Review for Midterm Exam
Review for Midterm Exam BIOL 2281
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paridhi Sheth on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2281 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Wen LinElizabeth Pickett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology Laboratory in Biology at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
BIOL228 1 Review for the Midterm Exam Experiment 1 Bioinformatics 1 Be able to transcribe a DNA sequence into its corresponding RNA sequence and then translate the RNA sequence into an amino acid sequence I Transcription 3 5 I Translation 5 3 make sure to represent each amino acid with a single letter 2 Understand the function of Nucleotide BLAST Protein BLAST and CLUSTALW respectively I Nucleotide BLAST search a nucleotide database using a nucleotide query I Protein BLAST search protein database using a protein query Both have pairWise alignment and identify homologous genes in different organisms I CLUSTALW most used multiple alignment algorithms multiply DNAamino acids Supply important information for the function structure of proteins and for the evolutionary relationships between the sequences 3 Understand how the bit score and EValue of a Nucleotide BLAST search would be affected when a shorter length of the query sequence was used I The lower the evalue closer to zero the higher the significance of the match Searches with short sequences have relatively higher Escore not significance This is bc the calculation of the EValue also takes into account the length of the query sequence This is bc shorter sequences have a high probability of occurring in the database purely by chance I Bit score max score how well the sequence is aligned with your query sequence 4 Understand basic genetic terms related to gene structure and expression such as DNA RNA transcription cDNA and intron I DNA carrier of genetic sequence I RNA messenger carrying instructions from DNA for synthesis of proteins AUTGC I Transcription information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA mRNA I cDNA DNA that is copied AT GC I Introns are removed from the mRNA track only exons are here Experiment 2 Microscopy 1 Be able to find an anaphase cell of onion root tip under 40X 2 Be able to identify the important parts of a microscope and describe the functions of each 3 How do you calculate total magnification I Power of ocular lens 10 x power of objective lens 4 Understand how Depth of Field and Field of View change if magnification increases I Higher magnification gt lower depth of field gt lower field of View 5 Know the cellular features that differentiate plants from animals I Plant cells chloroplast cell wall agella sex cell central vacuole BIOL228 l I Animal cells centrioles variety of animal cells sex cells plasma membrane Both animal and plant cells are multicellular 6 Know the relative cell sizes among bacteria cells and eukaryotic cells I Bacteria cells 02 20mm in diameter I Eukaryotic cells 10100mm in diameter 7 Be able to identify the following on prepared slides Know which ones are prokaryotes I Bacterial cells and their shapes under oil immersion I Human cheek cells I Diatoms I Spirogyra I Amoeba I Paramecium I Budding yeast I Rhizopus and Penicillium with information sheet provided Experiment 3 Microbial Techniques 1 Understand what a single colony represents Describe two general ways of obtaining single colonies on nutrient agar plates I A single colony represents daughter cells from a common ancestral cell I Two ways of obtaining single colonies on nutrient agar plates streaking and spreading plate 2 Understand the purpose of streaking plates and the correct way of streaking plates I Look at pic that sima sent I To dilute the cells on the surface of the agar in successive overlapping streaks until individual cells are separated to form isolated single colonies 3 Know the procedures to I transfer correct volume of culture to another tube I spread correct amount of culture on an agar plate I sterilize nutrient agar media water and common lab solutions 0 nutrient agar media autoclave at 15 PSI I water autoclave 0 common lab solutions autoclave I sterilize tooth picks velvet sheets glassware I toothpicks autoclave same as below I velvet sheets autoclave white tapes turn black 0 glassware ovendry heat at l60celcius for 2 hours or aming 0 Metal dip in alcohol and ame oven 4 Know the temperatures and the equipments to grow yeast culture in liquid media and in solid media I Equipment 5 Draw and describe a microbial growth curve in a closed system Describe what is happening in each phase Stationary phase BIOL228 1 Log phase Death phase v Log phase I Log phase 1 the of cells does not increase I Log phase 2 the of cells doubles at regular intervals I Stationary phase the rate of cell division rate of cell death I Death phase the viable cells decreases 6 Understand the purpose of incubating the plates upside down I To prevent the water that condenses on the cover from dropping onto the culture as that would hinder microbial growth 7 Understand how to use spreading plate technique to calculate the titer or concentration of a yeast culture I Why do you have to do dilutions I Dilutions are necessary to reduce cell concentration to a point where isolated single cells can be spread out on a plate in a typical spreading volume of 01mL I How is the 110 dilution performed 0 I How to perform a 120 or 125 dilution 0 120 1 part of the previous sample added to 19 parts of diluent 0 125 1 part of the previous sample added to 24 parts of diluent I How to choose the correct colony count number to calculate the titer I Use the plate with 30300 colonies to calculate the concentration of viable yeast present If average is out of the 10 range then use the set of plates which has a better 110 dilution If both numbers are out of range then use plate D I Know how to determine the titer of the original culture using the colony count number from a diluted culture 0 8 Know how to label Petriplates correctly I Always label at the base of the petri YED plate dish bottom Sectionassigned strain name label whether streaking or spreading done with the correct dilution tube number CDE date initials 9 Know how to properly read the volume of a pipet 1 ml 5 ml or 10 ml etc and how to use it 10 What is replicaplating and how is it performed I Many cultures need to be transferred from one kind of medium to one or several other kinds Maj or role in the development of microbial genetics A cotton velveteen stamp is used to stamp a replica of the pattern of cells growing on one plate to one or several other plates BIOL228 1 Experiment 4 Eukaryotic Cell Divisions 1 Understand the functional importance of mitosis and meiosis 2 Define the following terms I diploid cell regular body cells with 2 sets of chromosomes 2n and haploid cell a cell with only one set of chromosomes n where n of chromosome from 1 parent I homologous chromosomes I two members of a chromosome pair 1 from mom 1 from dad I sisterchromatids I Copies of the same chromosome I Centromere I Part of the chromosome that links sister chromosomes to one another I mitotic spindle I macromolecular machine that segregates chromosomes from center to opposite ends putting them into two daughter cells I cleavage furrow and cell plate I cleavage of an animal cell membrane to form two cells I The way to form two cells in a plant cell as in plant cells it cannot cleave I tetrad I a group of four chromatids formed from each of a pair of homologous chromosomes that split longitudinal during the prophase I crossing over I exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes non sister chromatids that results in homologous recombination Mixes maternal and paternal DNA I gamete I spermegg cells from parents with half the number of chromosomes haploid n I independent assortment I Giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together Each chromosome aligns independently during metaphase 11 thereby leading to different combinations of gametes being formed I Alleles I Different versions of a gene I heterozygous two different alleles dominant recessive and homozygous two same alleles both dominant or both recessive 3 Describe the major characteristics of the different phases of the cell cycle I Interphase G1 S and G2 I Gl the phase that cells are mostly in when not undergoing mitosis Growth period Carry out normal cellular functions I S for DNA synthesis stage during which DNA replication occurs I G2 growth stage structures directly involved in mitosis are synthesized spindle fibers BIOL228 l I Mitotic phase prophase metaphase anaphase telophase and cytokinesis I Prophase chromosomes condense mitotic spindle forms cellular membrane breaks down nucleoli disappear I Metaphase chromosomes line up in the center of the cell along metaphase plate spindle fibers attach to chromosomes at kinetochores I Anaphase microtubules pull on each side of the chromosomes sister chromatids separate at the centromere chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell Chromatids gt daughter chromosomes I Telophase amp cytokinesis cell elongates nuclear envelope begins to reform nucleolus reappears chromosomes become less condensed In animals cleavage furrow forms in plant cells cell wall prevents cleavage hence cell plate forms and a new cell wall forms along cell plate 4 How does mitosis differ between animal and plant cells I During cytokinesis cell wall hinders cleavage furrow from forming in plant cells unlike animal cells so cell plate forms amp cell wall forms along it to separate the parent cell into two daughter cells I Animal cells have centrioles plant cells do not I Animal cells have asters plant cells don t I Occurs in tissue cells throughout the body in animals but occurs mainly n the meristem in plant cells 5 Be able to identify the different phases of mitosis under microscopes onion roottip slide and whitefish blastula slide 6 Be able to answer questions related to scenarios presented using the modeling kits from this experiment e g What stage of meiosis is represented by this model Determine parent cell genotype chromosome number etc 7 Understand what happens during I Meiosis I I Prophase 1 homologous chromosomes come tgt to form tetrad crossing over occurs bw nonsister chromatids I Metaphase 1 amp anaphase 1 tetrads line up at center along metaphase plate spindle fibers separate homologous chromosomes to opposite ends of cell I Telophase 1 amp cytokinesis two daughter cells formed each with half the of chromosomes as parent cell haploid I Meiosis II I Metaphase amp anaphase II chromatids align along metaphase plate spindle fibers separate sister chromatids and moves daughter chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell I Ends with 4 haploid daughter cells each with 11 number of chromosomes 8 Describe how meiosis contributes to genetic variations among offsprings BIOL228 l I By crossing over of nonsister chromatids during prophase I and independent assortment 9 CompareContrast mitosis and meiosis Know the key differences I Mitosis produces somatic cells two daughter cells formed all have 2n chromosomes no crossing over only 1 cell division identical to parent cell I Meiosis produces gametes four daughter cells formed all have 11 chromosomes crossing over occurs two cell divisions involved not identical to parent cells Experiment 5 Restriction Digestion and Mapping 1 Be able to identify DNA bands on a gel using DNA markers as references 2 Define restriction endonucleases understand the difference between Exonucleases and Endonucleases I Definition synthesized in some bacteria to protect against viral attack by destroying foreign DNA I Endo catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters in nucleic acids from one end of polynucleotide chain I Exo catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters in nucleic acids at various sites within a polynucleotide chain 3 What is a palindromic sequence I A nucleic acid sequence DNA or RNA that is the same whether read 5 to 3 or 3 to 5 on cDNA with it forms a double helix 4 Be able to list the essential components of a restriction digest reaction I DNA plasmind appropriate buffer 10x dH20 enzyme vol of enzyme shouldn t be included in final reaction vol unituL 5 Given a plasmid map with known restriction sites and the enzyme or combinations of enzymes used in a restriction digest be able to determine the sizes of restriction fragments produced in the digest Approximately draw the DNA bands on a gel diagram according to the marker lane 6 Be able to choose an appropriate concentration of agarose gel to obtain a good separation of DNA Know how to prepare a given percentage of agarose in a given volume of buffer e g how to make a 15 agarose gel dissolved in a final volume of 50 ml of buffer I 05 better separation for gt10000bp I 1 for 500 10000bp I 152 lt1000bp 7 When will you add the loading blue dyes to the restriction enzymedigested sample How is DNA visualized I Added before samples are loaded into the wells I DNA stained by ethidium bromide and visualized by UV light
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