Chemitry study guide
Chemitry study guide CHEM 1C
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jalen Williams on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1C at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Dr. ward in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Chemistry at University of South Carolina Aiken.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Test Study guide chapter7 Chemical reactions may be classified as Combination Decomposition Single replacement Double replacement Metathesis Precipitation Acid Base Oxidation Reduction Redox Combustion In a combination reaction two or more elements form one product two or more simple compounds combine to form one product 2Mgs 029 3 2MgOS N2g 3H29 a NH3 9 Combimtiun TWD or titre cmbine a single reactants to yell mum In a decomposition reaction one reactant splits into two or more simpler substances Decomposition A splits tw or mre int proucts gt In a singlereplacement reaction an uncombined element replaces an element in a compound Zns 2HCaq aZnC2aq H2g Fes CuSO4aq a FeSO4aq Cus mingle replacement One element replace anther element In a doublereplacement reaction two elements cations or anions in the reactants exchange places AgNO3aq Na0laq a AgCls NaN03aq NaOHaq H0laq a Na0laq HOHI Double replacement Two elmnts replac each other I l sl Combustion In a combustion reaction carbon containing compounds burn in oxygen from the air to produce carbon dioxide 002 water H20 and heat or flame 39C Hang 202 enerj THEME 53 Summary elf Reeetipn Typee Type pi Heeetippi Example Epmpiipetipp A E AB tilde Cljlzle 3F Cu g e eeemppeitien me n iii Fe e e EFeLe e 35 51 Single HlEllsjilll ElI JEI39MEIFI39E Iquot EC N Guile El EgN nq 3t CLIND3IHH i E gh newbie Repleeeimierlt fill CD AD CH ElCrif fj Kg 139 EK C HHq Bemliuuetiprli 39i39 J Juquot An oxidation reduction reaction provides us with energy from food provides electrical energy in batteries occurs when iron rusts 4Fes 302g a 2Fe203s Determining whether the change is an oxidation or a reduction can be done quickly by looking at the change in the oxidation numbers In an oxidation the oxidation number of an element becomes more posmve Ca gt Ca2 Fe2 gt Fe3 Cl391 gt Cl5 Oquot2 gt O In a reduction the oxidation number of an element becomes more neganve Mn7 gt Mn2 Cu2 gt Cu O gt Oquot2 Br3 gt Br 1 Decomposition reactions can be redox reactions or nonredox reactions 2 Kt Clt503quot2 gt 2 K1Cl391 3 02 Redox O is oxidized Cl is reduced Ca2C4O3quot2 gt Cat ZOquot2 0402quot2 Nonredox the oxidation numbers are unchanged Single replacement reactions are always redox reactions Mg 2C2391 2Na0 gt 2 Na1Clquot MgO Redox Na is oxidized Mg is reduced 2Na Br391 ClgO gt 2 Nat Cl391 BraO Redox Br is oxidized Cl is reduced Oxidation Reduction Single Replacement Zn increases its charge frrn l to 2 oxidation mills Cuzti q SUE q 9 311 WWW Sig sq I l decreases its charge frnm 2 to reduction Double replacement reactions are not redox reactions Nat Cl391 Ag1N5O3392 gt Agthl391 Na1N5O3 2 Not a redox reaction the oxidation numbers are unchanged 2 H CI391 Ca2O392H 2 gt 2 H510quot2 CatzClg391 Not a redox reaction the oxidation numbers are unchanged If a reactions has an uncombined element it will be a redoxreac on 2H2 g 029 gt 2 H20 I 2KCIO3s gt 2 KCI s 3 02 g MgCIz 2 Na gt 2 NaCl Mg 2NaBr Clg gt 2 NaCl Brz Determining the Products of a Double Replacement Fleaction In a double replacement reaction the oxidation numbers and the charges do not change from reactants to products This can be used to predict the formulas of the products based on the reactants An important point is that the products will have new subscripts in their formulas The subscripts in the reactants are not carried over to the products unless they are part of polyatomic ions Identify each type of reaction as C combination D decomposition SR single replacement DR double replacement C BBas N2g a Ba3N2s SR 2Ags H28aq a Ag28s H2g DR Si02s 4HFaq a SiF4s 2H20 D K2C03s a K20aq C02g Identify each of the following as oxidation or reduction ASns a Sn4aq 4 e oxidation BFe3aq 1 e aFe2aq reduction 0 C2g 2 e a 20 aq reduction Write the oxidation reaction and the reduction reaction for the following 2Css F2g a 2CsFaq Oxidation 2Css a 2Csaq 2 e Reduction F2g 2 e a 2F aq Determine the products and balance the reaction BaNO32 NaZSO4 gt First determine the charges of the ions Ba2NO32391 Na2 SO4392 gt Exchange partners Leave off subscripts that are not part of polyatomic ions Ba2NO321 NaglIIS42 Ba2 3042 Na1NO3 1 Determine the formulas for the products and balance BaNO Na 0 gt BaSO 2NaNO 32 2 4 4 3 Determine the products and balance the reaction ZrNO KPO 34 3 4 First determine the charges of the ions Zr4NO 1 K 1PO 3 gt 3 4 3 4 Exchange partners Leave off subscripts that are not part of polyatomic ions Zr4NO 1 K 1PO 3 gt Zr4 PO 3 K1NO 1 3 4 3 4 4 3 Determine the formulas for the products and balance 3ZrNO 4KPO gt Zr PO 12KNO 34 3 4 3 44 3 Part two A mole mol is a unit that represents the same number of particles as there are carbon atoms in 1201 g of carbon One mole of any element contains 6022 x 1023 atoms of that element 1 mol of Element Number of Atoms 1 mol C 6022 x 1023 C atoms 1 mol Au 6022 x 1023 Au atoms TABLE M Number at Particles in Quantities Substance Number amt Type at Particlaa 1 ma MAI 6022 3a 1023 atwmaai I 1110 al39 Fa 63022 X 1023 atama lai39lFa 1 mal atquot wagtar Zita 023quot malaculaa if HE l Wit1 f39vit mi C Ca 39a a lU malaaulaa nai vitamin C 1 11115 mi Na l 611022 gtlt llffl23 arin uli units afNaCl Avogadro s number converts moles of a substance to the number of atoms How many Cu atoms are in 050 mol of Cu 1 Cu 1023 Cu atoms 1311122 x In atoms t 1 mol L1H atoms l mol of l mulnul39 I mol of silver alarm carbon lorm 911 Fur 31017115 1 thus 111 1112155 hm a mans has u must i of ED1 g DIquot Ill g of 323quot g ll l g f atoms To determine the molar mass of a compound multiply the molar mass of each element by its subscript in the formula add the results and round to 001 gram Molar mass NH3 1 mol NH31 mol N 11401 g N 1401 g N 3 mol H 3101 g H 303 gH Molar mass NH3 1704 g NH3 The molar mass is a useful conversion factor converts moles of a substance to grams converts mass in grams of a substance to moles M A g and 1 m1 1 of 7 C and 11016 H2 Tarnish Ang forms when silver reacts with sulfur in the air to form silver sulfide The law of conservation of mass states 2Ags Ss a A92Ss 2 mol Ag 1 mol S 1 mol A92S 21079 g 13207 g 12479 9 Mass of Product from Mass of Reactant How many grams of C02 can be produced when 546 g of C2H2 is burned 2C2H2g 5029 5 4C02g 2H20g Step 1 State the given and needed quantities grams Given 546 g of C2H2 Need grams of C02 Step 2 Write a plan to convert the given to the needed quantity grams 2C2H2g 5029 539 4C02g 2H20g 546 g grams Step 3 Use coef cients to write mole mole factors write molar mass factors 1 mole of CZH2 2604 g of CZHZ 391 rim122112 and 32112 2604 g 3212 12 1 moi 32HE Step 4 Set up the problem to give the needed quantity grams 4 39 fr it r x mica 135gcog 1 a t A L 2
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