 4 The main headline on the 12th is in ALL CAPS All of these choices were made by the designer as a way to show that the information on the 12th the Attacks of 911 were more impor tant than the big story on the 11th the benching of a Detroit Lions quarterback u 1 OEIIII umquot am In Lyn 9 quoton mu low Alb lType can your quot r r m 1 h y m 39 n magazme below b 1 15111 mum we H mm eve would be welhecewed by those that are comummg then work I Type can create bra nd recognition Choosing a small number of type faces and using them er and over again Creates a cohesive identity whether it s throughout a publication or over the com of a broader advertising campaign People become familiar with the type you choose and begin to associate it with your product or publication name er 1his brochure for the Niagara Falls travel association is a grml example of how using a common font throughout can visually connect the pages in a publication l Type can establish a mood Is the tone you are trying to communicate serious and somber or funny and lighthearted The type you select should convey to the reader the feelings and emotions over 7 I e subject matter at Sometimes estab lishing the mood requires picking the ate a sense of tension Examing typograp rilucnou There are two ways to examine typefaces based on their form their appearance or their func tion their purpose FUNCTION When analyzing the purposes that type serves we can separate type into two major categories display type and text type DISPLAY TYPE Headlines subheadlines titles and other large pieces of text in a lay out The goal of display type is to grab the attention of the reader This can be accom plished by the use of a particular font by placing the type in a very large point size or a combination of the two gt In general terms display type is any text 14 points in size or greater TEXT TYPE The type for articles and sto ries captions under photographs and small text that accompanies maps and other graphical illustrations The goal of text type is to be as easy to read as possible A great font for text type is one that is almost quotin visiblequot The reader should be able to easily skim the type without any distractions or interruptions gt In general terms text type Usually ranges in size from 8 points to 12 points Some fonts that make wonderful display pe do not work so well as text type Likewise there are some fonts that are perfect for stories but fail to do a good job of grabbing the attention of the reader As we discuss the form or appearance of type later on we will take a closer look at wheth er they work as display type text type both or neither M A America s BECOMES TIIE 44TH PRESIDENT OF TIIE UNITED STATES Sricmwosmz 7 39 mamaquot Wm ur If mm 3117 WI n xzzvsnx uml nu v 52 qu as m Hznudnmmk N mum mm mm in Nmz39nn uk rd t mlrmqS 5541 my This design from the Detroit Free Press is made up of both display type headlines sub headlines at the top of the page and text type article captions at the bot tom The display type is meant to grab your attention the text type is meant to be easy to read FORM Type can also be categorized by its appearance While textbooks differ on how many different species or groups of text there are I prefer to categorize typefaces into one of six major groupings gt latkletter gt Seri Roman gt Sans Serif gt Square Serif gt Myellygecmrw On the following pages we will take a closeup look at some examples of these fonts in action and discuss their rela tive strengths and weaknesses especially as it relates to whether they are appropriate choices for either Display or Text type in a design latkletter r 15th ll ht onhllh lh l o la ohthec calligraphy of the clay They are A r o l t not be the most omate maklhg phrases placed lh all capital Very dif cult to read AR UL35QEQE JB JBQJRE 35155 c m m 1 UL JRQEQE twat no long ala N l alroftradm n may Mn N n um lltlleglblllty usesfor m n them m u an n y ylolln I a a t I Diploma and Various other legal documents unpmy lylle In very Very limited cases For example the poster for this year39s Acad panies like Reebok right man origins and in the 1930s and 40s Nazism However some com re now e bracing these fonts gt Are Black Another place you can see a Elackletter font ogo it h undergone some changes over the years but H I retains much of lts onglnal look Notlce 1 how the deslgner of the 2005 Allstar Game Uta logo took advantage of thls typeface but 39 anoq only placed the rst letter of each Wordm lt Zn 391 l WV 3 to malntaln better leglblllty erifroman Serif typefaces are among the most commonly used today particularly for smaller type in publications because they are extremely easy to read Printers in Venice and Paris who were not fans of the earliest Blackletter typefaces de veloped in northern Europe designed a series of faces based on the lettering techniques used by the Romans which included strokes of varying widths and narrow strokes at the end of long broad strokes called serifs Strokes of lt serifs varying widths Since these typefaces have been around for so long they have evolved over time Serifs can be subdivided into three categories Old Style Transitional and Modern The main differences between the three are the strokes of the letters the angle of the serifs and the rounding and sloping of the letters LETI39ER STROKES Modern roman type SERIFS Modern roman type faces have straight thin and faces have the greatest contrast between unbracketed serifs that are symmetrical whereas old style faces the thick and the thin strokes Old style tend to have slanted curved and asymmetrical serifs Again the faces have very little contrast The transi transitional faces are between the old and the new tional faces lie somewhere in the middle 6 6 bn bn bn Transitional Modern Garamond Baskerville Bodoni Old Style Transitional Modern Garamond Baskerville Bodoni SLOPINGSLANTING 0F LE1TERS Modern faces appear symmetrical giving them perfect vertical stress In old style faces the place where the thick and thin strokes meet known as the counter appears to be slanted giving them oblique stress Top Top Top Old Style Transitional Modern Garamond Baskerville Bodoni gt Are Serif typefaces appropriate for Display type Yes gt Are Serif typefaces appropriate for Text type Yes they are excellent Serifs improve readability by leading the eye along the line of type The varying thickness of letter strokes makes large blocks of text easier to process Sans serif Sans 7 the French word for without 7 serifs are typefaces that lack the serifs associated with RomanSerif type These fonts are Very popular these days especially with web page designersr The lack of serifs provides a Very crisp clean look that reproduces well on computer screens These fonts were rst deVeloped in the late 18th centur because of the need for a simple utilitarian font that could be used in the design of large newspaper ads and later posters and billboardsr Most sans serif faces haVe monotonal letter strokesr This means that unlike serifs these faces usually have one consistent letter stroke rather than a combination of thin and thick strokesr Notice in this sans serif face Franklin Gothic left the thickness of the letter is the same throughout the stroke while the serif face Bodoni right is made up of thick and thin strokes In publication design sans serif faces are often used for large headlines especially when big news breaks like WAR or for the coVer of magazines see examples belaw Because they are usually clean and simple typefaces sans serifs are often used in signage especially road signs and billboards and posters gt Are Sans Serif typefaces appropriate for Display type Yes especially for short words that you want to shout out loud gt Are Sans Serif typefaces appropriate for Text type Yes but not in huge doses unless you are designng text on a web site For publication design they work best in small chunks Too much sans serif text can become tedious on the eye because of the lack of serifs and the monotonal letter strokes which make serif type so easy to read m ing 3mm WAR nns r s39muuz Us lint missilva 211 ulln mqi h mlcm u uuLl nu 39 i nhmrl mlh ohm v INSIDE THE BUSH EXIT STRATEGY DUES KERRV HAVE A BETTER IDEA Square serlfs Thug typE facEs am a mixtum bEIWEEn 32m and sans 52m ThEy gt Are Square Serlf typo point sizes and t your design gt Are Square Serlf ly er Wirl ma Tried f 39Save the World Rollmg Stuns magazm m adE gmat usE of a squam 52m typE cE for quot5 com dEslgn for many yEaIs lop Th2 EntEnamr 7 mm Mumrnmtt CHAMPWB on thE band I Maaluca And many collEgEs Wquot quot1 mdudxrg UVM and CMU Employ squam 52m typE for thEu logos and m hm mEIchandLsE gym These typefaces are designed to resemble handwriting They are often used to convey a sense of formality and elegance as in wedding engagement or birth announcements However they are very dif cult to read in large chunks and should be used sparingly Reserve their use for very special occassions and try to display them in larger type sizes where they are easier to read frVb IEacEik R 203 5 399 A 39 a v39quot is 1quot it J I it It is important to note that there is a difference between scripts and italic type Scripts are designed to be slanted That s the only way they come Italic type is the slanting of an otherwise Roman face gt Are Script typefaces appropriate for Display type In limited cases These fonts can be hard to read unless they are large and even then some of the characters are tough to make out gt Are Script typefaces appropriate for Text type No too dif cult to read see example below 12 point type Repor L Carri on W Wm WW 0W 5 my my W mm 36 in 1 r1 Cg Tht ping federal hw has brought mbili 39 m Am 39 it 39mproving education How mango from a c loan A m cum m m 4mm 5mm 7 mama COMPANY Gourmet maga zine uses a script font for its nameplate as a way to convey the notion of elegance Many corporations especially those named after peo ple like the Ford Motor Com pany and Miller Beer use script fonts in their logos to repre sent handwrit ten signatures Script fonts also include any font that resembles writing not just those that look like cursive writ ing Notice how Time magazine utilizes a Script font for a cover story on educa tion MVe JpeCm Q trame The last category of fonts refers to any font that does not t into the previous ve groupings serif sans serif square serif script or blackletter I refer to these fonts as Novely or Decorative A good friend of mine who39s a designer at The New York Times has another name for them Gimmicky fonts To a professional designer these typefaces should be avoided at most if not all costs At the majority of publications these fonts would be banned because they do not t into the predetermined acceptable typefaces There are better ways to convey a sense of fun than simply selecting a font called quotPartyquot as shown in the example above gt Are Novelty typefaces appropriate for Display type Very rarely And you better have an excellent explanation for why you decided to use a Novelty font And the answer shouldn t be simply quotBecause I thought it looked coolquot gt Are Novelty typefaces appropriate for Text type Never Here are some other examples of what I would consider to be Novelty fonts cracaed E ZZ H E KC U LAN U M P3133 rus Tram GRAPHICS of basic typography Terms and conceals even designer should Imow concerning Illlll ALIGNMENT There are four main ways in which blocks of type can A be aligned This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called justifed This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called justifed This paragraph has been placed in the align ment called justifed This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called justifed justi ed The most common way to align text type stories and other smaller text The left and right margins line up perfectly making the text easy to read Often used in conjunction with Hyphenation to allow longer words to be split into two reducing the space between words that is required with Justify ing text This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Align Left This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Align Left This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Align Left This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Align Left Align Left also called ragged right Text aligns on the left margin but not on the right Good readibility Often used for captions and other text type when you want contrast from justi ed type This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Centered This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Centered This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Centered This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Centered Centered Very dif cult to read in large doses Avoid placing text that is more than 1 paragraph centered Limit its use to display text such as headlines and subtitles This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Align Right This para graph has been placed in the alignment called Align Right This paragraph has been placed in the alignment called Align Right This paragraph has been placed in the align ment called Align Right Align Right also called ragged left Text aligns on the right margin but not on the left As with centered type it39s very hard to read large blocks of text set in this for mat Use very sparingly ASCENDER The portion of a letter that extends above the meanline A DESCENDER The portion of the letter that extends below the baseline Ascenders Meanline Baseline Ascent Line Descent Line Descenders gt All of the capital letters in the English alphabet have ascenders The only capital letter that has a descender is Q though in some fonts the capital descends below the baseline abCidefglrijiklmrropiqrstu yzXYiiiiiiiiiiiii gt The lowercase letters that have ascenders are b d f h k l t in many fonts like the one above the dots for the letters i and j are ascenders The lowercase letters with descenders are g j p q y Ascenders are descenders play an important role in making text especially long blocks of smaller type easier to read Lowercase letters have much more Visual variety than words placed in ALL CAPS and are therefore easier to scan and can be read much more quickly NEW ORLEANS 7 With amaj or levee break nally plugged engineers struggled to pump out the ooded city Tuesday as authorities braced for the horrors the receding water is certain to reveal It s going to be awful and it s going to wake the na7 tion up again the mayor warned The Army Corps of Engineers began pumping the water out after using rocks and sandbags to close a levee break that swamped 80 percent of the bowlishaped belowiseailevel city in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina Across the city the water was dropping noticeably and the Corps said Tuesday the area under water had fallen to about 60 percent I m starting to see water levelsmuchlower than I ve seen Mayor Ray Nagin said after surveying his city from the air Even in areas where the water was as high as the rooftops I started to see parts of the buildings He added I m starting to see rays of light gt Easy to read Very few Capital letters with most letters set in lowercase NEW ORLEANS 7 WITH A MAJOR LEVEE BREAK FINAL LY PLUGGED ENGINEERS STRUGGLED TO PUMP OUT THE FLOODED CITY TUESDAY AS AUTHORITIES BRACED FORTHE HORRORS THE RECEDING WAT ER IS CERTAIN TO REVEAL IT S GOING TO BE AWFUL AND IT S GOING TO WAKE THE NATION UPAGAIN THE MAYOR WARNED THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BEGAN PUMPING THE WATER OUT AFTER USING ROCKS AND SANDBAGS TO CLOSEA LEVEE BREAK THAT SWAMPED 80 PERCENT OF THE BOWLrSHAPED BELOWrSEArLEVEL CITY IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA ACROSS THE CITY THE WATER WAS DROPPING NOTICEABLY AND THE CORPS SAID TUESDAY THE AREA UNDER WATER HAD FALLEN TO ABOUT 60 PERCENT I M STARTING TO SEE WATER LEVELS MUCH LOW ER THAN I VE SEEN MAYOR RAY NAGIN SAID AFTER SURVEYING HIS CITY FROM THE AIR EVEN IN AREAS WHERE THE WATER WAS AS HIGH AS THE ROOFTOPS I STARTED TO SEE PARTS OF THE BUILDINGS HE ADDED I M STARTING TO SEE RAYS OF LIGHT gt Much harder to read In addition note how much more space the same amount of text takes up BASELINE The imaginary line that all capital and lowercase letters appear to sit on The area below the baseline is where the descender appears See illustration on Page 2 BOLDFACE A heavier darker weight of a typeface Placing text in boldface is often used by a designer as a way to highlight a speci c word or phrase The word highlight in the previous sentence has been placed in boldface BOXING SCREENING TYPE Another way to highlight text is to place it in a box or with a color or gray screen behind it When doing so a designer should always inset the text at least 1 pica from the edge of the box or the screen The quick brown fox jumps 0V The quickbrownfox jumps over the the lazy dog The quick brown fox 1 pica of lazy dog The quick browu fox jumps jumps over the lazy dog The quick x space over the lazy dog The quick brown brown fox jumps over the lazy dog between fOXjumpS OVef thelazy dog The quiCk The quick brown fox jumps over the text and brown fox jumps over the lazy dog lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps edge of The quick brown fox jumps over the over the lazy dog The quick brown box or azy dog The quick brown fQX jumps foxjumps over the lazy dog screen we elazy dog COLUMNS The act of dividing a block of text into a number of equal units called columns or legs Each column is the same width Designers choose to do this because small type that is set very wide is often dif cult to read In general it is best to avoid very narrow columns of type or very wide columns The quick brown brown fox jumps fox jumps over the over the lazy dog lazy dog The quick The quick brown fox fox jumps over the over the lazy dog lazy dog The quick The quick brown brown fox jumps jumps over the lazy lazy dog The quick The quick brown brown fox jumps fox jumps over the over the lazy dog dog gt Text hlock divided into 6 columns each 7 picas wide T00 NARROW for 10 point text The quick brown fox jumps over his way way over the lazy dog The quick brown fox brown fox jumps his way over the lazy dog the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox The quick brown foxjumps over the lazy dog the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps his jumps his way over the lazy dog The quick The quick brown foxjumps gt Text hlock divided into 3 columns each 14 picas wide GOOD for 10 point text The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog gt Text hlock divided into 1 column each 45 picas wide T00 WIDE for 10 point text So what is the optimal width for a column of text If your text is Columns should be between That depends a great deal on the size of the text that you are using This chart provides a guideline 8 points tall 8 picas wide and 16 picas wide 9 point tall 9 picas wide and 18 picas wide 10 point tall 10 picas wide and 20 picas wide 11 point tall 11 picas wide and 22 picas wide 12 point tall 12 picas wide and 24 picas wide DECK HEADLINE A smaller headline that is placed below or sometimes next to a larger main head line The deck headline is often set in a different typeface or style from the main headline so that the two contrast in appearance Also sometimes referred to as a subtitle DESCENDER See Ascender page 2 DINGBATS A typeface that creates objects rather than letters and numbers Examples from the font Zapf Dingbats appear below C909lVXXXX QTCIICIVIODDi a 9HQgt6 DDDDD 39HDNEgtH DROP AP A design technique in which the rst letter of a paragraph is placed in a larger point size This is often done to indicate the beginning of a block of text Drop caps can also be placed at various intervals in a long block of text to add a visual break When using a drop cap I f t t 39 d t th piggigp no In en 6 he quick brown foxjumps over the lazy dog The quick brown he quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the A1501 hOttee how You foxjumps over the lazy dog The lazy dog The quick brown eah place the drop cap quick brown fox jumps over the foxjumps over the lazy dog The quick th a ditteteht typeface lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps brown fox jumps over the lazy dog from the teSt Of the teXt over the lazy dog DROP SHADOW A shadow that can be placed behind typography to give it a threedimensional look Works best with larger display type The color of the shadow should contrast with the color of the original type notice the gray type below with the black shadow Thin shadows tend to look the best When the shadow becomes too thick as in the second example below the letters will crash into each other As with all special effects you should use drop shadows sparingly or else they will lose their ef fectiveness ll MUD Slljlll b l ll 1J1 UlJ SliilllU i J FONT The terms FONT and TYPEFACE are used interchangeably to describe all of the characters up percase letters lowercase letters numerals and glyphs that share a common set of design rules the same look style and feel IE characters IIEIIJW make III II quotIIquot Times Human ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 quotltgt Aamp GLYPHS Characters in a font that are not letters or numerals such as punctutation marks These include ltgtquotamp7 CUTTER The white space between columns of type Typically the gutter is set at 1 pica ST LOUIS 7 Before the biggest game of his career Sean May followed the same ritual that served him so well all season hsdh shd shhsd hsd hsd hsd He had a conversation with his fa ther who didmost of the talking but Sean May got the message He made all but one of his 11 shots and scored 26 points in a dominating performance Monday night controlling the paint and leading North Carolina past Illinois 757 70 for the NCAA championship u ll never forget this moment if yo get it done The moment they shared was brief HEADLINE Large type that appears over or sometimes next to a story that summarizes the contents of the article or attempts to persuade a reader to look at the smaller text below HORIZONTAL SCALING The ability in mosern design programs to stretch or condense a typeface to change its appearance Scaling is represented as a percentage with 100 being no scaling Any num ber greater than 100 means you are stretching the type A scaling less than 100 means you are condensing type 24 point lmpact with horizontal scaling set at 100 quoto a I i n g 24 point Impacthorizontal scaling of 150 24 point Impacthorizontal scaling of 80 Designers need to be careful when using horizontal scaling as you can dramatically affect the look of a typeface Small amounts of scaling can be quite effective especially when it comes to text type The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog These two paragraphs are the same fo t Times the same width 1 3 picas and the same point size 10 The only difference is the horizon tal scaling The para graph on the left has no scaling 100 while the one on the right is set at 94 That slight change makes the right side two lines shorter Imag ine the difference that could make in a 400page book The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps overthe lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog HYPHENATION Dividing a word so that part of it ts on one line and the rest ts on the line directly below See the second line for the enhy horizontal scaling above When placing text in Justi ed align ment it is usually best to click on hyphenation to avoid too much space being inserted between words which can make text hard to read INDENT The rst line of a paragraph is usually indented so that it39s obvious to a reader where one paragraph ends and the next begins The standard indent is 1 pica The quick brown foxjumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog A 1 pica indent ITALIC Type that is slanted to the right Just like boldface italics are used to highlight a certain word or a phrase Most typefaces but not all have an italic weight Note that italic type is different than script type Script fonts only come in slanted forms ltalic type is the slanting of what is normally a straight upanddown typeface IUSTIFICATION The process that page design programs use to mechanically space out words so that the left and right margins align perfectly when type is placed in the Justi ed format The paragraphs used on this page for the indent and leading entries have been justi ed KERNING The addition or subtraction of space between two individual letters Because of the way that certain characters are drawn a designer may choose especially with very large display type to more precisely adjust the spacing int flint In the example on the left the f and the l are so close together that they almost look like one bi zarre character In the example on the right the designer has added kerning to separate those two letters to make the word easier to read LEADING The vertical space between individual lines of type Leading is measured in points If the leading is less than the point size of the type the lines may overlap each other The greater the lead ing the more space between the lines and the more the type appears to breathe often making the in formation easier to read However additional leading especially with smaller text comes at a price as it means the text will take up more space in your design thus reducing the space you have for other elements like photos illustrations or Display text The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy doghThe qu1ck brown fox e lazy dotgti The qu1ck 10 point text 8 point leading The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog 10 point text 1 1 point leading The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog 10 point text 16 point leading Red Wings down Red Wings down Avalanche 63 AValanChe 63 40 point display type with automatic 40 point display type with leading leading of 48 points TOO MUCH of 41 points MUCH NICER FIT AUTOMATIC LEADING is a function in which the design program sets the leading automatically 20 percent larger than the point size of the type you select For example if you have 10 point type the automatic leading would be 12 points 20 of 10 2 Therefore 10 2 12 While this is ne for small text it can become way more leading than you need for larger headlines and display text See example above LEGIBILITY The ease with which a certain typeface can be read Some typefaces may be legible in large point sizes but lose their legibilty as they get smaller 01313133 type is legible at this type is mud barber hath to rent LOWERCASE The majority of type that you see is set in lowercase letters abcdefghijklmnopqrstu vwxyz Studies have found that readers can process information more quickly when words are made up of very few uppercase letters the rst word in a sentence names of people and places combined with mainly lowercase letters TYPE THAT IS PLACED ALL IN UPPERCASE IS MORE DIFFICULT TO READ ESPECIALLY IN LARGE DOSES This is because this type lacks descenders of any kind and all of its characters have ascenders making each character look very similiar to the next causing your eye to have a more dif cult time making out letters quickly ORPHAN When one single word or part of a word extends onto its own line of type and creates a larger than usual amount of white space Also sometimes called a widow Avoid when possible by removing an unimportant word from the paragraph Eliminating widows saves space in your design The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog PICA A unit of measurement in graphic design gt There are 6 picas in 1 inch Picas are most often used to describe the width of type As an example the type that you are currently reading is 39 picas wide POINT A unit of measurement in graphic design gt There are 12 points in 1 pica gt There are 72 points in 1 inch Points are used to describe the height of type Type is measured from the ascent line to the descent line whether the words you are measuring have these traits or not Ascent line The word Type is the same size as the word case which appears Descent llne smaller because it lacks any ascenders or descenders REVERSE TYPE Placing white type on a black or sometimes dark color background Best done spar ingly and with larger type llEllEllSE TYPOGRAPHY Sans serif and square serif typefaces above and below right tend to look best when placed in reverse type Serif typefaces especially when used small can be very dif cult to read in reverse and should be avoided Also note how dif cult it is to read a Script typeface when placed in reverse type see example below left The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog TEXT TYPE The type that makes up the bulk of material in a publication Stories articles and cap tions are all considered text type Text type usually ranges in size from 8 points to 12 points Type that39s 14 points or larger is generally considered to be display type The key to text type is its legibility A good font for text type should be unobtrusive allowing the in dividual letters to ow easily from one word to the next You should not have to strain your eyes at all to read text type Because of its relativelly small size not all fonts are appropiate for use as text type gt Here is a line of 11 point SERIF text type VERY GOOD Serif typefaces make great text type gt Here is a line of 11 point SANS SERFIF text type GOOD Sans Serif typefaces make nice text type gt Here is a line of 11 point SQUARE SERIF text type OK Square Serif typefaces work in some cases but because they are wide fonts they tend to occupy a lot of space gt 392w is a line at 11 paint iEJIQQHKJMEGEGBR text type BAD Blackletter typefaces are too ornate for text type gt 9MaamaMtm awwmww BAD Cursive typefaces are too ornate for text type gt Hm 55 9 kw 3f 11 7min mum at We NEVER Novelty typefaces should be avoided at all costs TRACKING The amount of space between characters in a block of text Excessive tracking should be used sparingly Positive tracking spacing letters out should be limited to large display type When us ing negative tracking make sure that you avoid having characters overlapping each other A line of type with 0 tracking A line of type With 70 tracking A line of type with 70 trackng Tracking is different from kerning in one key way Tracking is the amount of space between characters in an entire block of text Kerning is the manipulation of space between two individual characters ln conjuntion with scaling tracking can be used in small amounts to customize a font to better suit your design needs TYPEFACE All of the characters uppercase letters lowercase letters numerals and glyphs that share a common set of design rules the same look style and feel See Font UPPERCASE The capital letters in the alphabet The use of text set in ALL UPPERCASE should be lim ited to larger display type or when you want to highlight key words in smaller text type VERTICAL SCALING Works just like horizontal scaling but allows a designer to manipulate a type face39s heighth while maintaining its width USE VERY SPARINGLY 24 point lmpact with vertical scaling set at 100 24 point lmpact with vertical scaling set at 150 24 point lmpact with vertical scaling set at 50 WEIGHT The boldness or thickness of the characters within a typeface Some fonts only come in one weight while others come in a wide variety Imnact18noint only weight Baskerville l8pt Roman Baskerville I 8 pr Italic Baskerville 18 pt Semibold Baskerville 13pt Semibold italic Baskerville 13pt Bold Baskerville Igpt Bold italic XHEIGHT The main body of type the area between the meanline and the baseline Derives its name from the fact that it39s the size of the lowercase x which in Serif typefaces like the one below has at lines at both the top and the bottom of the character Meanline quot Baseline XHEIGHT Xheight varies from one typeface to the next This gives the appearance of one font looking larger than another Typefaces with larger xheights not only look larger but are often easier to read How ever fonts with bigger Xheights often require more space to display the same amount of type be cause they sometimes feature wider characters than fonts with smaller xheights 18point New York 18 noinl Impact l8 p0int Baskerville X ll X New York s Imp s X height xheight BaskecVIIIe s Xhelght Typefaces with large Xheights have smaller ascenders and descenders Because of this fonts with larger xheights may need a greater amounts of leading especially when used as small text type The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjuinps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjuinps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjuinps over the lazy dog The quick brown foxjuinps over the lazy dog BaskerviIIel 0 point text1 1 point leading Plenty of space between the lines because Basker ville has a small Xheight The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog New York1 0 point text1 3 point leading Extra leading needed because New York has a large X height DESIGNING EASY TO READ TEXT TYPE One of the greatest challenges for a designer is making the smallest test on the page the text for articles and cap tions easy to read Without taking up too much space in your design A long Who easy on the eyes While also occupying as little space as possible article can be a killer for a designer Wants to create a visually interesting layout But there are several things you can do to make your smaller text TYPE SIZE PHOTOS Placing a INDENTS A LEADING Don39t DROP CAP photo in one or more CAPTquotst i Pica indent go too big with the great way of your columns and ShOUid vary in helps the type and avoid AUTO to visually tell wrapping the text either style or reader know ieadmg This type the reader around it helps to font or both from where each is 9 5 points With where your keep the design more the text of the new paragraph leading of 105 points article begins visuali article begins mg I als stone in the 391 h birt she witnessed rst and gr w AfricanrAmerican in the nation s capital On Tuesday the tech writer who has called Silicon Va 0 came ack to celebrate others who rejoiced on the Nation she came without a ticket braving frigid weather milesr ong walks and distant 39 s to watch Barack Obamabecome the president wanted to be physically present at event to show support for Obama for this achievement an achievement for the Wyman 57 med everyone who thronged Washington had a story a reason why they wanted to had to 7 come see for themselves even ifjusto oneo hejumr View 44th I m u u b0 screens arrayed in e Mall Though of cial attendance g res haven t been ased this inaug ation appeared 0 WI massive TVs yman saw the common President Obama takes the oath of of ce with his wife and two children by his side emotions that united a nation Tuesday Cold weather warm feelings ought medical assistanc mos 1 0 service a SCALINGTRACKING Using small amounts ofthis can make your tat has 95 horizontal scaling with 7 5 trackingr should COLUMNS Text is JUSTIFY easier to read when it is TYPE separated into several This helps smaller columns rather readibility than one large one This and makes also helps the article the tat take up less space All occupy columns in same article less roomr be same width 1s Phoenix Detroit Ohio and Los s any wore Obamaremblazoned gear and showed their emotions openly with tearrstained cheeks spontaneous hugs of families and strangers and shouts of President Obama after he put down his right hand at the oath s com etion Con ance Y Willi of Chicago who m 0 ama a member ofTrinity United Church of Christ Obama s former church took a 227hour bus ride to be on the Mall where she had waited since 530 am It s freezing but we are all warm inside she said id the cheer however some feelings d Outgoing President George W Bush go little respect from the throngs When his i ge appeared o the big screen 39n the crowd booed Others started singi na naHey hey odbye eld American ags upside down in pro t of Bush s presidenr cy Still other Obam supporters chided cri SUBHEADS Can hel ORPHANS When one small word sits on its own line break up the monotony of the text a raph you can save a line of type


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