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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clemens Kreiger on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO101N at Central Michigan University taught by PeterKourtev in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/218916/bio101n-central-michigan-university in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Study Guide 3 Evolution and Natural Selection Animal Structure and Function This list is not exhaustive This guide is simply a collection of questions that should help you focus your studying on the most important topics covered in class If something is not mentioned here but was covered in lecture it might still be on the exam You HAVE to use the textbook in conjunction with your notes if you want to do well on the test A Terminology You have to be able to define the following terms concepts H What is evolution N What is natural selection 9 What is microevolution F What is macroevolution 01 What is a species for sexually reproducing organisms O What is sympatric speciation N What is allopatric speciation 9 What is a reproductive barrier 9 What is genetic drift 10 What is gene ow 11 What is biodiversity 12 What is extinction 13 What is the biodiversity crisis we are currently facing 14 What is a tissue 15 What is homeostatis B Evolution 1 Use the quotrats and warfarin case study as your starting point 2 What is the difference between evolution and natural selection 3 The concept of evolution what is descent with modification 4 Evidence for evolution o What is a fossil o What are transitional fossils o What is an example of a transitional fossil o What are homologous organs What are some examples of homologous organs 0 Evidence for evolution from molecular biology C Natural selection 1 9 F U H N 9 F U N Study slides entitled quotNatural selection in more detailquot in your notes 0 What are the three requirements for natural selection to work 0 Do we observe the above phenomena in nature 0 What is natural selection What are some examples of natural selection 0 rats and warfarin o mute crickets on Kauai Relating natural selection to genetics What does natural selection quotworkquot on Does the frequency of alleles in natural populations change What is microevolution What is genetic drift What is genetic bottleneck What is the founder effect What are some examples of them What is gene ow What is the importance of mutations for natural selection and evolution Why is natural selection quotcontext dependentquot Speciation and macroevolution What is a species What is speciation What is the result of speciation What is reproductive isolation What are reproductive barriers What is an example of a reproductive barrier What are the two mechanisms of speciation What is a phylogenetic tree How to read a phylogenetic tree E Diversity H N 9 N 00 gt9 What is biodiversity and what are the three main types of biodiversity What are some examples of genetic diversity think broccoli potatoes How well are species on earth described How diverse is life on Earth What are the three domains of life What are the two kinds of prokaryotes Prokaryotes o What different shapes can prokaryotes have you should know coccus bacillus coma spirillum spiro chete o What are some common features of prokaryotes o What different types of biochemistry can prokaryotes employ you should know the meaning of the terms hetero photo chemo autotroph o How are prokaryotes related to human health cycling of nutrients climate life in the deep ocean electricity biofuels cleaning the environment our food What are biodiversity hotspots Why are the tropics so important What is the natural rate of species extinction What is the biodiversity crisis How many species have we lost threatened What are the trends What are some estimates of the current rates of species extinction in the tropics What are the main causes of the biodiversity crisis ls biodiversity important F The structure and function of animals H N 0 F What is the difference between anatomy and physiology What is a tissue Study the three main points of the definition What are the main types of tissues with subtypes Tissues structure and function For each tissue type including the subtypes you should know 0 What are the cells like 0 Are the cells densely packed or loosely packed o Are the cells in a matrix If so what type of matrix 0 Are there any special features of the tissue for example cartilage does not have blood vessels cardiac muscle has interconnected cells etc o What function does the tissue perform How do tissues come together to make up organs What are the main organ systems of the human body and what are their functions Why do animals exchange E and matter with the environment Why is surface area important What is homeostasis What is a negative feedback How does therrnoregulation work How does the human body work 0 Circulation and respiration The two circulation circuits Heart structure and function Exchange of C02 and 02 in the lung How does the brain control breathing Heart disease 0 Immune system What are non specific and specific defense How do white blood cells fight off infections Study Guide 2 Genetics on the test This list is not exhaustive This guide is simply a collection of questions that should help you focus your studying on the most important topics covered in class If something is not mentioned here but was covered in lecture it might still be on the exam You HAVE to use the textbook in conjunction with your notes if you want to do well A Terminology Study all the concepts and keywords given in the quotKey Conceptsquot slides at the beginning of each lecture The following is a list of words that you may have to define on the test Chromosome Mitosis Meiosis Diploid Haploid Genotype Phenotype Allele Dominant Recessive Replication Transcription Translation Codon Anticodon Mutation Operon Embryonic Stem Cell Oncogene PCR Recombinant DNA B Cell reproduction Mitosis and meiosis 1 Why do cells divide 2 What is the most important thing that must happen during cell division hint it involves DNA 3 What are chromatids and sister chromatids 4 The cell cycle what are the phases and what happens during each one G1 5 G2 5 What are the four stages of mitosis and what happens during them You should be able to look at a picture of a dividing cell and recognize the phase of mitosis 6 What are diploid cells and what are haploid cells Why are we diploid organisms 7 Why is meiosis needed 8 How many cells are produced during meiosis and how are they different from the parent cell 9 What happens during meiosis l and 11 Focus on the metaphase part what lines up at the center of the cell and what gets separated 10 What are the two mechanisms that make offspring different from their parents 11 What happens if the cell cycle or meiosis go wrong C Principles of mendelian genetics 1 Who was Mendel and what were his theories about heritable traits 2 In order to be able to answer questions from this section you should be familiar with the genetic terminology we used P F1 and F2 generations crosses alleles etc 3 Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses you should be able to answer the following questions 0 What were the parents like 0 What kind of gametes do the parents produce 0 What is the genotype and phenotype of the F1 generation 0 What kind of gametes are produced by the F1 generation plants 0 How do we make a Punnet square 0 Based on the Punnet square what are the genotypes and phenotypes of the F2 generation produced by letting F1 self fertilize 4 IMPORTANT If I give you two parents and their genotypes plus information on which alleles are dominant and which recessive you should be able to figure out how traits are distributed in what proportions in the offsprings To do that you will have to figure out the gametes that are made by the parents ii do a Punnet square to figure out the offspring s genotypes iii figure out the offspring s phenotypes knowing which alleles are dominant and which are recessive 5 What is incomplete dominance 6 7 What is co dominance What are sex linked genes How are sex linked traits inherited D Structure and replication of DNA 1 N 9 F U N 9 9 What is DNA made of What is the structure of a nucleotide How are nucleotides in DNA connected to each other What is the 5 and 3 end of a DNA molecule What is the principle of complementarity Why is DNA replication semi conservative What is the replication fork What is the name of the enzyme that replicates DNA What can the enzyme that replicates DNA do hint it has 3 different activities How reliable is DNA replication E From DNA to proteins H N 0 F U N What are RNA molecules made of How is the information in DNA used to synthesize proteins what is the quotpathquot of the information What is synthesized during transcription How does transcription work What is the name of the enzyme that transcribes DNA What is the general difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNAs What is translation What must happen during translation What is the genetic code What is a codon What is genetic code degeneracy What is a stop codon What is the function of the AUG codon What is a tRNA 15 16 17 What is an anticodon How does the process of translation work What is a mutation How do mutations happen What is a substitution What are the three types of substitution mutations What is an insertion What is a deletion What is the effect usually of an insertion deletion F Gene regulation 1 2 0 F Why are genes regulated What are constitutive genes and what are regulated genes What is an operon How does the lac operon work You need to know the structure the default off state and what needs to happen so that the genes are turned on How do we clone organisms How do we clone plants What are the two types of animal cloning What are embryonic stem cells What can they be used for What are adult stem cells What can they be used for How is cancer caused What are proto oncogenes oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes What do proto oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes normally do How do proto oncogenes turn into oncogenes How do tumor suppressor genes cause cancer Can cancer be inherited What is the BRCA family of genes G DNA technology 1 N 9 F U I O N 00 What is recombinant DNA What is a genetically modified organism How can we use bacteria to make proteins How can we make genetically modified plants and animals What are some examples of genetically modified plants or animals What is DNA fingerprinting What is gene therapy What are some safety and ethical issues with DNA technology
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