Psych 1100: Psychology - Study Guide
Psych 1100: Psychology - Study Guide Psych 1100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monique Miller on Friday October 24, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1100 at University of Connecticut taught by Jason Anastas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 282 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 10/24/14
Psychology 1100 Mod 15 Basics of Sensation and Perception Sensation vs Perception Sensation quotThe process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment Perception organizing all of the sensations into one stabilized image quotThe process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Bottomup processing taking sensory information and then assembling and integrating it What am I seeing Topdown processing the opposite of the above using models ideas and expectations to interpret sensory information Is that something I39ve seen before Information from Sensorv Organs to Brain 3 steps 1 Reception stimulation of sensory receptor cells by energy sound light heat 2 Transduction transforming this cell stimulation into neural impulses sending electrical signals to brain 3 Transmission delivering this neural information to the brain to be processed Thresholds 1 Absolute threshold minimum level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus half the time anything below this threshold is called quotsubimina example light that39s not bright enough feather not touching you enough 0 When are they not absolute Signal detection theory whether or not we detect a stimulus this depends on both the intensity of the stimulus and psychological factors such as the person39s experience expectations motivations etc 2 Difference threshold minimum difference in color pitch weight temperature for a person to be able to detect the difference half the time o Weber39s law for two stimuli to be perceived as different they must differ by a minimum percentage 2 of weight 8 of light intensity 03 of sound wave frequence Sensorv Adaptation To help detect novelty in our surrounding our senses tune out a constant stimulus example rock in your shoe and ticking of a clock Perceptual Set what we expect to see influences what we do see MODULE 16 VISION E Energy needed for vision electromagnetic radiation Our eyes only can see the visible spectrum Properties of a wave Frequencywaveength we perceive these as color or hue 0 We perceive the short wavelength high frequency as bluish colors 0 We perceive the long wavelength low frequency as reddish colors Ampitude we perceive these as intensitybrightness 0 Greater ampitude bright colors 0 Small ampitude dull colors 0 Parts of the Eye outer bold inner italicized Cornea jelly substance protects eye from getting things in it Pupiiris little hole in eyeball which is where the light travels iris shrinksopens to let in moreless light Lens expandschanges shape and allows us to focus on different things Retina made up of photosensitive cells fire when struck by a lot of light Fovea supersensitive cells Optic nerve connects eye ball to brain when retina is stimulated it sends signal to brain Blind spot includes no photosensitive cells if light strikes it nothing will be stimulated it won39t be seen Accommodation Ies changes shape to focus on nearfar objects 0 Photoreceptors Rods and Cones When light strikes these cells they send signals to the brain telling it to do something Rod see black and white things in low light retina 0 Much more rods than cones Cones stronger and more sensitive help us see sharp colorful details fovea Feature detectors respond to certain visual aspects of the environment assemble the little details to make up one image 0 Parallel Processing turning light into mental act of seeing building perceptions our of sensory details processed simultaneously in different areas of the brain 0 YoungHelmholtz Trichromatic ThreeColor Theory Red Green Blue can be combined to create any color 0 Opponent process theory process of perceiving white as the opposite to black yellow vs blue red vs green 0 Visual perceptual organization Gestalt visual pattern forming a whole that is more than the sum of its parts 0 Proximity things that are close to each other tend to be grouped together 0 Continuity they39re distinguished so they must be separate 0 Closure we tend to try to close up lines even when they are not actually there 0 Perceiving Depth 1 Retinal disparity our left and right eye see slightly different things gt ex 3D movies to create the illusion of depth 0 Interposition when one object is blocking another the one that is blocking appears closer 0 Relative size we familiarize objects as farther away when they are smaller 0 Linear Perspective things more parallel are closer and the ones less parallel are farther 0 Relative Height we perceive the higher part of a scene as farther away 0 Shading effects helps our perceptions of depth 0 Relative Motion when you39re moving things that are closer to you move faster than those that are farther away 0 Constancies 1 Perceptual our ability to see objects as appearing the same even under a different lighting 2 Color even with changes in shading we still perceive the color as the same 3 Brightness something may look lighter because of the shadingamount of light 4 Shape perceiving objects as having a constant shape even after seeing different sensory images 5 Size we perceive objects as being the same size even if they move towardsaway from us Module 17 The Nonvisual Senses 0 HearingAudition Starting with sound Frequency length of the sound wave high or low o low frequency few spaces between waves low pitched high frequency high p ched Amplitude height or intensity of sound wave loud or soft o the higher the amplitude the higher the sound vice versa Complexity determines how complexresonant the sound is simple or complex o Simple fewer spaces pure tone complex a lot of mixed frequencies 0 Outer ear designed to collect sounds and send it to the eardrum 0 Middle ear sound waves hit eardrum and move the hammer anvil and stirrup in order to amplify the vibrations The stirrup sends the vibrations to the cochlea 0 Inner ear the waves move from the oval window over the cochea s quothair receptor cells These send signal through the auditory nerves to the temporal lobe of the brain 0 Middle amp Inner Ezg Conduction Hearing Loss when the middle ear isn t conducting sound well to the cochlea Sensorineural Hearing Loss when receptor cells aren39t sending messages through the auditory nerves 0 Preventing Hearing Loss Exposure to sounds that are too loud to talk over can cause damage to inner ear Prevent by limiting exposure to noises over 85 decibels and treating ear infections 0 Treating Hearing Loss Install hearing aids makes everything louder Cochlear implant for those with damage to the inner ear sensorineural hearing loss it translates the sound waves into electrical signals 0 Sound Perception 1 Loudness more intense sound vibrations causes more hair cells to send signals to brain 2 Pitch o Place theory at high sound frequencies signals are generated at different locations in the cochlea the brain reads the pitch by reading the location where the signal came from o Frequency theory the whole ear hears pitches by the whole ear vibrating at the same time o Volley principle at ultrahigh frequencies different parts of inner ear activate at different times and the brain reacts to these 3 Localization sounds reach one of our ears sooner and with more clarity than it reaches the other the difference is used to identify where the sound is coming from 0 Other senses 1 Touch used to express feelings sharing affection and for survival purposes pressure warmth cold pain o Stroking adjacent pressure spots creates a tickle o Cold amp pressure makes us feel wet o Warm and cold feels searing hot o Piin tells us that something went wrong often warns of severe injury I Nonciceptors sensory receptors whose signals are interpreted by the brain as pain I Pain circuit signals that travel to the spinal cord through small nerve fibers I Gate contro theory the spinal cord contain a neurological quotgate that blocks pain signals or allow them to pass on to the brain acupuncture massage close the gate I Endorphins hormones released by the body to reduce pain perception I Phantom Limb Sensation losing a limb but still feeling like it s there I Psychologicallnfluences V Distraction V Memories of pain V Social contagion feeling pain when seeing other people experiencing it V Cultural influences we don t notice it if it s the quotnorm for the rest of our family peer group or culture I Reducing Pain V Drugs acupuncture exercise hypnosis surgery V Placebo effect V Distraction theory virtual reality ex Burn victims imagining themselves in a very cold place 2 Taste o 5 different types sweet energy source sour potentially toxic umami savoriness proteins to grow amp repair tissue bitter potential poisons salty sodium o Neurochemistry I There are NO regions of the tongue just different taste receptor cells projecting hairs into taste buds I These cells are easily triggered to send messages to the temporal lobe of the brain I Burn your tongue Receptors reproduce every week or two I Expectations influence taste 3 Smell Odor receptors quotshortcut sense I The sensations take a shortcut to the brain skipping through the quotsensory switchboard thalamus made by all the other senses I The information goes all over the brain which appeals directly to memory I Smell links lovers parent and child etc 4 Kinesthesis 6th sense quotmovement feeling I Ability to sense where our body is in space relative to each other We have sensory cells in joints and muscles that coordinate with signals from skin eyes ears Without it we would need to watch our limbs constantly to coordinate movement Vestibular sense ability to sense the position of the head and body relative to gravity V Fluid in inner ear have hairlike receptors that send messages about the head39s position to the cerebellum V Helps us to balance and stay upright 5 Mixing the different senses together 0 Sensory interaction when different senses influence each other ex Burst of sound makes a dim light source more visible Synaesthesia one sense triggered by a sensation in a different sense ex Hearing a song but thinking of a color Embodied cognition we use sensation words to describe feelings Extrasensory Perception ESP perception without sensation getting accurate information directly to the mind skipping the known senses V Telepathy reading people39s minds V Clairvoyance seeing remote events V Precognition knowing the future
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