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by: Lisette Echevarria


Marketplace > Western Illinois University > Biology > Bio 350 > ECOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
Lisette Echevarria
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover most of what's going to be in our next exam some answers have been filled out to save time searching, some are not filled in, to encourage searching for answers and real studying.
Christopher Jacques
Study Guide
Ecology, notes, population, abundance, survivorship, competition, life history, Dependent, independent
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"Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Lisette!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol"
Kiana Marks

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisette Echevarria on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 350 at Western Illinois University taught by Christopher Jacques in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biology at Western Illinois University.



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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Lisette!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

-Kiana Marks


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Date Created: 03/20/16
Ecology Exam 2 1 POPULATION DISTRIBUTIONANDABUNDANCE ▯ Vocab ▯Population Abundance Mark-Recapture Studies ▯Spatial Dispersion Density Natal Dispersal ▯Crude Density Ecological Density Passive Dispersal ▯Distribution Random Distribution Emigration ▯Geographic Range Uniform Distribution Immigration ▯Subpopulations Clumped Distribution Migration ▯Metapopulation Area-Based Counting Quadrat ▯ ▯ • Two types of dispersion patterns that exist: Spatial, Temporal • Three spatial patterns of dispersion and how the individuals are arranged in that pattern Random, Uniform, Clumped • EstimatingAbundance: 55, 21, 14, 7, 60 and 25 ants are counted in 10 cm x 10 cm (0.01 m ) quadrants. Estimate the abundance of ants. Answer: 3,033.33/m2 ▯ • Mark-recapture study and how it’s carried out • Know the Mark-Recapture Formula ▯ POPULATION GROWTH ▯ Vocab Geometric Growth Exponential Growth Logistic Growth Carrying Capacity (K) Intrinsic rate of growth (r) ▯ • Two basic types of life tables: cohort and static • Hypothetical survivorship curves (Types I, II, III). Describe what each curve means and examples of organisms that match each kind of survivorship curve • What is r: intrinsic rate of growth • What is λ and its corresponding formula? • With abundant resources, at which rates can populations grow? : exponential and logistic • 3 Main types of population growth models: logistic, exponential, geometric • examples of animals that endure each type of population growth • Logistic Growth Equation • Carrying capacity (K) ▯ Ecology Exam 2 2 ▯ ▯ INTRASPECIFIC POPULATION REGULATION ▯ Vocab Density Dependence Pre-Saturation Dispersal Home Range Density Independence Immigration/Emigration Intraspecific Competition Exploitative Competition (Scramble) Saturation Dispersal Interference Competition (Contact/Direct) Territoriality Density Dependent Growth • Example of density dependent growth: - Tadpole/pea plants; growth rates go down with increased density of individuals confined in the same place. • Density Dependent Factors: Food, Shelter, Competition • Density Independent Factors: Catastrophic Events • 2 Types of Competition: Exploitative (scramble) and Interference (contact/direct) • Affects of Intraspecific Competition: InitialAffects: growth / development LaterAffects: survival / reproduction • Effects of Stress: suppress growth, delay reproduction, suppress immune system • Causes of Stress: increase in crowding and social contact • What happens in high dense populations in terms of sexual maturity? ▯ POPULATION ECOLOGYAND DYNAMICS ▯ Vocab Birth Rate Exponential Growth Metapopulation Extinction Death Rate Logistic Growth Population Cycles Immigration Rate Population Fluctuations Environmental Stochasticity Emigration Rate Population Dynamics Time Lag Census • Population size changes as a result of what 4 processes? • What is population fluctuation influenced by? Variety of DD and independent factors Four types of population growth: • - Exponential, Logistic, Population Fluctuations, Population Cycles What factors cause temporal population fluctuations, yet maintains a high degree of regularity? - Internal factors: give examples - External factors: give examples • Factors that drive extinction of a population • Extinction increases greatly in what kinds of populations and why? • Key Issues of Levin’s Research ▯ Ecology Exam 2 3 CONCEPTS OF PREDATION ▯ Vocab Herbivory Cryptic Coloring Stalking Search Image Parasitism Searching Aggressive Mimicry Counter Shading Stalking Echolocation Cooperative Hunting Object Resemblance Carnivory Cannibalism Filter Feeding Flashing Coloration Ambush Parasitoidism Numerical Response Aposematic Coloration ▯ ▯ • Five types of predation and describe them: Herbivory, parasitism, parasitoidism, carnivory, cannabalism • Narrow Diet vs Broad Diet • Different kinds of predation behavior • Three Functional Responses (Type I, II, III), be familiar with graphs and how to describe them • Give examples of Behavioral, Physiological, and MorphologicalAdaptations of Predators • Predator Hunting Strategies and examples of each • Two Primary Components of Optimal Foraging Theory and describe them: Profitability and Foraging Efficiency (FE) 4 Decisions of an optimal diet • • Anti-Predator Defense Strategies and examples • Batesian and Mullerian mimicry? ▯ INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION ▯ Vocab Intraspecific Lotka-Volterra Amensalism (-/0) Competition Commensalism (+/0) Herbivory Temporal Mutualism (+/+) Carnivory Partitioning Interference Competition ZPGIs Fundamental Niche Exploitative Competition Ecological Niche Realized Niche Competitive Exclusion Principle Resource Partitioning ▯ • Four Possible IsoclineArrangements • Examples of Temporal Partitioning • Compare and contrast exploitative and interference competition What can the Lotka-Volterra Comp. model be used to predict? • • Realized vs Fundamental niches • Types of species interactions and be able to describe them: Ex: (0/-), (0/0), (+/-), (+/+), (+/0), (-/-) • What’s the Competitive Exclusion Principle state? HINT: CCCC • Wide vs narrow niches • Zero Population Growth Isoclines Ecology Exam 2 4 LIFE HISTORY STRATEGIES ▯ Vocab Life History Apomixis Hermaphroditism Promiscuity Fitness Fission Reproductive Effort Polyandrous Trade-offs Budding Altricial Polygynous Asexual Fragmentation Precocial Intrasexual Selection Reproduction Parthenogenesis Monogamy Intersexual Selection Fission Diecious Resource-Defense Sexual Reproduction Monoecious Sexual Dimorphism Polygamy • Most important LH characteristic? Fitness • Asexual Reproduction is most common in what kind of organism? Describe the different kinds of modes of reproduction • • What is male fitness limited by? • Altricial vs Precocial Young and give examples • Why should female ducks stay together and fly together? • Ways that males compete for females Secondary Sexual Characteristics, Combat • What organisms does sex reversal occur in? • What occurs in gene-only selection? • Three types of mating systems? Polygamy, Promiscuity, Monogamy • Female vs Male Parental Investment Costs • r Strategists vs K strategists ▯ COMMUNITY STRUCTUREAND FUNCTION ▯ Vocab Community Canopy Heterotroph Guilds Photic Zone Autotroph Association Benthic Zone ▯ Biotic VSAbiotic Factors How do starfish promote coexistence? Why is maintaining or conserving diversity important? Causes of worldwide decline in species diversity: Habitat loss and fragmentation, exotic species, over harvesting, pollution, global warming, etc. What does the vertical gradient of light often determine? 3 layers of the aquatic ecosystem? from bottom to top: epilimnion, metalimnion, hypolimnion 2 components of species diversity Describe communities with higher diversity Describe latitudinal effects on species diversity 3 Different types of species diversity and describe them Explain the 2 hypotheses that attempt to explain food chain length


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