Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide BSC 116
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rani Vance on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
BSC 116 Jennifer Howeth TEST TWO STUDY GUIDE After taking the first test I found that her power points were basically all the test was based off of I wasn t really sure how to study for the first test so I made note cards I would NOT recommend that It s time consuming and when it comes down to it not very beneficial When the test got closer I started rewriting my notes repeatedly in conjunction with reviewing the power points I think the book goes into far too much detail that is not necessary to memorize and understand To prepare for the test I m going to rewrite my notes review the power points redo the homework problems and make sure I understand the diagrams In this study guide I will include my notes clicker quizzes and emphasis key points from class highlighted in yellow Test Two includes lectures 1220 Clicker Question Which hormone is most likely to cause a plant to ripen Answer Ethylene Clicker Question Which plant hormone would have an effect on leaves falling off during the fall season Answer Ethylene Clicker question Why do porifera represent a separate lineage distinct from all other animal phyla Answer Sponges lack true tissues Clicker question Which of the following is not a characteristic of cnidaria Answer choanocytes Clicker Question True or false deutrosomes occurs in vertebrates and invertabraes Answer True Clicker Question Jaw first occurred in which group Answer chondrichthyes Clicker Question Which group is NOT located in sarcoterygian Answer sharks Clicker Question Key innovation that best transitions sarcoterygian from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial one Answer amniotic egg Lecture 13 Plant Nutrition 17 essential nutrients required to complete life cycle 9 macronutrients needed in large amounts carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen phosphorus sulfur potassium calcium magnesium 8 micronutrients Epiphytes Grow on other plants absorb rain water eg Orchids bromelids commensalism Parasitic many with roots that function as haustoria similar to mycorrhizae some photosynthetic Carnivorous Plants Get nutrients from animals live in low nitrogen environments acidic bogs Venus ytrap Rhizobacteria found in Rhizosphere rhizosphere soil adjustment to plant roots rhizobacteria mutualistic bacteria in rhizosphere lOX100X more bacteria in rhizosphere than in nearby soil Bacteria help acquire nitrogen N2 in atmosphere that is not usable NH4 and N03 bacteria make NH3 turns into NH4 and is in soluble nitrogen fixing bacteria fix N2 ammonifying bacteria decomposers nitrifying bacteria convert NH4 to NO that plants can use legumes and rhizobium have special symbiosis infect root and form nodules provides anaerobic environment 1 ectomycorrhizae external sheath of hyphae 2 arbuscular mycorrhizae growth thru cell wall to contact cell membrane branch to form brother haustoria Lecture 13 Flowers are the reproductive shoots owers sex organs made of up to 4 rings of specialized leaves sporophylls sepals outermost ring usually green petals may be brightly colored to attract pollinators stamens male owerparts anthers on filaments produce pollen carpals female parts Gametophyte 4 microsporangia pollen sac microsporangia 2n make 4 microspores 11 each microspore divides generates Double fertilization begins with pollen grain stigma pollen tube grows down generative cell divides into two sperm 1 sperm fertilizes the egg zygote 2n other sperm joins with two polar nuclei endosperm 3n endosperm provides nutrients for seed triggers seed and fruit development double fertilization benefits seed by creating 3n endosperm for nourishment double fertilization benefits the parent by not wasting resources on unfertilized egg Eudicots 2 seed leaves cotyledons seeds vary in cotyledon development some have thick cotyledons no endosperm cotyledon full of starch form endosperm some have thin cotyledons more endosperm food supply remains endosperm provide phloem sap to seeding Monocots 1 seed leaf cotyledon last stage of seed development ejects most of its water and closes micropyle surrounded by hard seed coat remains dormant until conditions favorable for germination varies from plant to plant rain fire freezing partial digestion seeds can remain viable for decades seed bank Germination begins with the uptake of water inhibition causes expansion seed coat ruptures triggers enzymes to digest and mobilize store nutrients eudicots radically emerges first followed by pocotyl monocots coleoptile protects shoots leads way up shoot grows through Simultaneous seed and fruit development double fertilization triggers hormonal changes ovary is transformed ovary wall becomes pericap thickened wall of fruit other ower parts are shed Fruits vary depending upon ower arrangement 1 simple fruits some single carpel 2 aggregate fruits from owers in an in orescence ovary wall 3 multiple fruits form multiple owers in an in orescence 4 accessory fruits incorporate other oral parts behind the ovaries continuing traits in certain environments stable environment don t need mate no frail seedlings pass exact genetic information down Disadvantage no variation no conducive for changing sel ng sexual but as disadvantages many plants with selfincompatibility chronologically or physically separate for male and female 921 Plant Behavior behavior is often perceived as an animal phenomenon behavior is an action carried out by muscles or glands under control of a nervous system in response to a stimulus Phytochromes and Etiolation modifications of growth form from the dark ex a potato grows in the dark no leaves no chlorophyll all white energy put into root elongation Deetiolation switch to typical above ground morphology due to the presence of light Phytochrome reception in cytoplasm many receptortype molecules in the membrane light shines through the membrane and activates the phytochrome protein changes the structure Transduction weak signals are amplified by second messengers two openings 1 cGMP activates protein kinase 2 opens gate Ca2 channels protein kinases act on other proteins to produce a response Plant Hormones small molecules produced in one part of plant body that can be localized and transported to other parts to elicit a response idea plant hormones developed from studies of phototropism grow toward light shape of shoot depends upon receptors in coleoptile message carried by a soluble horomone auxin isolates and shown to elongate darkside auxin does not work this way in all systems Eight Important Classes of Plant Hormones small molecules produced in small amounts amplified by signal transduction most hormones involved in regulation in growth r Auxin promotes cell elongation of shoots control pattern formation natural auxin produced in shoot apex transported down stem via symplast too fast for diffusion too slow for phloem sap Acid Growth Hypothesis auxin stimulated proton pumps and green expression acidify cell wall with expansions which loosen cell wall prime wall and prepare it for expansion voltage potential brings cations into cytoplasm swells with water increase turgor pressure transcription factor that produce proteins that stimulate growth too much auxin can inhibit growth synthetic form used Cytokinins adeninederivatives that stimulate cytokinesis produced in actively growing tissues roots move up via xylem sap 1 In combination with auxin promote cell division no cytokinins 11 cell elongation no division cytokinins alone have no effect 2 Control Apical Dominance auxins from apical bud suppress auxillary buds cytokinins from roots stimulate axillary buds ratio determines axillary bud initiation Ethylene response to stress mechanical pressure maturation of fruit and stimulate death 1 triple response response when shoot obstructed a slows elongation b stem thickens c curves stem horizontally 2 senescence programmed death of organs or entire plant burst of ethylene associated with apoptosis when individual cells die 3 leaf abscission loss of leaves from deciduous trees when water availability decreases 4 fruit ripening increase in sugar cell walls broken to soften it triggers ripening Photomorphogenesis change shape in response to light also use light to measure periods of days and years positive phototropism growth toward the light blue light receptors can detect blue part of light spectrum red light detected germination shadingactivates phytochrome Phytochrome conversion controls shade avoidance assess light quality Eukaryotes maintain an internal clock help regulate daily changes circadian rhythms daily biological cycles not result of specific stimulus photoperiodism a physiological response to day and night length thigomotropism plants respond to touch rubbing plants regularly inhibits growth respond to turgor pressure action potential Herbivory and Pathogens can lead throughout plant my phloem ex salicylic acid circulated throughout plant by phloem activates transduction pathway and production of resistance proteins 92315 F Lecture 15 Early Animals multicellular organisms that occur in several clades characteristics body cavities tissue organization What is an animal multicellular heterotrophs depend on other organisms to live no cell walls collagen protein support sexual reproduction diploid adults produce haploid gametes typically a agellated sperm and large egg zygote develops into a gastrula cleavage furrow division without growth blastula hollow ball of cells internal cavity blastocoel gastrulation Life Cycles may or may not involve larvae direct development offspring looks like a little version of parent eg Mammals indirect development young offspring larvae morphologically and ecologically different than the adult must go through metamorphosis animals most closely related to colonial choano agellate protists choano agellates similar to choanocyte sponges molecular clock ancestor of living animals 675800 million years earliest large animal fossils in the Ediacarian 500 665 million years sponges jelly fish all marine Gist of 535 Million Years Paleozoic Era rapid appearance in fossil record of most animal phyla led to increased 02 began in ocean anthropoids and vertebrates started invading land ended with a large extinction End Permian Extinction Mesozoic Era Age of Dinosaurs bounceback of animals after extinction coral reefs increased diversity of shallow marine habitats first appearances of mammals birds and owers endcretaceous extinction wiped out dinosaurs Cenozoic9 Modern Era diversification of large mammals including humans Animals have conserved Body Plans development under control of hox genes regulate transcription Three Aspects of Body Plan l Symmetry 2 Tissue Organization 3 Body Cavities Symmetry sponges asymmetrical radial symmetry can be divided in many ways just top and bottom no right or left sessilesit on the ocean oor planktonic species most animals have bilateral symmetry only one plane produces equal halves dorsal ventral anterior posterior cephalization having front end head typical of animals that move Tissue Organization radial and bilateral animals go through gastrulation archenteron embryonic gut endoderm tissue lining gut ectoderm outer layer of cells nervous system radial symmetry diploblasts only 2 tissue types bilateral triploblasts have a third germ layer mesoderm this forms all other organs Triplobastic Animals coelom uidfilled body cavity coelomates body cavity lined With mesoderm includes tissue derived from endoderm pseudocoelomates not completely lined With mesoderm includes tissue derived from endoderm acoelmates lack body cavity Coelomates Two Forms protosoms solid masses of mesoderm expand to fill blastocel deuterosomes mesoderm buds of endoderm of archenteron difference in early zygotic cleavage protosomes determinate spiral cleavage deuterosomes blastopore becomes anus Molecular Phylogeny Differs some deuterosomes more closely related to protosomes there are points of agreement 925 Introduction to invertebraes Wide variety of body plans among animals 5 Major Groups 1 Porifera sponges 2 Cnidaria jelly fish sea anemones coral 3 Lophotrochozoa atworms mollusks 4 Ecdysozoa anthropods nematods 5 Deuterostomia Phylum Porifera most basalancestral no true tissue body organized like a perforated vase that water ows through many small holes ostia leading to a big open internal space spongocoel With a big top opening osculum ongocoel lined by agellated collar cells chanocytes Water ows in ostia and out osculum suspension feedersL filter and capture food particles from water no inner tissue inner and outer layers of cells separated by mesophyl may have hard shell calcium carbonate or silica based or firm spongin like collagen roving amoebocytes mostly hermaphrodites sequential Will be male at one specific type and female another Phylum Cnidaria Fancy Gastrulas radially symmetrical diploblasts no thrugut gastrovascular activity alteration of generations asexual vs sexual two phases medusa mouth down swimming sexual polyp mouth up sedentary asexual have stinging cells called cniodocytes on tentacles stinging organelles called a nematocyst no mesoderm no true muscles Weak contractile cells nervous system diffuse nerve net detect and respond to stimuli in all directions Four Classes Class hydrozoa alternates between medusa and polyp phases indirect development scyphozoa and cuboza jellyfish and box jellies a polyp stage small relative to medusa Class anthorchozoa group of bilaterians Most belong to the bilateria bilateral symmetry have head etc triploblastic mesoderm for muscles Lophotrochozoa group of bilateria trochophore phylum platyhelmines at worms phylum annelida segmented form Platyhelmines can be free liVing or parasitic atworms generally long and at acoelromates mainly parasites like cnidarians though they have a gut and gastrovascular caVity unlike cnidarians have organs to maintain osmotic balance protonephridia with cells called ame bulbs most hermaphrodites Four Classes class turbellaria planarians free liVing classes mongena and terrnatoda uke class cestodo tapeworms class cestoda tapeworms intestinal parasites Annelids segmented worms long and cylindrical coelomates diVided by septa body made of repeating segments organs in each segment have a throughgut mouth and anus some hermaphrodites some gonochoristic separate sexes class polychaeta marine class ollogochaeta earth worms mostly terrestrial class hirudinea leeches mostly freshwater Intro into Invertebrates Mollusks include diverse taxa Class Ployplacophora chitons Class Gastropoda snails slugs Class Bilvalia calms mussels oysters Class Cephalopoda squid octopus and nautilus Many traits are shred among mollusks but 3 are found in all taxa 1 foot for crawling chitons burrowing bilvalia and swimming octopus 2 organs concentrated in visceral mass not stretched over whole body like annelids 3 mantle cavity space under mantel behind the visceral mass Other Traits mantle cavity space under mantle behind visceral masses houses gills calcium carbonate shell exoskeleton except in octopus radula for feeding except in bilvalia gonochoristic separate sexes exceptions in most classes Ecdysozoa bilateral discovered by molecular phylogenetics is a new grouping of 8 phyla discovered recently based upon DNA all taxa molt their outer covering go thru ecdysis Two Diverse Phyla Phyla Anthropoda insects spiders crabs some in the lineage are extinct Phyla Nematoda 25000 known many waiting to be discovered no circulatory system Arthopods are covered by a joint exoskeleton covered by a cuticle nonliving organic later proteinchitin over epidermis thick in some places rigid hardened with calcium carbonate thin and exible in other places provides points for muscle attachment anthropods are segmented like annelids pair of appendages appendages diversified for variety of functions hard waterproof exoskeleton facilitated the invasion of land 428 my exoskeleton creates new challenges gas exchange gills and book lungsspiders molt ecdysis in order for the species to grow open circulatory system with hemolymph similar to blood in closed circulatory system Anthropods represented by three subphyla subphylum Chelceriforms arachnids spiders ticks mites scorpions horseshoe crabs chellcerae clanike appendages Subphylum Myriapoda centipedes and millipedes terrestrial only Subphylum Pancrustacea decapods lobsters crab shrimp crayfish isopods pill bugs and rollie pollies copepods Crustaceans dominate the ocean insects dominate terrestrial indirect development metamorphosis sexual internal fertilization Wings are an extension of the dorsal cuticle some insects can be very helpful some harmful eat crops spread diseases eg malaria Nematods triploblast tinycylindrical but unsegmented pseudocoelomate parasitesagricultural We know much less about all free living species Vertebrates and Invertebrates are united in deuterostomia include taxa with deuterostome development echinoderms chordates lophophorates Modern has two phyla phylum Echinodermata starfish sea urchins phylum Chordata fish frogs chicken and fish Echinoderms spiny skin quasiradial symmetry bilateral larvae unique water vascular system with tube feet chemically mediated function in locomotion and feeding no organs for water balance exclusively marine asexual regeneration and sexual broadcast spawning 930 Early Branches of the Vertebrae Phylogeny All chorates share 4 diagonostic traits at some point in their development 1 notochord long exible rod of cells provides skeletal support something for muscles to pull against for swimming may be replaced by other skeletal elements 2 hollow dorsalnerve chord develops from ectoderm ultimately develops into the central nervous system 3 pharyngeal slits pharynx posterior to mouth water enters mouth passes thru slit suspension feeding in more derived chordates there are gills and jaws 4 postanal tail muscular tail extends past anus Two Chordate Clades All marine clades l lancelets cephatochordata cilia draw water into the mouth mucus secreted pharyngeal slits trapped food enters small suspension feeder capable of swimming partially buried 2 tunicated urochodata chordate character most apparent during larvae stage adults are sessile anchored to the ocean oor suspension feeders basketlike pharynx Sequence of traits evolved that allow us to trace the evolution of vertebrates vertebrae jaws mineralized skeleton lungs lobed finsappendages legs amniotic eggs produce milk Two clades of jawless vertebrates cyclostomes l Hagfish myxini no jaw suck up worms and dead fish cartilage with no skull reduced vertebrae excrete slime to defend themselves against predators 2 Lampreys petromyzontida j awless with rasping tongue larvae look a lot like lancelets cartilaginous vertebrae most parasitic marine freshwater species Early Vertebrate Evolution Cartilaginous vertebrae and skull provides skeletal support and spinal chord Innovations mineralized teeth and armor plates led to mineralization dorsal and ventral fins semicircular ear canals for balance Conodants lacked jaws and an internal skeleton composed of cartilage mineralized dental hooks j awless armored vertebrates Gnathostomes vertebrates with jaws j aws evolved from skeletal support between gills gnathostomes have existed for 450 million years Innovations skeleton calcified with hard matrix of calcium phosphate increased forebrain lateral line system Extant Clades chondri chthyes sharks and sting rays unmineralized skeleton buoyancy based on the amount of oil stored in the liver osteichytes bony fish mineralized skeleton buoyancy using lungs and swim bladders Osteichthyans Gnathostomes with bony skeleton include bony fishtetra pods lungs are modified swim bladder gases move into and out of blood attened bony scales glands secrete slime Sacropterygians lobefinds pectoral and pelvic fins with rod shaped bones surrounded by muscle axial limbs support walking in the shallow parts of water Three extant clades Actinistia coelacanths Dipnoi lungfishes South America tetrapods four legs amphibians Tetrapods sarcopenteryglands evolved legs to provide supportlocomotion accumulation of features of 10 million years eg Acanthostega had limbs but were too weak to leave the water lots of fossils demonstrate the transition from water to land Amphibians oldest tetrapod lineage three orders 1 Order Urodela salamander 2 Order Ahura frogs and toads 3 Order Apoda aecllians no legs Amphibious live on land and in the water some fully aquatic some fully terrestrial often aquatic larval stage tadpole undergo metamorphosis eggs dry out quickly if not kept wet or moist external fertilization 102 egg has four extraembryonic membranes not part of the body of the embryo grows from tissue layers out from the embryo able to survive without water analogous to a seed extant species that utilize this reptiles and egg laying mammals A key adaption to terrestrial life was the amniotic egg 4 extraembryonic membranes 1 amnion holds embryo in uid buffers from shock and drying out 2 chorion gas exchange 3 allantois creates compartment for waste also functions in gas exchange 4 yolk sac nutrient storage delivered via White blood cells albumen egg White greater nutrients than yolk shell hard like chicken egg or leathery like an alligator egg reptiles lay eggs externally but differ in hardness most mammals have lost their shelled eggs and raise an embryo in the uterus amniotes developed other terrestrial adaptations skinless permeable to water and gases Extant Amniotes reptiles and synapsids What is a reptile arose 310 My things like tuataras lizards snakes turtles crocodiles body has a hard keratin shell or plates scales are used for protection generally oviparous lay eggs on land internal fertilization some viviparous embryo retained and developed in mother ectothermic body heated by environment BirdsMammals evolved from reptile ancestors reptilian characters ancestral rather than derived reptiles recognized by What they are not nonbird nonmammal endothermic mammals use metabolic processes to generate heat Tuataras Lizards Snakes extant lineages of lepdiosaurs tuataras 2 species remaining found in New Zealand squamates lizards and snakes 7900 species Turtles have been hard to place easy to recognize because of shell shell used to protection against predation sister to archosaurs sister to diapsids Archosaurs9 birds and crocodiles crocodiles and alligators tend to be aquatic birds sister to crocodiles represented by dinosaurs two major lineages of dinosaurs ornithischian extinct saurischian some extinct Birds evolved from saursischian theropods theropods bipedal carnivores like trex some species had feathers feathers keratin like scales of reptiles LightWeight for insulation feathers evolved much before ight Archaeopteryx 1St bird 150 My air foil Wings and longs tail capable of ight retained some dinosaur characteristics teeth forelimbs long tail Modern birds well adapted for ight modifications for ight no bladder small gonads air filled bones endothermic high metabolism to power ight keen vision fine muscle control brain larger than other reptiles with similar body size Several Flightless Birds ratites ostriches emu penguins use Wings to swim and dive rather than y Homework Questions
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