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Introduction to Philosophy

by: Izaiah Blick

Introduction to Philosophy PHIL 101

Izaiah Blick
GPA 3.91


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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Izaiah Blick on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 101 at Central Washington University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/218988/phil-101-central-washington-university in PHIL-Philosophy at Central Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Equot 5 Introduction to Philosophy Study Guide Chapter 1 CWU Spring Quarter 2008 Phil 10105 600 805 PM Tu amp Th Course 35123 Instructor Gayle YoungDohrman Room LL 343 Of ce Hours Tu Th 5106 PM amp by appt Room LL 337D Website wwwcwuedudohrmang Phone 5099633054 or x1842 E mail dohrmangcwuedu Study Guide on Pre Socratic Philosophers Ch 1 and Video The Powerful Gods ofMount Olympus This guide is intended to help you identify major ideas and focus your study of these philosophers and their context Video Uses myth to explain natural phenomena such as weather supernatural origin of the universe and creation of order future events and ethical values Gods are unpredictable capricious internally inconsistent cannot be understood but rather accepted and appeased Requires sacri ces offerings begging and worship Gods ght among themselves and judge certain acts differently from one another examples adultery murder rape etc Some gods approve some disapprove of the same acts so cannot be basis for ethical judgments Like super powerful humans with same faults and weaknesses Key general concepts and dichotomies a Reductionism 7 belief that all reality reduces to one type of primary substance b Change vs permanence c One vs many 1 Appearance of things in sensation phenomena vs reality how things are through thinking and intelligence noumena e Deterrninate vs indeterminate f Primary substance or primary matter 7 the basic stuff that objects are made of water air indeterminate boundless atoms etc g Hypothesis from facts vs dogmatic assertion h Concrete vs abstract i Sense data vs reasoning to reach truth about reality j Cosmos 7 universe experienced world reality as a whole Presocratic philosophers covered in Chapter 1 These philosophers offer different ways of thinking about the natural world and phenomena They asked questions about where everything came from from what is it all made whether reality is one or many and if can it be understood as orderly and conforming to mathematics While we may not agree now with their answers to these questions the questions they asked and the consequences of asking them still in uence our lives today Moving away from reliance on myth mythos and into scienti c theoretical thinking logos Scienti c approach looks for what is universal general internally consistent logical and explainable by reduction to basic concepts 9 Thales All reality reduces to water explains the nature of change and seems to be present in all things This is a concrete tangible substance Reduces the many of individual objects to the one primary substance Wanted to nd what is permanent in change and explain through natural means rather than myth Considered by some as the father of science b Anaximander Pupil of Thales All reality is based in indeterminate boundless an abstract primary source of reality think of unforrned unorganized chaos or emptiness and brings forth the cosmos organized formed full of physical objects in an eternal motion through a process of separating off Represents an advance over Thales adds a process to explain change even if vague Compare to modern ideas of energy as the primary source of physical reality Suggests evolution of animals by saying that humans sprang from some other kind of animal possibly aquatic Thought world was ruled by laws and sought scienti c explanation for phenomena Knowledge of geometry Thought that in the vast cosmos there were many worlds and many systems of universes existing at the same time undergoing a alternations of creation and destruction Can be considered the rst true scientist 0 F F Anaximenes Pupil of Anaximander Air is the source of all existence reality reduces to this at its base and operates through expansion rarefaction heating up and contraction condensation cooling down proposing a more speci c process that includes the idea that changes in quantity cause changes in quality Pythagoras Reality consists of numbers mathematics puri es the soul Homeric gods cannot be the source of morality or source of spiritual power to cleanse the soul 3 kinds of lives 1 lowest buy amp sell wares at games 2 next level competes in games to gain honors 3 highest are spectators observe and re ect on meaning of games most like philosophy Soul puri cation process arithmetic 9 geometry 9 form limit see structure of reality liberates from the particular and changing physical world and frees us from cycle of rebirth reincarnation Natural world conforms to mathematics and rules not chaotic Primary substance is numbers formed by limits and proportion We believe we can understand the natural world and even describe it through mathematics as such it conforms to reason and can be understood by us Heraclitus All reality is divine and living re called Logos all is in constant ux re seems to be the very essence of change itself Universe itself is re is alive rational orderly and all works towards ultimate good Conservation of matter nothing is ever lost it just transforms into different things Implies a consistent and best way of being and doing things gives a standard for judgment seeds of the idea of natural law Cosmopolitanism all world is part of the same city Pantheisitic view of God totality of reality nothing is excluded You cannot step twice into the same river Parmenides Eleatic philosophy All reality is ONE continuously occupied plenum No empty spaces reality either is or it is not cannot both be and not be at the same time therefore change and motion is an illusion Controversial views contemporary with Socrates came to Athens with Zeno when Socrates was young and Parmenides was an old man Zeno Pupil of Parmenides famous for the paradoxes The racecourse the tortoise the arrow and the boxcars Tries to show the impossibility of motion Theoretical reasoning vs sensual experiential evidence makes solving the paradox seem impossible and shows the absurdity of the many Millet seed example one millet seed makes no audible sound but a bushel full makes an audible sound conclusion is that the senses cannot give conclusive proof and cannot be trusted to give the truth about reality Came to Athens with his older teacher Parmenides Empedocles Tries to solve problems brought up by Parmenides and Zeno Proposes universe made up of 4 kinds of indestructible particles but put together in various mixtures allowing for change and consistency and change at the same time Proposes two forces love attracts and strife separates that act on particles causing change and transformation from one object to another Anaxagoras Proposes that reality is made of Mind and Matter and the primary matter has always existed Observed heavenly bodies and tries to give a scienti c explanation of them Said the heavenly bodies are ery masses of stone moving in a rotary motion This centrifugal motion is caused by Mind through a process of separating off Primary matter contains seeds of objects that later develop and become more de nite through the process of formation and eventually become the whirling cosmos of sun stars planets and other physical objects Mind orders and gives structure to the matter of the cosmos Leucippus and Democritus Atomists believe that all reality is material tiny irreducible particles moving randomly in a void Atomos not to cut meaning can t be reduced to smaller particles Individual atoms are indestructible and are not created or destroyed They are too small to see and combine to create all objects in experience Even the soul is made of very ne and tiny particles They begin to talk about epistemology and how we can know objects Sensations such as smell taste sounds can be explained by atoms in contact with the sense organ So when I smell fresh baking bread particles of the bread move through the air and contact my nose allowing me to smell it Vision works by the eye receiving a stream of particles emanating from the object Two kinds of knowledge bastard is sight touch taste hearing smell which is subject to individual interpretation Truebom is dependent on the object itself such as size example measures 5 inches by 3 inches and weight 6 lbs It is not dependent on the interpretation of the person doing the sensing They also touch on ethics recommend cheerfulness as the best way to behave


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