Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide 23511-001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Notetaker on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 23511-001 at Kent State University taught by Carmen Blakely-Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Nutrition 10515 1123 AM Chapter 1 Chemical Biological and Physiological Aspects of Nutrition Peristalsis consists of a series of wavelike rhythmic contractions and relaxations involving both circular and longitudinal muscles This action propels food forwards in the GI tract Diarrhea can result when material moves too quickly through the colon which doesn t allow sufficient time for water removal Prolong diarrhea can result in excessive fluidelectrolyte loss which can then lead to dehydration Slow colonic movements can cause too much water to be removed resulting in hard dry fecal matter Constipation can make elimination difficult and put excessive strain on the colonic muscles Mastication GI tract organs include the mouth esophagus stomach small intestine and the large intestine this the inner most lining of the GI tract that is made up of epithelial cells biological catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions that break down bonds by addition of water hydrolysis resulting in smaller components ulcerative colitis and Chrohn s disease are forms of IBD characterized by inflammation of the lining of the GI tract IBD is classified as an autoimmune disease IBD can develop when the intestinal lining is exposed to an antigen In response to the antigen the immune system produces antibodies which triggers inflammation The inflammation is often prolonged and excessive so the intestinal lining can become damaged Irritable Bowel syndrome IBS This is considered to be a functional disorder People with IBS experience abdominal discomfort cramping bloating diarrhea and constipation Emotional stress may be a contributing factor to IBS blood 73 75 urine 5575 the movement of nutrients and other substances across a cell membrane A process that does not require energy ATP 0 enables substances to cross cell membranes from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration wo using energy in this process Substance is said to move passively down its concentration gradient 0 involves the passive movement of a substance down its concentration gradient high concentration to low but it requires the assistance of a membranebound transport protein that escorts materials across cell membranes 0 the movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane such as those that surround the cells Too much water rupture too little water collapse Osmosis is carefully regulated Water moves from a region of lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration until equilibrium is reached substance that dissolves in solution 0 A process that does require energy ATP 0 requires both energy and the assistance of a transport protein Energy is used to pump molecules across cell membranes against their concentration gradients 0 used to move molecules in and out of the cell 2 Types moves substances from the extracellular to the intracellular environment A portion of the cell membrane surrounds an extracellular particle vesicle The contents of the vesicle are released into the intracellular environment enables substances to leave cells by packaging them into vesicles which are then released into the surrounding extracellular fluid o innermost layer of epithelial tissue Produces and releases secretions needed for digestion connective tissue contains blood vessels lymphatic vessels and nerves 0 2 layers of smooth muscle longitudinal muscle and circular muscle Responsible for GI motility Nerves are embedded between the muscle layers 0 connective tissue outer cover of the GI tract the amount of time between the consumption of food and its elimination as solid waste This takes approximately 2472 hrs for food to pass from mouth to anus Sphincters regulate flow and food Named according to location the GI tracts has 7 0 located between esophagus and stomach relaxes briefly to allow food to enter into stomach After food passes the sphincter closes to prevent stomach contents from reentering the esophagus keeps chyme in stomach o between small intestine and stomach protects and lubricates the GI tracts moistens food helps form the bolus facilitates waste aids in swallowing chemically breaks down food via enzymes 0 chemically breaks down food 0 facilitate communication and regulate GI motility and release of GI secretions enables lipid globules to dispense in water neutralizes chime provides enzymes needed for the chemical break down of proteins carbs and lipids provides enzymes needed for the chemical breakdown of some nutrients hydrochloric acid is needed for forming chyme and activating some enzymes intrinsic factor is needed for absorption of vitamin B stomach stimulates gastric motility stimulates secretion of gastric juice increases gastric emptying o small intestine Inhibits gastric motility inhibits secretion of gastric juice stimulates release of pancreatic juice containing sodium bicarbonate and enzymes 0 small intestine stimulates gallbladder to contract and release bile stimulates release of pancreatic enzymes 0 stomach and other tissues stimulates hunger Kidneys play an important role in removing metabolic waste from the plasma and delivering them for excretion in the urine Nephrons functional units of the kidney preform filtration and reabsorption removes substances such as urea excess water electrolytes salts and minerals from the blood as it flows through the nephrons most of which are then excreted through urine 0 absorb againquot Substances are absorbed again and returned to the blood enabling the body to regain compounds like amino acids glucose and other nutrients that otherwise would be excreted in urine begins before food enters the mouth The thought smell and sight of food stimulate the central nervous system which in turn stimulates GI motility and the release of digestive secretions Serves as a wake up call to your GI tract preparing it to receivedigest food 0 begins with the arrival of food in the stomach Muscular contractions GI motility become more forceful during this phase and the release of gastric secretions increases which prepare the stomach for its role in the digestive system By the time food reaches the small intestine it has undergone chemical change and no longer looks like the food you consumed hormonal signs from the small intestine slow the churning action of the stomach motility decreasing the rate at which material passes out of the stomach and into the small intestine As food enters the small intestine hormonal responses alert accessory organs pancreas and gallbladder signifying that digestion is underway The extent to which a nutrient or other food is absorbed It can be influenced by psychological conditions other dietary components and certain medications Villi are tiny fingerlike projections on the inner lining of the small intestine Each villus is made up of microvilli these comprise the absorptive surface of the small intestine also known as the brush border Each villus contains a network of blood capillaries and a lymphcontaining lymphatic vessel which is called a lacteal Plays an important role in circulating fatsoluble nutrients mostly lipids and some vitamins away from the GI tract and delivering them to the cardiovascular system Chapter 2 Key Nutrition Concepts and Terms contains relatively high amounts of nutrients compared to their calorie value broccoli collards bread cantaloupe lean meats provide an excess of energy or calories in relation to nutrients soft drinks candy sugar alcohol animal fats provide relatively high levels of calories per unit weight of food fried foods cheeseburgers potato chips breakfast sandwiches 247 access to a sufficient supply of food limited or uncertain availability of food or ability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways food is a potential weapon of bioterrorism Food could be used to intentionally spread illness chemical substances in food that are used by the body for growth and health 6 categories 0 substance in food that consists of a single sugar molecule or multiple sugar molecules in different forms They provide the body with energy 0 Simple sugars are the most basic form of carbs glucose sucrose and lactose o Starches are complex carbs consisting of long interlocking chains of glucose units 0 Dietary fiber consists of complex carbs found in plant cell walls can t be broken down by digestive enzymes 0 substances found in food that are composed of amino acids 0 specific chemical substances from which proteins are made of the 20 9 are essential or required in our diets substances in food that are soluble in fat not water 0 found primarily in animal products may elevate blood cholesterol 0 lower blood cholesterol levels present in hydrogenated oil margarine shortening pastries and some cooking oils that increase risk of heart disease fatsoluble colorless liquid found in animals can be manufactured by the liver 0 chemical substances found in food perform specific functions in the body humans require 13 different vitamins chemical substances that make up the ash that remains when food is burned humans require 15 different minerals a unit of measure of the amount of energy in a food and how much energy will be transferred to the person who eats it Because calories are a unit of measure they do not qualify to be a nutrient 1115 cups of water each day from food and fluids chemical substances that prevent or repair cell damage caused by oxidizing agents such as environmental pollutants smoke ozone and oxygen chemical substances in plants that perform important functions in the human body It gives plants color and flavor and enables them to grow and protect themselves against insects and disease some are antioxidants Diets rich in phytochemicals reduce the risk of some cancers heart disease infections and other disorders substances required for normal growth and health that the body can manufacture in sufficient amounts from other sources in the diet substances required by the body that the body cannot produceproduce in sufficient amounts and must be obtained in the diet results from poor diets excess or lack of calories or nutrients Results from disease states and genetic factors adequate amounts of essential nutrients and calorie intake that maintains normal weight variety of foods from each basic food group to obtain assorted nutrients and phytochemicals balanced selection of food and types and amounts from MyPlate Chapter 3 The Inside Story of Nutrition and Health genetic traits environmental factors lifestyle factors health care and diet Heart disease cancers stroke chronic obstructive lung disease accidents pneumonia and influenza diabetes Alzheimer s disease kidney disease septicemia heart disease and cancer Together they accounts for 50 of all deaths general term for a set of reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of healthy people The values vary by age and gender a condition that occurs when cells are exposed to more oxidizing molecules such as free radicals then to antioxidant molecules that neutralize them Over time oxidative stress causes damage to lipids DNA cells and tissues It increases the risk of heart disease type 2 diabetes cancer and other diseases diabetes mellitus disease characterized by abnormal glucose utilization and elevated blood glucose levels 0 Type 1 type 2 and gestational diabetes blood pressure blood pressure inside blood vessel walls greater than 14090 mmHg cerebral vascular accident occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or becomes blocked cutting off blood supply to a portion of the brain a brain disease that represents the most common form of dementia It is characterized by memory loss for recent events that expands to more distant memories over the course of 510 yrs it eventually produces profound intellectual decline characterized by dementia and personal helplessness condition in which bones become fragile and susceptible to fracture due to a loss of calcium and other minerals first response of the body s immune system to infectious agents toxins or irritants Biologically active substances promote oxidation and other reactions to counteract the infection toxin or irritant lowgrade inflammation lasting weeks to years It damages lipids cells and tissues Chapter 5 Nutrition Attitudes and Behavior 0 acceptable foods customs food symbolism religious beliefs health concerns nutritional value of foods attitudes and values education experience o food cost convenience level of hunger food availability health status 0 food taste smell color texture and temperature heredity familiarity Food choices are influenced by the consumer s perception of the importance of diet to health Make a specific plan start with small easy changed and be prepared for relapses Malnutrition in early childhood has severe effects Some children never fully recover leads to growth retardation low intelligence poor memory short attention span Behavioral effects can be corrected with nutritional rehab 10515 1123 AM 10515 1123 AM
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