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by: Dominique Bluehorse


Dominique Bluehorse


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About this Document

these notes cover the study with answers and an explanation of the answers. it has diagrams also to explain the answers.
General Biology
Dr. Devkota
Study Guide
Biology, Study Guide, chapter 4, Chapter 5, chapter 6, general biology, Biology 101
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique Bluehorse on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 123 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Devkota in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of New Mexico.




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Date Created: 03/20/16
BIOLOGY STUDYGUIDE 1. The cellular organelles containing enzymes that perform intracellular digestion are _______. Lysosome – they are vesicles (fluid or air filled sacs) that contain digestive enzymes capable of breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones. They carry material to be digested. 2. As a result of exercise, there is an increase in the number of ………….... in muscle cells. Mitochondria – Because mitochondria produce ATP during aerobic respiration (the process living things undergo to use food energy) and ATP is needed for muscle contraction. 3. The substrate binds to the enzyme at a specific location called the …….. ..of the enzyme. Active site – a region on an enzyme that binds proteins or other substances during a reaction. 4. ______ store the information necessary to produce proteins. Genes – a unit of heredity (DNA info.) that is transferred from a parent to offspring (child) and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring(child). 5. If an electron is close to negative charges on other electrons and far from the positive charges in nuclei, it has …………. Potential energy High – Because they are like charges and do not have to do work to be pulled away from a positive charge. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 1) Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ______. A) of sunlight to energy stored in organic compounds B) stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP C) stored in ATP to energy stored in food molecules D) stored in ATP to energy used to do work 2) Which of the following is an adaptation to increase the surface area of a part of a cell that is involved in cellular respiration? A) the cristae of a mitochondrion – are the folds of the mitochondrial inner membrane that provide an increase in the surface area. B) the outer membrane of a chloroplast C) the grana of a chloroplast D) the endoplasmic reticulum 3) An object at rest has no ______ energy, but it may have ______ energy resulting from its location or structure. A) kinetic... potential B) kinetic... conserved C) potential... kinetic D) stored... potential 4) What compound directly provides energy for cellular work? A) C6H12O6 B) ATP – an adenosine and 3 phosphate groups that supplies energy for cellular processes. C) DNA D) fat 5) Which organelle synthesizes lipids? A) Rough ER B) Smooth ER – synthesizing lipids by means of enzymes embedded in those smooth membranes. C) Golgi D) Ribosome 6) The central vacuole in many plants is important for A) Storage – they act as storage for waste materials, nutrients and other substances B) Photosynthesis C) Structural support – It has the ability to maintain and control turgor pressure (the pressure of water pushing the plasma membrane against the cell wall of a plant cell) D) All of the above E) a and c only 7) A horse eating some hay is an example of ______. A) an autotroph eating a producer B) an autotroph eating a consumer C) a consumer eating a producer – a consumer can’t make their own food so the must consume plants or other animals for food. D) a consumer eating a heterotroph 8) The ultimate source of the energy in food is ______. A) the sun – the sun sustains nearly all aspects of life B) producers C) ATP D) consumers 9) Which of these equations describes aerobic cellular respiration? A) glucose → lactic acid + energy B) energy + carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen + water C) glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy D) none of the above 10) Plant cells ______. A) do not need chloroplasts because their mitochondria meet their energy needs B) have chloroplasts and mitochondria – chloroplast for photosynthesis and mitochondria for ATP C) use carbon dioxide but do not use oxygen D) do not need mitochondria because their chloroplasts meet their energy needs 1. In a eukaryotic cell specialized for secretion of protein hormones, which internal organelles would you expect to be particularly abundant? There will be abundant ROUGH ER as this is the location of synthesis of proteins destined for secretion 2. What is the relationship between energy content of a molecule and stability? Why is it, that all biological molecules are relatively stable? Molecules that have more energy stored in them are less stable and vice versa. All biological molecules are relatively stable because that way large, complex molecules and tissues can form without constantly reacting and breaking down. (This is the only way life could evolve. If boil. Molecules were unstable; the complex assemblages of atoms & molecules into large biological polymers could never exist) 3. A particular biological molecule has a molecular weight of 400. How many grams of this substance are needed to have 1 mole of this substance? Suppose you could burn exactly 1 mole of this molecule and you found that the released heat caused the temperature of 1 kg of water to rise by 100 C. How many Kcal are in one mole of this substance? 400 grams, 10Kcal 4. Do anabolic reactions tend to be endergonic or exergonic? Why? Anabolic reactions are endergonic because they build larger molecules through bonds which store energy rather than release it. 5. What exactly is the transition state and how does an enzyme help move a substrate to the transition state? What is the energy of the transition state molecule relative to that of substrate or product? What is its stability relative to that of substrate & product? The transition state is a configuration halfway between the substrate and the product, a point at which a reaction is at its most unstable and which leads to either the substrate or the product (usually the product). Enzymes move a substrate to a transition state by lowering the activation energy. The energy of the transition state molecule is higher than the substrate or the product. The transition state is more unstable than either the substrate or product.


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