Introduction to Astronomy
Introduction to Astronomy NSCI 111
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Date Created: 10/05/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR PART 1 ASTRONOMY Introduction and Early Development W What is Astronomy It is the science which describes the celestial bodies according to their locations sizes motions constitutions and evolutions Astronomy as the definition states is a science and so we will study astronomy from the scientific point of view The first step in the scientific method is to specify the problem Our definition of astronomy does this in a general way The second step in the scientific method is the observation of events and gathering of data The third step is the making up of a theory that tries to account for the past observations and also tries to predict future events This theory always involves assumptions Sometimes these assumptions are made consciously by the scientist and sometimes they are made unconsciously The fourth step is the actual comparison oftheory to those observations of events both past and predicted This fourth step is a continuing process and goes hand in hand with step two the gathering of data Whenever a theory cannot account for all the data then it must be modified or abandoned and a new theory tried In this first part we will look at the sky with our unaided eyes and gather that same data that the ancients gathered Then we will look briefly at the theories that have been proposed in the past to explain that data In Part II we will consider the nature of light and the basic tools that we have used to tremendously expand our collections of data and test our theories Then in Parts I IV and V we will use this additional data to help us understand our present theories of our solar system our galaxy and our universe A The Scientific Method text Foundations section 1 OUTLINE 1 The scientific method 1 De ne the problem what are you concerned with 2 Observe gather data 3 Try to explain relate hypothesize then predict 4 Test the theory observe back to step 2 Study Questions for Part A 1 List the four steps in the scientific method B Basic Data text Ch 1 sections 15 OUTLINE 1 De nitions terms and notations a zenith directly overhead b meridian northsouth line across sky through the zenith c ecliptic path ofthe sun through the stars d constellations of the zodiac the twelve constellations that fall along the ecliptic e right ascension celestial longitude 024 hours 0 hrs is location of sun on ecliptic on rst day of spring f declination celestial latitude from 90 above north pole North star thru 0 celestial equator to 90 above south pole NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part I page 2 g summer and winter solstace summer solstace day when position ofthe rising sun is as far north as it ever gets longest day ofthe year it will start to rise a little bit further south eacy day for the next halfyear winter solstace day when position of the rising sun is as far south as it ever gets shortest day of the year h equinox day when the sun rises due East and sets Due West exactly 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night happens on first day of spring and first day of fall i heliacal rising day when a star first rises BEFORE the sun 2 Basic data apparent size shape brightness position motion a the sun moves across the sky from East to West moves along the ecliptic from West to East b the moon moves across the sky from East to West rises a little later each day moves along the ecliptic from West to East c the stars move around the North Star once a day stay essentially in the same place relative to one another arti cially build constellations out of the stars d the planets move across the sky from East to West move along the ecliptic usually from West to East but occasionally move backward backward motion is called retrograde motion Study Questions for Part B 1What are the zenith meridian ecliptic celestial equator 2 In which direction does the sun move relative to the stars 3 Do the stars rise a little earlier or later each day 4 Be able to convert miles to kilometers and back again 5 List two bits ofOBSERVATlONAL data about each ofthe following the sun moon stars and planets 6 Be able to draw a diagram ofthe Big Dipper and the North Star and be able to specify the approximate right ascension and declination for the Big Dipper 7 Name the twelve constellations of the zodiac and for each give its declination right ascension the month when it will cross the meridian at 9 pm and the month it will cross the meridian at noon 8 Circle the correct choices A star that is at the zenith in Memphis at 10 pm Memphis time on June 20 will also be a at the zenith in a place 1000 miles due north at the same time on June 20 b at the zenith in a place 1000 miles due north but at a different time of day c at the zenith in a place 1000 miles due west at the same time on June 20 d at the zenith in a place 1000 miles due west at 10 pm local time on June 20 NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part I page C Brief History of Astronomy text Ch 2 OUTLINE 1 Ancient Civilizations constellations summerwinter solstices heliacal risings eclipses planets etc a Chinese at 4000 BC b Egyptians pyramids amp alignments c Stonehenge alignments 4000 BC 1500 BC d Mayans 500 BC1500 AD temples amp alignments e North American Indians Medicine Wheels 2 The Greeks a Homer 8th century BC Iliad amp Odyssey at earth dome for sky b Thales m 600 BC stars are not gods length ofyear c Pythagoras m 500 BC geometry spherical bodies d Plato m 400 BC pure form e Aristotle m 350 BC real world observations 4 elements quintessence f Eratosthenes m 250 BC determined circumference of earth g Greeks in Alexandria Ptolemy m 150 AD book Almagest 3 Classical Developments a Copernicus 14731543 sun centered view proposed b Brahe 15461601 great data collected c Kepler 15711630 elliptical orbits based on above data d Galileo 15641642 used telescope for astronomical data e Newton 16421727 laws of motion law ofgravity invented re ecting telescope wrote book on optics played with spectrum of light invented calculus to help in work with motion and gravity one of world39s top geniusesl 4 Modern Developments a relativity motion and the speed of light b quantum theory amp light waves AND particles Study Questions for Part C 1 Be able to brie y discuss of the ancient nonGreek civilization39s ideas on astronomy 2 Be able to briefly discuss ofthe Greek39s ideas on astronomy and be able to give the approximate year within 50 years for his life 3 Be able to briefly discuss ofthe following Copernicus Brahe Kepler Galileo or Newton and relate his accomplishments in the context of the other four 4 Be able to locate in time each ofthe people in question 3 in relation to the following major world events Columbus discovers America 1492 the Spanish Armada defeated by Britain 1588 Pilgrims land at Plymouth rock 1620 Declaration of Independence 1776 5 Know Newton39s three laws of motion be able to describe them in words 3 NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part I page 6 Describe Newton39s law of gravitation Study TRUEFALSE questions for all of Part I questions similar to these may appear on the test a lfa star appears at the zenith in Memphis at midnight Memphis time that same star will appear at the zenith in Phoenix assume same latitude but different longitude at midnight Phoenix time b lfa star appears at the zenith in Memphis at midnight Memphis time that same star will appear at the zenith in Chicago assume same longitude but different latitude at midnight Chicago time c The stars move in a circle around the North Star approximately once a day d You can see the North Star from any place on earth on a clear night e The moon follows approximately the same path as the sun through the sky f The sun appears to move easterly through the constellations ofthe zodiac it never moves westward g On or around March 21 the sun appears to rise the farthest south ofdue east h The celestial equator crosses the ecliptic at only one point i Venus Mercury Mars Jupiter and Saturn are the only planets visible to the naked eye at one time or another j The planets are called wandering stars because they wander around the sky without ANY limits on where they might be found k Galileo came after Newton and veri ed Newton39s laws of motion and gravity Newton came after Kepler and Newton39s laws of motion and gravity explained Kepler39s laws of planetary motion m Galileo lived during the time the Pilgrims were landing in America n It is possible to determine the speed ofa star by measuring 4 NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part I the speed ofthe light that comes from that star page 5 STUDY GUIDE FOR PART 3 Astronomy The Solar System INTRODUCTION Having surveyed our course Part 1 and built our spaceship Part 2 we are finally ready to take off on our journey through the universe The first part ofthis trip will take us around our neighborhood the solar system In Section A we look back at our home base Earth from our new perspective from space We will see where our seasons come from a theory on the cause of ice ages and where the expression quotAge of Aquariusquot comes from In Section B we look at our nearest neighbor the only place a human has personally visited so far the moon We will consider its motion its phases and its surface features We will also consider the moon39s effect on earth eclipses and tides In Section C we will deal with the major bodies of the solar system the planets and their satellites moons We delay however discussion ofthe greatest body of the solar system the sun until Part 4 since the sun is a star and so inherently different than the rest of the solar system In Section D we will look at the minor bodies in the solar system meteors asteroids comets Finally in Section E we consider theories on the origin ofthe solar system A THE EARTH A CELESTIAL BODY text Ch 1 Sections 67 OUTLINE 1 The orientation of the earth in space tilt of the earth 23 2 and the seasons MAJOR effect elliptical orbit of earth a 017 and the seasons MINOR effect precession of the equinoxes due to quotwobblequot variation ofthe tilt link to ice ages 00 cm vvvv 2 Time sidereal time with respect to the STARS solar time and local time with respect to the SUN standard time and daylight savings time with respect to transportation calendars one year 3652422 days 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45 sec 00 cm vvvv Study Questions for Part A 1 What is responsible for the seasons Be able to provide evidence to support your answer 2 Why are leap years necessary 3 What is the precession ofthe equinoxes and how does it relate to the quotAge of Aquariusquot and the position ofthe North Star 4 Distinguish between sidereal and solar time 5 Distinguish between standard and local time NSCI III Study Guide for Part III page B THE MOON EARTH39S NEAREST NEIGHBOR text Ch 1 Section 811 Ch 5 Sections 69 OUTLINE 1 Basic Facts a distance from the earth m 384000 km or m 250000 miles or m 30 X diameter of earth b size actual m A diameter of earth angular m 12 c mass 0123 X mass of earth gravity gmoon 16 X geanh and tides m 2 high tides a day d moonlight 2 The Structure of the Moon a atmosphere b surface 1 craters 2 maria 3 mountains 4 rays 5 rills c interior d origin of the moon 3 The Motions ofthe Moon a sidereal 273 days and synodic 295 days periods b synchronous rotation same face to earth c phases related to time of rising of moon d eclipses SOLAR and LUNAR 1 orbital position 1 new moon and full moon 2 shadows umbra amp penumbra 3 orbital position 2 apogee amp perigee 4 time of year 5 2 tilt oforbit line of nodes 5 types total partial and annular eclipses 6 how often Study Questions for Part B 1 What is the distance from the center of the earth to the center of the moon 2 How does the earthmoon distance compare to the circumference andor diameter of the eanh 3 Why doesn39t the moon have any appreciable atmosphere 4 What are the major surface features ofthe moon 5 Why are surface features ofthe moon so different from those on earth 6 Distinguish between the sidereal and synodic periods of the moon 7 How long is the synodic period ofthe moon 8 Be able to relate the phases ofthe moon to the time of the rising ofthe moon 9 Know what the umbra and penumbra are 10 Know the relation between total amp annular eclipses the umbra amp penumbra and apogee amp perigee 11 What is the line of nodes and how does that affect eclipses NSCI III Study Guide for Part III page 3 12 Why aren39t eclipses very regular THE SOLAR SYSTEM text Ch 6 all Ch 7 all OUTLINE 1 The Motion ofthe Planets a inclinations to the ecliptic b inferior planets c superior planets d sidereal and synodic periods 2 The Terrestrial Planets a Mercury b Venus c Earth amp moon d Mars amp Deimos Phobos 3 The Giant Planets a Jupiter amp 4 Galilean plus smaller moons amp rings b Saturn amp rings amp Titan plus smaller moons c Uranus amp rings amp 5 moons d Neptune amp Triton Nereid plus rings 4 The other Planets a Pluto amp Charon b others Study Questions for Part C 1 Distinguish between inferior and superior planets 2 Know what the following terms refer to conjunction opposition eastern amp western quadrature superior amp inferior conjunction and maximum eastern amp western elongation 3 Distinguish between terrestrial and giant planets 4 List the planets in order from the sun and know their approximate distances in AU from the sun Also know what an AU is in terms of miles 5 Which planets do the following major moons orbit Moon lo Europe Ganymede Callisto Titan and Triton 6 Be able to discuss one terrestrial planet excluding the earth This discussion should include distance from the sun orbital period synodic AND sidereal rotational period size mass satellites and major features 7 Answer Question 6 for one giant planet 8 Choose one planet or satellite for colonization and give reasons for your choice NSCI III Study Guide for Part III D Comets Meteors and Asteroids text Ch 8 all OUTLINE 1 Comets a orbits b physical characteristics nucleus and tail c Halley39s comet d the Oort cloud 2 Meteorites a meteors meteoroids and meteorites b physical characteristics c meteor showers 3 Asteroids a physical characteristics b the asteroid belt c lcarus and the apollo asteroids d the Trojan asteroids e others f origin Questions for Part D Study 1 Distinguish between belt Apollo Trojan and lcarus asteroids 2 What is the size range ofthe asteroids 3 What are the structural components ofa comet 4 How does the tail39s direction relate to the sun 5 What and where is the Oort cloud 6 Distinguish between meteors meteoroids and meteorites E ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM text Foundations ll all OUTLINE 1 Facts 2 Theories a catastrophic planets are rare occurrence b evolutionary planets are common occurrence Study Questions for Part E 1 What are the two main kinds oftheories ofthe origin of the solar system 2 What does each say about the probability of other stars having planets 3 Which theory do you consider more likely to be correct and why page NSCI III Study Guide for Part III page 5 Study TRUEFALSE questions for all of part 3 questions similar to these may appear on the test a The fact that the earth orbits the sun in an elliptical orbit rather than exactly circular is the major cause of the seasons on the earth b Summer is longer than winter for both the northern and southern hemispheres c A quotdayquot on the moon ie from noon to the next noon is about 292 earth days long d The synodic period of the moon is longerthan the siderial period of the moon e High tides are a little more than 12 hours apart f Annular eclipses ofthe sun happen only when the moon is very near new moon phase and near perigee g Triton is a major moon of Uranus h Titan is a major moon of Saturn i The largest asteroid discovered so far is bigger than the earth39s moon j A comet normally has a nucleus several kilometers in diameter and when it gets close to the sun it develops a coma that is several times the diameter of the earth and develops a tail that can reach 10 AU long k A meteor shower usually consists ofgrains ofdust that burn brightly as they fall through the atmosphere NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part V page 1 STUDY GUIDE FOR PART 5 Astronomy The Galaxy and the Universe INTRODUCTION Immm mmWWMWmmmmmmmeWWMsmemmmwmmMWMMmWWMwemmB last section we try to organize and relate all ofthese stars to each other and to us In doing this we will reach out into space and time as far as we possibly can In Section A we consider the organization and structure of all the stars and star clusters that are anywhere near us This group of stars we call the Milky Way Galaxy In Section B we find that by looking out beyond our own galaxy that there are other separate groups of stars ie whergmames In Section C we try to make up a theory that will explain what we have seen in the previous chapters ofthis part We try to explain the whole universe as it is now how it came to be as it is and how it may change with time Finally in Section D we consider all that we39ve talked about in the whole course and see what we can say about alien life and alien intelligence A The Milky Way text Ch 14 all OUTLINE 1 Where is it in the sky 2 Its structure and size 3 Stellar populations 4 Galactic motions 5 Interstellar matter Study Questions for Part A 1 What is the Milky Way What is its shape and size How many stars does it contain 2 Where is the solar system in the Milky Way and how is it oriented with respect to the Milky Way To explain your answer be able to identify at least two constellations through or near which the Milky Way passes 3 What effect does interstellar matter have on our ability to see our own galaxy 4 What motion do we have with respect to the Milky Way galaxy B Other Galaxies text Ch 15 all Ch 16 all OUTLINE 1 Types ofgalaxies a elliptical 1 designations and subtypes 2 sizes b spiral 1 designations and subtypes 2 sizes 0 irregular d other 1 radio 2 quasars NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part V page 2 2 Clusters ofgalaxies a the local group b other groups clusters c superclusters 3 Evolution of galaxies Study Questions for Part B 1 What are the three basic types of galaxies 2 What type of galaxy is the Milky Way 3 What type of galaxy how big and how far away is the Andromeda galaxy 4 What is the local group 5 What is a Quasar C Cosmology text Ch 17 all OUTLINE 1 Observations a Olber39s paradox the night sky is dark b Hubble39s law and the red shift c Temperature of the universe 2 Theories a Steady State b Big Bang 1 open and infinite 2 closed and nite Study Questions for Part C 1 What are the three main cosmological facts 2 Describe the steady state theory and discuss how it explains or fails to explain the three main cosmological facts 3 Describe the quotBig Bangquot theory and discuss how it explains the three main cosmological facts 4 According to the quotBig Bangquot theory how old is the universe Indicate two ways this age is arrived at 5 What do the terms quotopenquot and quotclosedquot mean when used to describe the universe What physical parameter determines which kind we have NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part V page 3 D Alien Life in the Universe text Ch 18 all OUTLINE 1 Conditions of life a formation ofelements H C N 0 plus traces of others b right kind of star not too hot not too cold not too much UV c existence of right kind of planet rocky not gaseous d placement and orientation of planet 2 Probabilities of life and intelligence a total probability of star having life from 1 above b added conditions for intelligence c total probability within galaxy d average distance between civilizations and its implications Study Questions for Part D 1 What does element formation have to do with ETl extraterrestrial intelligence Explain the statement quotWe are made of star stuff39 List two conditions on a star if a civilization is to develop about that star 4 List three conditions on a planet if that planet is to develop life 5 What are plausible upper and lower limits on the fractions ofall stars that have planets that bear intelligent life 6 What should the distance to the nearest civilization be based on question 5 and the number and distribution of stars in our galaxy 2 3 Study TRUEFALSE Questions for all of Part 5 questions similar to these may be on the test a We appear to be orbiting the center of the Milky Way galaxy with a speed of about 500000 mph about means within a factor of 5 b The Andromeda galaxy is a galaxy very much like our own and is about 2 million light years away from us c A REGULAR cluster of galaxies has THOUSANDS of galaxies counting both major and minor galaxies d There do NOT appearto be SUPERclusters of galaxies e There appears to be enough visible matter for the universe to be CLOSED f CARBON is the BEST element on which chemical life could be based g The Steady State theory of the universe explains the redshift ofthe galaxies as due to the galaxies actually receeding but explains the steady state nature ofthe universe as being due to the creation of matter in the intergalactic regions from which new galaxies are being formed This theory is NOT currently in favor but for reasons OTHER than those stated above NSCI lll SUN H 934 He 65 o 06 c 03 N 011 Ne 010 Mg 003 Si 003 Fe 002 s 001 Study Guide for Part V Abundance of elements in LIFE ATMOSPHERE page BACTERIA HUMANS H 63 H 61 O 29 O 26 C 64 C 105 N 14 N 24 P 12 Ca 23 S 06 P 13 The concentrations of trace elements in bacteria in fungi in plants and in land animals show a strong correlation with the concentrations of these elements in sea water which is quite different than relative abundances oftrace elements on Mars or interstellar dust clouds 4 STUDY GUIDE FOR PART 4 The Sun and Stars INTRODUCTION We continue ourjourney through the universe in this part by looking at those lights in the sky the stars What are they made of How do they work How far away are they Are there different kinds of stars We ask all of these questions In Section A we look at our own star the sun It is the closest and so the most important star to us and at the same time the easiest star to observe By knowing something about the sun we will have a standard by which we can compare other stars In Section B we consider the properties of stars in general By considering these properties we can begin to determine how far away the stars are and how our sun fits into the general scheme In Section C we study multiple star systems to see what additional information we can obtain when two or more stars orbit each other In Section D we consider the things other than stars that are out there interstellar atoms dust and nebulae These are related to the birth and death of stars considered above and will be important when we consider galaxies and the universe in Part 5 In Section E we try to first of all categorize all the different types of stars We then try to relate these categories into an evolutionary scheme for stars that is based on how we think a star works A The Sun and its Radiation text Ch 9 all OUTLINE 1 Size ofthe Sun diameter m 14 million km or m 01 AU 2 Structure a core where the energy is quotgeneratedquot b radiative zone c convective zone d photosphere quotsurfacequot ofthe sun e atmosphere transparent 1 chromosphere 2 corona 3 Solar activity a sunspots cooler areas only 4500 K instead of 6000 K associated with areas of magnetic field on the surface ofthe sun sunspots run in cycles that last m 11 years b prominences c flares d solar wind 4 EarthSun Relationships a intensity in space above atmosphere m 1350 Wattsm2 b average intensity on earth39s surface s 230 Wattsm2 c variability of sun39s intensity related to sunspots d Xrays UV visible range IR amp radio all come from sun NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part IV page 2 Study Questions for Part A 1 What is a sunspot 2 What is the sunspot cycle How long is it 3 Describe a solar flare 4 What is the solar wind 5 Be able to discuss possibilities and limitations of solar energy B Basic Properties of Stars text Foundations Hi all Ch 10 Sections 15 OUTLINE 1 Distances to stars a parallax 1 parsec distance that would make an angle of1 arc sec 324 light years b stellar motions c brightness and luminosity 1 apparent magnitudes depends on luminosity and distance 2 absolute magnitudes measure of intrinsic luminosity depends on surface area and Temperature 2 Classi cations a colors of stars b the HR diagram Study Questions for Part B What is parallax Distinguish between proper motions and parallax Distinguish between brightness and luminosity Distinguish between apparent and absolute magnitudes Know the spectral classi cations and how they relate to the color and temperature of the stars 6 Draw the HR diagram and indicate the position ofthe main sequence the sun and the two stars in question 7 below 7 Choose two stars excluding the sun and know 1 their distances from earth 2 their absolute and apparent magnitude 3 their stellar classi cations and 4 in what constellation each is C Binary and Multiple Star Systems text Ch 10 Sections 69 OUTLINE 1 Binaries a visual b spectroscopic redblue shifts c eclipsing d astrometric NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part IV 2 How many are there 3 Importance of binaries a determine mass to get massluminosity relationship b look for stellar evolution 4 Theories a fission b capture c common condensation Study Questions for Part C 1 What are the three ways of detecting a binary star system 2 Be able to interpret a lightcurve from a binary star system 3 Know what the massluminosity relation is 4 What is the percentage of single versus multiple star systems D Interstellar Atoms Dust and Nebulae OUTLINE 1 Effects on light 2 Relation to stellar formation and stellar death Study Questions for Part D 1 Name two effects of stellar matter on light 2 How are nebulae related to star formation 3 How are nebulae related to star death E Stellar Evolution text Ch 11 all Ch 12 all Ch 13 all OUTLINE 1 Energy generation in stars a gravity b nuclear energy ssion and fusion c equilibrium 2 Birth ofstars a theory gravitational collapse b on the HR diagram c observations 3 Life on the Main Sequence a theory 39burning39 Hydrogen into Helium page 3 NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part IV page b on HR diagram c observations 4 Death of stars a theory alternate 39burning39 of other elements and gravitational collapse b giants and variable stars observations 1 giants and supergiants make heavier elements 2 variables a Cepheid land Cepheid II b RR Lyrae c others 3 on the HR diagram c final death 1 dwarf gradualfading 2 supernova explosion a neutron star b black hole Study Questions for Part E 1 Distinguish between fission and fusion Which process does the sun employ Which process do today39s nuclear power reactors employ 2 What does the sun quotburnquot as fuel 3 How is a star born and where does it get its energy to light the nuclear res 4 How long will the sun be on the main sequence total time How long has it been on the main sequence How long before it moves off the main sequence 5 What determines a star39s position on the main sequence 6 What is the source of energy after a star has exhausted its hydrogen supply in its core 7 What is a Cepheid variable Locate it on the HR diagram 8 What is the periodluminosity relationship for a Cepheid variable and how is it useful 9 Be able to locate giants supergiants and white dwarfs on the HR diagram 10 What is a nova 11 What is a supernova 12 What is a dwarf star 13 What is a neutron star 14 What is a pulsar 15 What is a black hole 16 What determines whether a star will die as a dwarf neutron star or black hole 17 Be able to show the life cycle ofa star like the sun on the HR diagram 4 NSCI 111 Study Guide for Part IV page 5 Study TRUEFALSE Questions for all of Part 4 questions similar to these may appear on the test a The diameter of the sun is approximately 01 of the earthsun distance Here quotaboutquot means within a factor of 5 either way b The nearest star is about 250000 AU from the earth Here quotaboutquot means within a factor of 5 either way c Absolute Magnitude is a measure ofa star39s brightness d Planetary nebulae are clouds of dust and gas out of which the planets form e The sun will probably go supernova sometime probably in about 55 billion years f Vega is a star that has a stellar classification ofA0 V From this we can infer that Vega is more massive than the sun g The heaviest elements gold lead uranium etc are thought to be made in supernova explosions and not in the interior of stars like carbon and oxygen are h The sun will eventually in about 55 billion years turn into a red giant whose radius will reach out to about the earth39s orbit i Closed or globular clusters of stars are groups oftens to hundreds of young often massive stars often found in dust clouds j A K9 la star has approximately the same surface temperature as a K9 V star k More massive stars last longer on the main sequence than less massive stars because they have more fuel mass
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