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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by George Hilll on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO101A at City College of San Francisco taught by CrimaPogge in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see /class/219515/bio101a-city-college-of-san-francisco in Biology at City College of San Francisco.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Study Guide Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment Campbell et al Biology 8th ed Chapter 3 Do all concept checks Check out the study aids on Mastering Biology 0 Application Why should you cut a little piece off the stems of flower while holding them in water before putting them in a vase Why should you not touch the surface ofa tent when it rains I The big picture 00 More than 70 ofthe Earth s surface is water most cells are surrounded by water even on land and cells and organisms consist of about 7095 water Lack of fresh water leads to death pollution ofwater makes people sick and wars are fought over water What is the daily per capita use of water in the US What will happen ifwe continue to use more fresh water than is restored two consequences Besides the wellknown effect on global temperature carbon dioxide decreases the concentration of carbonate ions in the oceans Explain why this happens and what the effects are Figure 311 P The Properties of Water 01 V th the use of a diagram or diagrams explain why water molecules are a Polar Figure 32 b Capable of hydrogen bonding with four neighboring water molecules Figure 32 Not quite clear Use the web CD Activity The polarity of water 0 List four characteristics ofwater that are emergent properties resulting from hydrogen bonding Define cohesion adhesion and surface tension Explain how water s cohesion and adhesion contribute to the movement ofwater from the roots to the leaves ofa tree Figure 33 Define kinetic energy heat temperature and heat of vaporization What causes evaporative cooling 10 Explain why ice is less dense than liquid water 11Explain the following observations by referring to the properties of water l 000 Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 1 Q Coastal areas have milder climates than adjacent inland areas Figure 35 O39 Ocean temperatures fluctuate much less than air temperatures on land Insects like water striders can walk on the surface of a pond without breaking the surface Figure 34 If you slightly overfill a water glass the water will form a convex surface above the top of the glass If you place a paper towel so that it touches spilled water the towel will draw in the water lce floats on water Figure 36 Plants can transport Mg2 from the soil to the leaves where it is built into chlorophyll h Humans sweat and dogs pant to cool themselves on hot days a o o 07quot 12 Distinguish among a solute a solvent and a solution Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms 13 Name the products of the dissociation of water and give their concentration in pure water 14 Define acid base and pH Figure 39 Not quite clear Use the web CD Activities Dissociation of water 39 molecules and Acids bases and pH 513335 i mary 15 Explain how acids and bases may directly or indirectly alter the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution 16 Using the bicarbonate buffer system as an example explain how buffers work and why they are important for life 39 9 H501 I m LUNGS 17 MBriefly explain the causes and effects of acid precipitation Figure 310 Why causes the rise in carbon dioxide Essay question 1 Explain water39s unusual properties and how they facilitate life on Earth Note You might find parts of essay questions on the next exam Don t skip them Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 2 Study guide chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Campbell et al Biology 8th ed Chapter 5 Concept checks All 0 Application 1 2 3 4 What causes lactose intolerance Why are transfatty acids bad for your health Why do kids suffering from proteinenergy malnutrition suffer from a swollen abdomen weight and hair loss How are proteins involved in sickle cell anemia Alzheimer s and cystic brosis l The big picture 5 So far we have considered the inside of cells as mostly water with 25 elements floating around In this chapter we will see how cells organize atoms into four classes of large ordered molecules with particular shapes which support the activities necessary for sustaining and perpetuating life Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules what makes such diversity necessary ll Principles of polymers 6 7 8 List the four major classes of macromolecules Distinguish between monomers and polymers Figure 52 Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation and hydrolysis reactions Figure 52 Which of these reactions is usually exergonic which is usually endergonic What role do enzymes play in these reactions How can the huge variety of polymers more than a million antibody proteins in cells be built from a small set of monomers lll Carbohydrates 10What are the main functions of carbohydrates 11 Distinguish among monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides 12What is lactose and is its hydrolysis endergonic or exergonic Refer to Application question 1 13 Compare and contrast the starch amylose glycogen cellulose and chitin structure function occurrence Explain why the differences are biologically important 14 Describe glucose as precisely as you can Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 1 IV Lipids Are a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules lt 15 Describe the buildingblock molecules structure and biological importance of fats phospholipids and steroids 16 Distinguish between saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated hydrogenated cis and trans fatty acids 17What causes atherosclerosis Remember that you should be able to de ne boldfaced terms 18Animals store longterm energy mostly in saturated fats while plants mostly use unsaturated fats What are advantages and tradeoffs ofthese different adatations consider key concepts II III and strategies 1 5 Proteins Have Many Structures and Many Functions 19 Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide 20What are the different functions of proteins Give an example for each Table 51 21 List and describe the four major components of an amino acid 22 Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties ofthe R group Figure 517 23What are essential amino acids refer to Application question 3 24 Give an of food items that complement each others lack of a particular essential amino acids 25 Define primary structure Which parts ofamino acids and which bonds are involved 26 What is the functional difference between an alpha helix and a beta sheet 27 The secondary protein structure consists ofonly few very regular forms while the tertiary level leads to a huge variety of forms Why is that again consider parts of amino acids and bonds involved 28 Define quaternary protein structure and distinguish between globular and fibrous proteins Know examples for each 29 What is the advantage of having the huge variety of protein shapes 30 Predict consequences of a change in primary protein structure Distinguish between a change in the active site ofan enzyme Figure 516 or the groove of a lysozyme Figure 519 versus a change in the purple bulk Distinguish between a change from glycine to alanine in the receptor part ofa transmembrane protein versus a change from glycine to tyrosine Figure 517 31 What happens when a protein denatures Figure 523 List four conditions under which proteins may be denatured 32 What role do chaperonins play in the process of protein folding Describe the steps of chaperonin action Figure 524 33 What is meant by biological specificity Refer to key concept handout Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 2 34 What does biological specificity depend upon Figure 520 Vl Nucleic Acids 35What are the functions of nucleotides DNA and mRNA Figure 526 36 How is are genes related to the terms in the question above 37 List the major components ofa nucleotide and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid Figure 527 38 Distinguish between a pyrimidine and purine c ribose and deoxyribose b nucleotide and nucleoside d 5 end and 3 end ofa nucleotide 39 Brie y describe the threedimensional structure of DNA using the terms double helix and antiparallel 40 How can you explain the following observations When comparing DNA sequences for the hemoglobin gene and amino acid sequences of hemoglobin those sequences are more similar in humans and gorillas than in humans and frogs 41 How is ATP related to nucleic acids Vll Summary 42 Name the principal energy storage molecules of plants and animals 43 Distinguish between the four major classes of organic compounds found in cells their componentstheir main functions and the elements they are composed of Give an example for each see page 90 Note that you will Essay question Describe the process of protein folding using a protein with quaternary structure Discuss which intramolecular properties and interactions de ne the nal shape How is misfolding prevented and why is this important Explain all technical terms you are using Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 3
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