Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide PSYC 4220
Popular in Developmental Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
Reviews for Exam #2 Study Guide
-Jillian Van Etten
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/05/15
PSYC4220 Exam 2 Study Guide PowerPoint Notes Lecture Notes and Book Notes PowerPoint and Lecture Notes Assessing Infant Perceptual Abilities Preferential Looking measures which stimuli an infant prefers to look at Assume stimulus they look at longer is the one they prefer 0 Preference for one stimulus implies ability to tell them apart 0 No preference harder to interpret Habituation losing interest in stimuli that is presented over and over again boredom 0 Used to test if infant can tell difference between two stimuli I Can babies discriminate and if baby is still bored means they are still seeing it the same 0 If infant grows bored with one stimulus then shows renewed interest in new stimulus must be able to tell items apart Highamplitude sucking method infants learn to vary their sucking rate to make stimuli appear 0 Suck fast put on lullaby and turn off when suck slow Infant Vision least developed Can detect changes in brightness and can detect large difference between colors at birth 0 Prefer blues greens Cant discriminate different shades of the same color until after 4 months Infants are interested in color contrast Infants can track slowmoving objects but may struggle a little bit Distance Vision 0 Poor but improves rapidly over first 6 months 0 At birth 20200 ranging to 20600 vision 0 By 6 months have 20 20 vision 0 See things most clearly 8 inches away Infant Visual Preferences Prefer 0 Faces especially human ones compared to puppets Circles curves Patterned objects Contour sharp boundaries between light and dark Movement slow is best Moderate complexity of patterns not too much complexity though 0 A few hours after birth prefer mother s face Infant Depth Perception Infants have depth perception 0 They blink when objects approach their face 0 They habituate to the same stimuli presented at different depths OOOOO Visual Cliff o A glass table with checkered part on one side and nothing on the other side to show a quotdropquot 2 month olds heart rate dropped when over the deep side indicating interest but not fear 0 Suggest they can perceive change in depth but are not afraid of falling Infant Hearing Hearing is better developed than vision Can localize sounds but not as well as adults 0 Will turn head to see the source 0 Are as good as adults by 1 Hearing preferences 0 Complex sounds 0 Infant directed speech high pitched expressive voice I Ex when talking to baby in sweet voice 0 Prefer mother s voice to other voices or another woman s 0 Mother s native language to other languages Infant Speech Perception Born with ability to distinguish between phonemes small units of sound such as fuh for F of all languages 0 Lose sensitivity to phonemes not used in native language by one year Recognize mother s voice within 3 days after birth 0 Little recognitionpreference for father s voice even at 4 months Preferences for passages lullabies read by mother during last 6 weeks of pregnancy By 4 12 months turn head toward sound of own name Infant Taste Can distinguish between tastes at birth 0 Born preferring sweet tastes and disliking bitter tastes 0 Produce different facial expressions for different tastes 0 Preferences can be altered by early diet depending on what you have them a lot of Infant Smell Olfaction smell works well at birth 0 Prefer smell of own amniotic uid 0 By 6 days turn head away from unpleasant odors 0 Similar smell preferences to adults by 3 years old same preferences 0 Do not like smell of eggs or fish 0 Can make very subtle distinctions recognize mother by odor if breastfed prefer mother s odor Infant Touch Consists of 3 major systems 0 Touchpressure hot cold pain 0 All operating at birth Touch very important to infants may even dominate other senses Touch can stimulate growth 0 Premature babies respond well to touch therapy skin to skin contact with mother or father to help grow Sensitive to temperature Sensitive to pain used to think that babies not sensitive to pain 0 Debate exists about how early pain is processed prenatally and sugar water calms them down I Probably not before 26 weeks brain processes of pain not formed enough yet Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in Infancy Jean Piaget 18961980 Became interested in cognitive development after work with Binet on IQ test 0 Used unstructured interviews to examine how kids think 0 Believed cognition develops through series of stages 0 Intelligence basic life function 0 We avoid cognitive disequilibrium I Constantly trying to fit it by seeking new information I Children are active in their development Schemes Organized patterns of action thought constructed to interpret experiences 0 Ex sucking Develop in 2 main ways 0 Organization combining simple schemes into new complex schemes I Ex sucking rooting swallowing eating 0 Adaption adjusting to demands of environment I Occurs in 2 ways Assimilation interpret new experiences using existing patterns of thought 0 Ex birds y airplane bird Accommodation modifying existing patterns of thought to fit new experiences 0 Ex airplane does not have feathers modify thought create new scheme Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development Divided cognitive development into 4 stages 0 Stages are invariant have to go through them in order cannot skip or go backwards 0 Progress through stages due to interaction between biological maturation of brain and experiences I Some people go faster slower but you can only go so fast Stages of Development 0 Sensorimotor birth 2 years learn to coordinate senses with movement to learn about selves and environment 0 Subdivided into 6 stages I 1 Simple Re exes birth 1 month 1St schemes innate re exes 0 Ex grasping sucking blinking Assimilation to apply schemes to other objects in environment I 2 Primary Circular Reactions 14 months Circular reactions repetition Discover enjoyable things on accident and then try to repeat More interested in bodies than toys I 3 Secondary Circular Reactions 48 months Main difference focused on outside world instead of own body Still not intentional I 4 Coordination of Secondary Schemes 812 months Goal directed behavior several schemes combined coordinated to solve problem Start doing things purposefully I 5 Tertiary Circular Reactions 1218 months Begin to experiment actively with things in the environment Deliberately vary actions to experience consequences Actions still circular I 6 Symbolic Problem Solving AKA beginning of thought 18 months 2 years Develop ability to create mental representations internal images of a past event object Can solve simple problems without using trial and errorquot approach Develop deferred imitation ability to imitate someone who is no longer present Can engage in pretend play Strength of Piaget s Theory Father of cognitive developmentquot 1St to use actual kids Stimulated research Very testable theory Emphasized that infants were active in their cognitive development idea supported by research Basic outline of cognitive development correct even if some specifics questioned Weakness of Piaget s Theory Underestimated children s abilities Failed to distinguish between competence and performance Claimed broad stages exist cognitive development more continuous than that Limited attention to social cultural in uences Object Permanence Understanding objects people still exist when you cannot see them 0 Infants under 4 months will not reach for toy that has been covered 0 Piaget object permanence failure 0 48 months reach for partially covered toys not completely covered toys 0 From 812 months will look for object but I A not B Error looking for object where last seen not in new place 0 1218 months look for object where they see it hidden I But do not understand invisible displacement pretend that you hid it one place but it really is hidden in another place 0 By 18 months look for object where hidden without trouble 0 But if not required to search 3545 months some understanding of object permanence Language Communication system of sounds letters gestures Aspects of language 0 Phonology sound system of language I Phonemes small units of sound 0 Morphology rules for formation of words from sounds I Morpheme smallest meaningful units of language 0 Ex cat 0 Bound Morpheme cannot stand alone 0 Ex un 9 has to be UNbelievable to make sense 0 Semantics meanings of languages and also able to understand ambiguous sentences I Ex Iohn went to the bank to get money understand bank is the place to get money and not the place to go fishing 0 Pragmatics rules specifying appropriate use of language I Ex speak more respectful to your grandparents than the kid down the street 0 Nonverbal communication skills using appropriate gestures facial expressions intonation to help convey meaning I Pitch or tone of voice I Intonation variation in loudness pitch timing Language Development Prelinguistic Stage Distinguish phonemes of all languages by 1 month 0 Lose ability by 1012 months Cooing 68 weeks repeating vowellike sound aaaaaaaaaaaah Babbling 45 months to 1 year repeating consonantvowel combination bababa sometimes will babble after first year babies babble in all moods o All children sound same at first and then environment plays roles 0 After 6 months experience begins to play a part I Deaf children fall behind begin sounding different 0 By 12 months babbling matches rhythm intonation of native language 0 Infants exposed to sign language at birth babble in ASL too 0 7 months begin to take turnsquot Language Development Prelinguistic Stage I 810 months beginning gestures to communicate o Often combined with sound I Pointing understand that means to look at that direction I Imperative Gesture infant trying to get someone to do something for them I Parents can teach infants simple signs 0 Can come to represent complete actions 0 Use of gestures increases with age complexity of speech I 10 12 months begin using specific sound for certain actions things 0 Ex vroom for car 0 Usually indicates they will speak their rst word soon Language Development Prelinguistic Stage Comprehension precedes production infants can understand more than they can say Language Development Holophrase Period Begins around 1014 months Use holophrases single words that convey many things 0 Ex using the holophrase dada for multiple things 0 Constrained by sounds they can produce 0 Mean different things by different intonation I Sounds that begin with consonants and end with vowels are the easiest to say I Due to immature vocal tract lack of experience with speaking Language acquisitions are low at first one word at a time o 10 words 34 months after the 1St word Language Development NamingLanguage Explosion there is some quotclickquot in the brain and child can suddenly say a lot of words This happens during the Telegraphic Period 1624 months vocabulary spurt when vocabulary expands rapidly built from things they use a lot one word at a time o By 2 years old can produce 3004OO words 0 Common errors I Underextension use word too narrowly Ex only child s own pet Fifi is quotdogquot I Overextension use word too broadly Ex all four legged animals are quotdogquot Language Development Telegraphic Period 1824 months Begin using telegraphic speech combining 23 words into simple sentences Only use words that are important to convey meaning Contain only important words leave out word that are not critical to meaning Not completely grammatically correct Use SOME grammatical rules Continue to use intonation and gestures 0 Ex dad goed work Theories of Language Development Pure Nurture The Behavioral Learning Approach 0 Language is learned through reinforcements punishments modeling and imitation o Skinner learning occurs through operant conditioning language abilities slowly shaped o Bandura learn language through observation imitation 0 Support I Children learn language spoken to and around them and pick up accents I Children learn names of things quicker if rewarded by getting object they name I Children whose parents speak to them more often encourage them to talk are more advanced in language development 0 Problems with theory I Can t explain why kids learn rules of grammar Parents do not consistently reinforce kids for speaking correctly I Children create novel communication Pure Nature The Nativist Perspective 0 Humans biologically programmed to learn language 0 Chomsky language acquisition device LAD proposed neural system that was hypothesized to allow understimulating production of language I Allow children to infer rules of speech from just hearing speech and then use rules to produce novel speech I Contains universal grammar basic rules that characterize all human language 0 Supporting evidence I Similar stages of development across all cultures I Left hemisphere of brain is specialized for language and activated by speech right after birth I Sensitive period hypothesis sensitive period for language development before puberty Brains before puberty specially prepared to learn language 0 Problems I Not an explanation more of a description I Mere exposure not enough I Is it uniquely human Both nature and nurture The Interactionist Perspective 0 Infants biologically predisposed to learn language because of slowly maturing brain and drive to communicate 0 Language rules learned out of necessity to organize growing vocabulary o Mere exposure is not enough I Language developed in context of social interactions without social interactions language will not be learned I Direct reinforcementpunishment may not be needed but language is shaped taught in other ways Chapter 7 Social and Personality Development in Infancy Temperament A person s characteristic mode of responding to events 0 Come equipped to respond in different ways 0 Includes behaviors and emotions 0 Building blocks of personalityquot Consists of 6 dimensions 0 PositiveA ectSociability I How positive is the baby generally and how social is the baby Do they enjoy people 0 Fearful Distress I How much fear does a baby show I Babies high in fearful distress are usually shy o Irritable Distress I Happens when baby is not getting what they want 0 Activity Level I How active is the baby 0 Attention Span I How long can a baby pay attention to stuff o Rhythmicity I Do babies sleep eat and poop on a regular schedule I How rhythmic are their bodily functions 3 Categories of Temperament 0 Easy Temperament 40 of babies 0 High positive affect o Adaptable to new experiences 0 Easy to soothe o Rhythmic 0 Low distress Difficult Temperament 10 of babies 0 Low positive affect 0 High irritable distress 0 Very active 0 Irregular eating and sleeping habits 0 Hard to soothe 0 Slow to Warm Up Temperament 15 of babies 0 High levels of fearful distress 0 Low activity level 0 Slow to adapt to new experiences but can eventually get comfortable if given time Remaining infants share qualities of two or more categories Stability of Temperament Longitudinal research indicates that activity level irritability sociability and fearfulness stay relatively stable over time Shyness is persistent o More extreme a trait more likely to persist o More stable after age 3 I The older you get the more stable the trait Causes of Temperament Heredity o Identical twins are more similar in temperament than fraternal twins Environmental In uences o Goodness of Fit extent to which child s temperament is compatible with demands and expectations of environment I Environment can affect temperament Erikson s Psychosocial Stages Erik Erikson 19021994 0 Stage theory used to explain how we develop our understanding of ourselves and other people Divided development into 8 stages 0 Each stage a quotcrisisquot that person must deal with I Need to find the right balance between two extremes If not successful less healthy development and harder to deal with next stage But the crises are never completely solved and can come up again in later life Trust vs Mistrust birth to 10 months 0 Interactions with caregivers teach either a sense of trust are mistrust in other people the world themselves 0 Consistent responsive caregiving is key creating tryst Caregiver s Attachment to Infant Attachment emotional tie that binds us to special people with whom we seek proximity and security Attachment relationships are reciprocal formed from interaction between caregiver and child Some caregiver attachment may form before birth Infant characteristics may help attachment form Reciprocal Socialization process in which infants behaviors invite further responses from caregivers which in turn bring about further responses from the infants 0 Ex parent talking to baby parent knows to stop talking to baby because they look away 0 Responsive parents teach infants they have some control allow time to practice emotional regulation 0 Caregiver s attachment to infant can be affected by infant s temperament Development of Infant s Attachment to Caregiver 4 Phases 0 Asocial Phase birth to 6 weeks I Responsive to anything social or not 0 Phase of Indiscriminant Attachments 6 weeks to 67 months I At beginning prefer social stimuli but are not picky with whom they interact with I By 36 months some preferences for familiar people still happy to interact with strangers 0 Specific Attachment Phase 67 months to 9 months I Form first attachment to primary caregiver usually mother I Attachment facilitates exploration caregiver becomes secure basequot a safe place giving good information If no secure bond base will not explore 0 Phase of Multiple Attachments 918 months I Within weeks from other attachments to people who are often around them I Choose different attachment figures for different needs Babies go to father for play Babies go to mother for security food Attachment Related Fears Stranger Anxiety fear when approached by unfamiliar individual o Begins with first attachment peaks between 810 months gradually declines over 2nd year 0 Stranger less scary if I Attachment figure close by responds positively to new person then not as scary I More familiar situation less scary I Stranger is sensitive to child s cues is not weird lookingquot the stranger looks more like people the baby is used to seeing Separation Anxiety fear when separated from attachment figure 0 Starts at 68 months peaks 1418 months fades throughout preschool 0 Grade school kids and tends may have some depressionanxiety when separated for long period Quality of Attachment Assessment Strange Situationquot method used to assess strength and quality of attachment 0 Involves child parent and stranger interacting in different combinations Ainsworth I Does child used caregiver as secure base I How does child relate to stranger I How does child handle brief separations from parent I How easily is child soothed when parent returns Quality of Attachment 4 Categories Secure Attachment 65 of US 1yearolds 0 Use parent as secure base 0 Warms up to stranger with parent present 0 Upset when parent leaves 0 When parent returns maintain contact until comforted then return to exploration Resistant ambivalent Attachment 10 of US 1yearolds 0 Do not trust parents 0 Parent not used as effectively as secure base 0 May be scared of stranger even with parent present 0 Very distressed when parent leaves because believes parents will never return 0 When parent returns very difficult to soothe infant I May be ambivalent stay close but resist contact 0 Avoidant Attachment 20 of US 1yearolds 0 Think world is bad May avoid contact and interaction with parent May be friendly with stranger may ignore Not as many signs of outward distress when parent leaves When parent returns do not seek out comfort from parent Sometimes more comforted by stranger o Emotional bond lacking DisorganizedDisoriented Attachment 5 of US 1yearolds OOOOO 0 Most insecure stressed out by situation 0 Combination of anxious avoidant tendencies I Show confusion about approaching or avoiding parent 0 Sometimes distressed when parent leaves sometimes not 0 When parent returns I May avoid or resist parent I May act confused frightened dazed Caregiver s Contributions to Attachment Quality Caregiving Hypothesis type of attachment baby forms is determined by type of caregiving provided 0 Securely attached babies parents are sensitive synchronous emotionally supportive stimulating 0 Babies with resistant style inconsistent parents I Baby tries to get comfort through neediness becomes angry when nothing works 0 Babies with avoidant style I Parents either Impatient unresponsive negative OR Provide too much stimulation not responsive to baby s cues I Infant learns to avoid adults do without emotional support 0 Babies with disorganizeddisorien ted style parents likely neglectful or abusive Infant s Contributions to Attachment Quality Temperament Hypothesis strange situation is really measuring differences in infant temperament not attachment styles 0 But I Some babies have different types of attachments to different people I Training parents increased number of securely attached babies I Fraternal and identical twins equally likely to develop same attachment to parents Attachment an interaction between infant and parent Affected by both style of caregiving and temperament of infant 0 Quality of caregiving affects development of secure or insecure attachment type of insecure attachment in uences by temperament I Babies with fearful temperament resistant I Babies with fearless temperament avoidant o Goodnessoffit model attachments determined by compatibility between child s temperament and caregiving style of parents Cultural Differences in Attachment Cultural differences in child rearing practices and expectations can result in different attachment patterns 0 More resistant attachment in Japan because almost always taken care of just by parents The Attachment QSort may be a better measure 0 Can be used with older kids 0 14 year olds 0 Observations done in home watching the parent and infant in their natural environment I Able to have external validity this way 0 Assesses wider array of behaviors in natural environment I 90 statements to assess o It is time consuming and does not distinguish between types of insecure attachment 0 Best if well trained experts do it Attachment Stability Research is mixed 0 SES effects stability 0 Middle Upper class more likely to stay secure over time I Changes usually go from insecure to secure especially with social support and psychologically adjusted mothers 0 Lower SES low levels of support high levels of stress more likely to move from secure to insecure Chapter 8 Physical Development in Preschool 2 56 years old Body Growth Add 23 inches and 5 pounds in each year 0 Boys taller heavier more muscular 0 Begin to lose baby fatquot gain adult proportions this improves balance Book Notes Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in Infancy Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Information Processing Approaches IP seek to identify the way that individuals take in use and store information o The quantitative changes in infants abilities to organize and manipulate information represent the hallmarks of cognitive development 0 Cognitive Growth characterized by Increasing sophistication Speed Capacity in information processing 0 IP The types of mental programsquot that people use when they seek to solve problems Encoding Storage and Retrieval The Foundations of Information Processing Three Basic Aspects to Information Processing 0 1 Encoding the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory Done selectively because we are exposed to way too much information we pick and choose information to give attention to o 2 Storage the placement of material into memory We must put our information here in order to remember it o 3 Retrieval process by which material in memory storage is located brought to awareness and then used Automatization the degree to which an activity requires attention processes that require relatively little attention are automatic and processes that require relatively large amounts of attention are controlled 0 Examples walking eating with fork or reading are automatic but at FIRST required full attention 0 Automatic processes enables children in initial encounters to easily and automatically process info Example by age 5 automatically encode in terms of frequency and become aware of various people they have encountered allowing them to differentiate between unfamiliar and familiar faces 0 Concepts categorizations of objects events or people that share common properties Infants and children are able to develop a sense of how often different stimuli are found together simultaneously which enables them to understand concepts 0 Some things we learn are unexpectedly complex Ex infants can learn subtle statistical patterns and relationships so mathematical skills of infants are good Infants can add and subtract simple problems as young as 5 months Infants looked longer at incorrect math problems Nonhumans are even born with some basic numeric proficiency such as newly hatched chicks Memory During Infancy Memory Capabilities in Infancy Memory process by which information is initially recorded stored and retrieved Infants can distinguish old from new stimuli Infant memory capabilities increase as they get older 0 2 month old forgets training after few days but 6 month olds can remember training even up to 3 weeks Researchers believe that information is processed similarly throughout the life span even though kind of info processed changes and different parts of the brain may be used The Duration of Memories The quality of information stored and recalled differs as infants develop Infantile Amnesia the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age But researchers say that infants DO retain memories Infants show memory for behavior and situations that they have seen only once 0 Memories can be retrieved but maybe not as accurately due to newer information that may displace or block out older information resulting in preventing recall Infants may be able to remember less because they had limited vocabulary at the time of initial storage and are unable to describe the even later in life even though it is actually in their memory Early memories are susceptible to misrecollection if people are exposed to related but contradictory information following initial formation of the memory Memories of personal experience seem not to become accurate before age 18 to 24 months The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Two separate system involved with long term memory 0 Explicit memory memory that is conscious and which can be recalled intentionally Use when trying to recall a name or phone number 0 Implicit memory memories of which we are not consciously aware but that affect performance and behavior Consists of motor skills habits and activities that can be remember without conscious cognitive effort such as how to ride a bike or climb a stairway o Earliest memories are implicit and involve the cerebellum and brainstem Forerunner is hippocampus but true explicit memory does not emerge until second half of first year and when it does emerge it involves an increasing number of areas of the cortex of the brain Individual Differences in Intelligence Is One Infant Smart Than Another What Is Infant Intelligence Educators psychologists and other experts on development have yet to agree upon a general definition of intelligent behavior even among adults Developmental Scales Arnold Gesell formulated the earliest measure of infant development 0 Compared hundreds of babies on their performance at different ages to learn what behaviors were most common at a particular age 0 If the infant varied significantly from the norms of a given age they were considered to be developmentally delayed or advanced o Developed the developmental quotient DQ an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains motor skills ex balance and sitting language use adaptive behavior ex alertness and exploration and personal social ex adequately feed and dressing oneself Nancy Bayley developed one of the most widely used measures for infants the Bayley Scales of Infant Development a measure that evaluates an infant s development from 2 to 42 months 0 Focuses on two areas 1 Mental Abilities focuses on senses perception memory learning problem solving and language 2 Motor Abilities evaluates fine and gross more skills 0 Also yields a DQ Child who scores at average level receives a score of 100 These scales are useful for seeing if children fall behind or are ahead of others but are not useful in predicting a child s future course of development InformationProcessing Approaches to Individual Differences in Intelligence Contemporary approaches to infant intelligence suggest that the speed with which infants process information may correlate most strongly with later intelligence Use habituation tests to tell whether or not a baby is processing information quickly Fast baby learners turn their attention away more quickly leading to habituation Visualrecognition memory the memory and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen 0 Also relates to IQ o More quickly infant can retrieve a representation of a stimulus from memory the more efficient that infant s information processing Measures of how quickly infants lose interest in stimuli that they have previously seen as well as responsiveness to new stimuli correlate moderately well with later measures of intelligence 0 Infants who are more efficient information processors during 6 months following birth tend to have higher intelligence scores between 2 and 12 years of age as well as higher scores on other measures of cognitive competence Crossmodel transference ability to identify a stimulus that previously has been experience through one sense by using another sense is associated with intelligence 0 Ex a baby who is able to recognize by sight a screwdriver that she has previously only touched and not seen is displaying this Two qualifications 0 1 Correlation between information processing capabilities and later measures of IQ are moderate in strength Other factors such as environmental stimulation also play crucial role Intelligence is not permanently fixed in infancy o 2 Intelligence is measured by traditional IQ tests relates to a particular type of intelligence one that leads to academic and not professional or artistic professional success Assessing InformationProcessing Approaches Looks at quantitative change and sees more gradual stepbystep growth Why Formal Education Is Lost on Infants Electronic educational toys and media do not really work in greatly increasing baby cognitive growth Babies are merely exploring their surroundings in an unplanned way These electronic educations may succeed in poorer language development in children Chapter 7 Social and Personality Development in Infancy Forming the Roots of Sociability Emotions in Infancy Do Infants Experience Emotional Highs and Lows Infants display facial expressions that are indicative of their emotional state 0 Ex smile for happiness These facial expressions are the same across cultures Nonverbal Encoding nonverbal expression of emotion fairly consistent among people of all ages Born with capacity to display basic emotions Almost all mothers think that by the age of 1 month their babies have expressed interest and joy 0 Of mothers 85 think infants have expressed anger 75 surprise 58 fear 34 sadness Psychologist Carroll Izard also finds that interest distress and disgust are present at birth Degree of emotional expressivity varies among cultures 0 Ex by 11 months Chinese infant are generally less expressive than European American and Japanese infants Experiencing Emotions Researchers argue that the nonverbal expressions of infants represent actual emotional experiences Initially the differentiation of emotions occurs as the cerebral cortex becomes operative in the first 3 months of life 0 By age 910 months the limbic system starts to grow allowing for an increased range of emotions Do Infants Experience Iealousy Iealousy is present as young as 6 months Stranger Anxiety and Separation Anxiety By end of first year infants often develop both stranger and separation anxiety Stranger Anxiety the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person typically appears in second half of first year 0 As infant memory develops they are able to separate the people they know from the people they don t 0 Between 6 and 9 months infants begin trying to make sense of their world trying to anticipate and predict events and when something happens that they do not expect such as the appearance of an unknown person they experience fear Common after age of 6 months Infants who have a lot of experience with strangers show less anxiety Infants show less anxiety with female strangers than male strangers Infants react more positively to children strangers rather than adult strangers because perhaps size is less intimidating Separation Anxiety the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs o Begins at about 7 to 8 months and peaks at 14 months and then decreases 0 Growing cognitive skills allow for infants to ask reasonable questions but they may not be able to answer them 0000 Smiling By 6 to 9 weeks babies smile reliably at the sight of stimuli that please them such as toys and people Smiles are first indiscriminate because they smile at the sight of almost anything amusing but then they become more selective in their smiles Social Smile a baby s smile in response to another person rather than to nonhuman stimuli 0 As babies get older social smile become directed toward particular individuals By 18 months directed toward more to mothers and other caregivers If adult is less responsive to a child amount of smiling decreases By end of second year children purposely us smiling to communicate positive emotions and sensitive to emotional expressions of others Decoding Others Facial and Vocal Expressions Although infant imitative abilities do not imply they can understand the meaning of others facial expressions such imitation does pave the way for nonverbal coding abilities which begin to emerge fairly soon Infants can interpret others facial and vocal expressions that carry emotional meaning 0 Ex can interpret whether a caregiver is happy to see them and pick up on worry Infants able to discriminate vocal expressions of emotion at slightly earlier age than facial expressions Infants able to discriminate happy and sad vocal expressions at 5 months First 6 to 8 weeks infants visual precision is limited that they cannot pay much attention to others facial expressions 0 But then soon begin to discriminate among different facial expressions of emotion and are able to respond to differences in emotional intensity 0 Also respond to unusual facial expressions Ex show distress when their mothers pose bland unresponsive neutral facial expressions At 4 months can begin to understand emotions behind facial and vocal expressions of others Social Referencing Feeling What Others Feel Social Referencing the intentional search for information about others feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events 0 Occurs around 8 or 9 months 0 Infants make particular use of social expressions during social referencing Two Explanations of Social Referencing 1 Observing someone else s facial expression brings about the emotion the expression represents 2 Viewing another s facial expression simply provides information Infants Sociability with Their Peers InfantInfant Interaction Infant s sociability expressed through smiling laughing and vocalizing Infants show more interest in peers than inanimate objects and pay greater attention to other infants than a mirror image of themselves Identical twins exhibit higher level of social behavior towards each other than toward an unfamiliar infant 9 to 12 month olds mutually present and accept toys usually if they know each other The older the infant the higher the level of sociability play peekaboo with each other or crawlandchase As infants age they begin to imitate each other 0 quotExpertquot babies are able to teach skills and information to other infants and babies learning the information retain the information and are able to utilize it to a degree 0 7 week olds can perform delayed imitation of a novel stimulus Ex adult sticking tongue out the side of the mouth 0 Imitation may be inborn Mirror Neurons neurons that fire not only when an individual enacts a particular behavior but also when the individual simply observes another organisms carrying out the behavior in the brain and relate to the innate ability to imitate o Inferior frontal gyrus activated when observing an individual carry out a task 0 Infants may benefit from participation in child care centers and imitation may have impact on child s future cognitive development as well Gender Why Do Boys Wear Blue and Girls Wear Pink Male and female infants are clearly exposed to different style of activity and interaction from their parents 0 Fathers engage in more physical roughandtumble activities 0 Mothers engage in traditional games such as peekaboo Adults view the behavior of children through the lens of gender Gender our sense of being male or female 0 O 0 Also used to mean the same thing as sex but they are not actually the same Sex sexual anatomy and behavior Gender is the social perceptions of maleness or femaleness Gender Differences Male infants are more fussier and active than females Boys sleep is more disturbed Boys grimace more but no gender difference in the overall amount of crying Male newborns are more irritable than female newborns In most ways infants are so similar that usually adults cannot discern whether a baby is a boy or a girl There are much larger differences between individual boys and individual girls than there are between boys and girls Gender Roles Gender differences emerge more clearly as children age and become increasingly in uenced by gender roles that society sets out for them 0 0 Sleep By 1 year infants are able to distinguish between males and females At this age girls prefer to play with dolls or stuffed animals and boys with block and trucks and of course these are the only options available to them due to the choices their parents and other adults have made in the toys they provide Children s preferences for certain kinds of toys are reinforced by their parents Parents of boys are more apt to be concerned about their child s choices than are parents of girls Boys receive more reinforcement for playing with toys that society deems appropriate for boys A girl playing with a truck is less concerning than a boy playing with a doll Girls who play with toys seen by society as quotmasculinequot are less discouraged for their behavior than boys who play with toys that are seen as feminine By 2 boys behave more independently and less compliantly than girls Boys are encouraged to go off and explore the world while girls are hugged and kept close By 2 girls tend to show less independence and less compliance Societal encouragement and reinforcement do not completely explain differences in behavior between boys and girls Girls exposed to androgen a male hormone are more likely to play with masculine toys 20 to 30 percent of preschoolers experience difficulties lasting more than an hour in getting to sleep and may wake in the night and call to their parents for comfort Once preschoolers DO get to sleep the sleep fairly soundly through the night Between 10 and 50 percent of children 3 to 5 experience nightmares frequency is higher in boys than in girls Nightmares vivid bad dreams usually occurring toward morning 0 If nightmares occur repeatedly and cause a child anxiety during waking hours they may be indicative of a problem Night Terrors produce intense physiological arousal and cause a child to wake up in an intense state of panic 0 Less frequent than nightmares occurring in just 1 percent to 5 percent 0 After waking from a night terror children are not easily comforted and they cannot say why they are so disturbed and cannot recall having a bad dream Health and Wellness For the average child a runny nose is the most severe health problem during the preschool years The majority of children are healthy during these years Major threats come from injuries due to accidents and not from disease Nutrition Eating the Right Foods Rate of growth during preschool years is slower than during infancy so preschoolers need less food to maintain their growth Some children s food can become so high though and lead to obesity a body weight more than 20 percent higher than the average weight for a person of a given age and height 0 Prevalence in preschoolers has increased significantly since the mid 80s To make sure kids have good nutrition the best strategy is to make sure that a variety of foods low in fat and high in nutrition is available 0 Foods high in iron are very important dark green vegetables whole grains and some meats Iron De ciency Anemia causes chronic fatigue and is one of the prevalent nutritional problems in developed countries such as the US Children should be given the opportunity to develop their own natural preferences as long as it is adequate having children try a bit of different foods is a low stress way of expanding their diet Minor Illnesses of Preschoolers Average preschooler has 7 to 10 minor colds and other minor respiratory illnesses in each of the years from 3 to 5 Minor illnesses provide immunity benefits and emotional benefits 0 Children can understand their bodies more learn coping skills to help with future diseases and gives them the chance to understand what others who are sick are going through which make the children more sympathetic Major Illnesses US lags in the effectiveness in child health care and US cultural tradition is that children are complete responsibility of parents and not of the government s Cancer and AIDS Most frequent major illness to strike preschoolers is cancer particularly leukemia causes the bone marrow to produce an excessive amount of white blood cells inducing severe anemia and potentially death 0 More than 70 of victims of childhood leukemia survive Children with AIDS face many difficulties though 0 Children with AIDS may be shunned by others 0 Children usually contract AIDS prenatally through mothers There are often severe disruptions in the family due to a parent s death Reactions to Hospitalization Hospitalization for preschoolers is quite difficult o 2 to 3 year olds experience quite a lot of anxiety mostly because they are separated from their parents 0 Older preschoolers interpret hospitalization as desertion or rejection by family 0 The anxiety can develop new fears such as fear of the dark or hospital staff 0 To reduce anxiety usually parent or someone taking care of the child is with them for lengthy periods of time Emotional Illness Many preschoolers are being treated for emotional disorders such as depression Injuries Playing it Safe Greatest risk preschoolers face is from accidents Before age 10 children have twice the likelihood of dying from an injury than an illness Children in US have a 1 in 3 chance every year of receiving an injury that requires medical attention Danger if injuries is due to in part to their high levels of physical activity 0 Children are so curious and have a lack of judgement and this makes them so accident prone Boys have higher rate of injuries because take more risks Ethnic differences 0 Difference in cultural norms about how closely children need to be supervised can also be seen in accident rates Asian American children in US who tend to be supervised super strictly by their parents have one of the lowest accident rates for children Children raised under conditions of poverty in urban areas are two times more likely to die of injuries than children living in af uence Range of dangers is wide 0 Injuries come from falls burns from stove or fire drowning in indoor bathtub and suffocating from abandoned refrigerators Auto accidents account for a lot injuries Children face injuries from poisonous substances such as house cleaners Precautions o Childproofing homes and classrooms placing over ontop of electrical outlets and child locks on cabinets car seats and bike helmets Lead Poisoning Risk Children face injuries from household cleaners and lead paint 0 14 million children are at risk for lead poisoning due to exposure to potentially toxic levels of lead Lead poisoning is the most hazardous health threat to children under the age of 6 Poor children particularly susceptible to lead because more apt to reside in housing that contains peeling and chipping lead paint or to live in high traffic urban areas with high levels of air pollution Exposure to lead linked to 0 Lower intelligence problems in verbal and auditory processing hyperactivity and distractibility higher levels of antisocial behavior including aggression and delinquency Reducing the Risks Children can be taught basic safety rules Adults needs to concentrate on injury control and not on preventing accidents which implies no one is at fault Child Abuse and Psychological Maltreatment The Grim Side of Family Life In US at least 5 children are killed by their parents or caretakers every day and 140000 are physically injured every year 3 million children in the US are victims of child abuse the physical and psychological maltreatment or neglect of children Physical Abuse Can occur in any household no matter the economic wellbeing or social status of the parents Most frequent in families living in stressful environments Stepfathers are more likely to commit abuse again stepchildren than genetic fathers are against their own offspring More likely when there is a history of violence between spouses Abused children are 0 More fussy resistant to control and not readily adaptable to new situations 0 Have more headaches and stomachaches experience more bedwetting and re more anxious and may show developmental delays Children never at fault for abuse the abuser is One reason for child abuse 0 Vague demarcation between permissible and impermissible forms of physical punishment line between spanking and beating is not clear Sometimes abuse is result of an adult s unrealistically high expectations regarding children s abilities to be quiet and compliant at a particular age Many times those who abuse children were themselves abused 0 Cycle of Violence Hypothesis the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children Victims of abuse have learned from their childhood experiences that violence is an appropriate and acceptable form of discipline 1 3rd of people who were abused or neglected as children abuse their own children and the remaining 23rds do not turn out to be child abusers Psychological Maltreatment Psychological Maltreatment harm to children s behavioral cognitive emotional or physical functioning caused by parents or other caregivers verbally through their actions or through neglect 0 Ex abusive parents may frighten belittle or humiliate their children 0 Children may be made to feel like disappointments or failures or may be constantly reminded that they are a burden to their parents 0 Children may be threatened with abandonment or death or told that they should have never been born 0 Older children may be forced to seek employment and give their money to their parents Child Neglect ignoring one s children or being emotionally unresponsive to them 0 Children may be given unrealistic responsibilities or may be left to fend for themselves Maltreatment usually occurs in privacy of personal homes Consequences of psychological maltreatment 0 Some children are successfully resilient o In many cases though lasting damage results Low selfesteem lying misbehaving and underachievement in school Extreme cases Produces criminal behavior aggression and murder Other instances Children become depressed and even commit suicide 0 Brains of victims undergo permanent changes due to the abuse Can lead to reduction of amygdala and hippocampus Fear and terror produced by abuse may also lead to permanent changes in the brain due to overexcitation of limbic system which is involved in regulation of memory and emotion leading to antisocial behavior during adulthood Resilience Overcoming the Odds Resilience the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage such as extreme poverty prenatal stress or homes that are racked with violence or other forms of social disorder Resilient children tend to have temperaments that evoke positive responses from a wide variety of caregivers o Tend to be affectionate easy going and good natured o Easily soothed as infants and eble to elicit care from most nurturing people in any environment which they find themselves 0 Resilient children successful in making their own environments by drawing out behavior in others that is necessary for their own development Most resilient schoolage children are 0 Socially pleasant outgoing and have good communication skills 0 Relatively intelligent and independent and can shape their own fate and not depend on others or luck Children at risk need to increase their competence by teaching them ways to deal with their situation 0 Programs provide competent and caring adult models who can teach the children problemsolving skills and help them to communicate their needs to those who are in a position to help them
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'