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by: George Hilll

HumanBiology BIO9

George Hilll

GPA 3.64


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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by George Hilll on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO9 at City College of San Francisco taught by Lopipero-Langmo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see /class/219519/bio9-city-college-of-san-francisco in Biology at City College of San Francisco.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Biology 9 Study Guide DNA and Biotechnology Reading 0 Goodenough et al quotBiology of Humansquot Chapter 21 Key Terms deoxyribonucleic acid DNA mRNA rRNA tRNA plasmid complementary base pairing genetic code restriction enzyme ribonucleic acid RNA codon anticodon DNA ligase DNA and RNA polymerases intron exon polymerase chain reaction PCR semiconservative replication polyribosome DNA ngerprint adenine thymine uracil protein synthesis transgenic cytosine guanine point mutation gene quotpharmingquot gene expression genomics genetically modi ed organisms GMOs translation genetic engineering gene therapy transcription recombinant DNA vector Study Objectives Describe the structure of a DNA molecule Describe the purpose and mechanism of DNA replication Understand what is meant by semiconservative replication Compare DNA and RNA in structure and function List the three forms of RNA and their functions Understand the structure and functions of proteins Describe the stages of gene expression including transcription and translation Describe the processing of mRNA and the role of introns and exons Describe codons anticodons and the genetic code Differentiate between chromosomal and point mutations Describe the various types of point mutations and their relative impact on protein synthesis Understand the regulation of gene activity De ne genomics How does the human genome compare with that of the chimpanzee the fruit y and the mouse How does it compare between humans About how many genes are thought to exist in the human genome What is meant by quotjunkquot DNA De ne genetic engineering and give examples of how it has been used in various elds Describe the steps involved in making recombinant DNA Describe the polymerase chain reaction and explain its advantages Give an example of how it is used Describe the process of DNA ngerprinting Explain Why bacteria are so frequently used in the genetic engineering industry and discuss some of the products that can result Understand Why it is harder to produce large numbers of transgenic animals than it is to produce transgenic plant crops Give examples of the use of both transgenic plants and animals What is gene quotpharmingquot Understand the obstacles to successful gene therapy Give an example of how it is presently used to treat genetic diseases What are genetically modi ed organisms GMO Discuss the health environmental and social concerns of genetically modi ed foods Biology 9 Evolution Study Guide Reading I Goodenough et al quotBiology of Humansquot Chapter 22 Key Terms natural selection gene pool transitional forms endosymbiont hypothesis fossils primates prokaryotic biogeography hominids eukaryotic comparative anatomy Australopethecines microevolution comparative embryology Homo habilis macroevolution comparative molecular biology Homo erectus genetic drift gene ow migration bottleneck effect founder effect homologous structures analogous structures convergent evolution vestigial structures Homo ergaster Homo heidelbergensis Homo sapiens Homo neanderthalensis Study Objectives De ne evolution How old is the Earth How long ago is life believed to have evolved Describe the formation of organic molecules genetic material and early cells Describe the experiments of Miller and Urey Explain how they supported theories that organic molecules formed from inorganic molecules Describe the RNA rst and protein rst hypotheses Explain the endosymbiont hypothesis as the origin of some organelles in eukaryotic cells List the order of events leading to selfreplicating cells and early organisms Be able to recognize important events in the history of life Differentiate between microevolution and macroevolution Describe the mechanisms of microevolution including natural selection genetic drift gene ow and mutation Describe the process of natural selection including differential reproductive success and tness Describe how variation enters the gene pool Describe how the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria provides a present day example of natural selection and evolution in action Describe how each of the following provides evidence for evolution the fossil record geographic distribution of organisms biogeography comparative anatomy and embryology and comparative molecular biology Be able to distinguish between homologous analogous and vestigial structures Give an example of each What is the molecular clock hypothesis Recognize the characteristics of primates Which primate is believed to be our closest relative Know the order of the major evolutionary trends leading to modern day humans Trace human evolution from the early hominids through to Homo sapiens Identify distinguishing characteristics of each group Distinguish between the Out of Africa hypothesis and Multiregional continuity hypothesis Readings Biology 9 Study Guide Cardiovascular System Blood 0 Goodenough et al Biology of Humans Chapter 11 Key Terms red blood cells rbc neutrophils red bone marrow blood transfusion erythrocytes basophils anemia ABO blood groups hemoglobin eosinophils hematocrit Rh factor erythropoietin platelets thrombocytes sicklecell anemia blood typing white blood cells wbc megakaryocyte prothrombin agglutinate leukocytes stem cell thrombin mononucleosis agranular leukocytes or plasma protein clotting factors thrombocytopenia agranulocytes albumin brin hemolysis granular leukocytes or globulins hemostasis blood doping granulocytes brinogen hemophilia carbon monoxide lymphocytes plasma antigen hemolytic disease monocytes formed elements antibody transfusion reaction Study Objectives 0 Know the overall functions of blood and its general physical characteristics such as quantity in the body pH color and temperature Describe the overall components of the blood Describe the composition of plasma and recognize the functions of the plasma proteins albumin globulin and brinogen What percentage of the plasma is water 0 List the formed elements of blood Which cell type predominates 0 Describe the structure and function of red blood cells Give an example of how its form ts its function 0 Describe the structure and function of the hemoglobin molecule Why is iron important 0 Describe carbon monoxide poisoning 0 De ne anemia and describe its causes Be able to recognize different types of anemias 0 De ne hematocrit and describe what a low or high hematocrit might indicate Give an example of a condition that could cause a normal shift in hematocrit 0 Describe the life cycle of a red blood cell stating where they are formed how long they live and where they are destroyed What happens to the hemoglobin they contained 0 De ne stem cell 0 Show by a diagram or explain how the production of RBC s is regulated in order to maintain homeostasis of blood oxygen levels What is the name of the hormone involved 0 What is blood doping and why is it dangerous 0 What are the two categories of WBC s and what two WBC s are most common in the blood Be able to recognize characteristics of WBC s including their relative life spans where they are formed how they move in the body and where they are destroyed How do their numbers compare to those of RBC s in the blood 0 Be able to recognize the function of the ve types of WBC s o What is phagocytosis 0 Describe the origin and role of platelets or thrombocytes 0 Describe the sequence of steps in hemostasis and blood clotting 0 Be able to recognize disorders associated with abnormal clotting 0 List the four blood types For each one list its red blood cell surface antigens and plasma antibody antibodies Which blood type is referred to as the universal donor Universal recipient How does a transfusion reaction occur and why is it dangerous Understand what can happen if a pregnant mother has Rh blood and her fetus has Rh blood Biology 9 Study Guide Nutrition Readings o Goodenough et al quotBiology of Humansquot Chapter 15a and skim 2a 0 quotDietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 Findings Your Way to a Healthier Youquot at http wwwhe althgovDIETARYGUIDELINESdgaZOO 5 document html bro chure htm o quotHow to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Labelquot at httpwwwcfsanfdagovdmsfoodlabhtml Key Terms calorie kilocalorie low density lipoproteins LDL omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids overweight nutrient high density lipoprotein HDL linoleic and linolenic acid Obesity essential nutrients transformed fatty acids or trans fats nutrition facts label yoyo effect insoluble ber polyunsaturated fats percent daily value DV bulimia nervosa soluble ber monounsaturated fats Recommended Daily Allowance RDA anorexia nervosa legumes antioxidant Reference Daily Intake RDI purge glycemic index free radical basal metabolic rate BMR binge dextrose MyPyramid body mass index BMI Study Objectives Understand why we eat and how nutrients are used by the body Know the function of fats carbohydrates and proteins the recommendations for their dietary intake and the calories gained per gram of each Describe any health risks associated with the consumption of various foods Differentiate between High Density Lipoprotein and Low Density Lipoprotein and their effects on the body Understand the glycemic index and why high glycemic foods should be avoided Explain the value of dietary ber and give examples of good sources of ber Know the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats Why should the amount of saturated fat be curtailed in the diet What are trans fats and why should they be avoided Explain the importance of essential amino acids and how to ensure they are in the diet Differentiate between minerals and vitamins and explain their role in cellular functioning Explain how the body uses energy and what happens to excess food calories Know the US dietary guidelines to promote health and know how you can apply them to your own life Know the components of a healthy eating plan Be able to understand and use the quotNutrition Facts Labelsquot on food products De ne RDA RDI and DV Know that the RDI is used to calculate the DV and that the RDI was formerly called the RDA De ne basal metabolic rate and know how it is used Be able to interpret and apply the 2005 MyPyramid and your personal MyPyramid recommendations Describe obesity anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and explain how they are serious health risks Biology 9 Study Guide Muscular System Reading Goodenough et al quotBiology of Humansquot Chapter 6 Key Terms isotonic contraction fasttwitch fiber muscle fiber antagonistic muscles sarcoplasmic reticulum T or transverse tubules synergistic muscles myoglobm slowtwitch ber prime mover neuromuscular junction resistance strength training origin motor neuron endurance aerobic training insertion motor unit strain rectusstraight acetylcholine sprain deltoidtriangular actin lament spasm cramp trapeziustrapezoid myosin lament myalgia myo bril sliding lament theory tendonitis myo lament troponintropomyosin complex muscular dystrophy sarcomere rigor mortis tetanus the disease sarcoplasm creatine phosphate anabolic steroids sarcolemma isometric contraction Study Objectives Describe the three types of muscles in the human body and their distinguishing characteristics What are the functions of skeletal muscles Describe the basic structure of a skeletal muscle from the microscopic to the macroscopic level Demonstrate and explain the use of antagonistic muscles Describe the attachment of muscle to bone and how that leads to movement Understand how skeletal muscles are named and be able to identify the major muscle groups and their actions as presented in class and your textbook Describe the banded appearance of striated muscles using the terms myofibril myofilaments actin and myosin What is the contractile unit of muscle Describe the structure and function of a neuromuscular junction and explain the role of acetylcholine in muscle contraction and the release of calcium ions Explain muscle contraction at the molecular level of the actin and myosin laments What is the role of the troponintropomyosin complex Calcium Explain why ATP is essential to muscle contraction and relaxation What is rigor mortis List the sources of ATP for muscle contraction and describe where and how it is generated What factors in uence the force of contraction Distinguish between isotonic and isometric contractions Give an example of each De ne a motor unit and describe how motor unit size affects muscle strength and ne motor control Compare and contrast slowtwitch and fasttwitch muscles including where they are located in the body and when they are utilized in different physical activities Describe the best way to build muscle endurance and the requirements for building larger muscle mass Why is gentle stretching before any athletic activity important List some of the bene ts of exercise What is muscle soreness and stiffness that occurs after an unfamiliar form of exertion believed to be due to Be able to describe common muscle injuries and a muscle spasm or cramp What is Duchenne muscular dystrophy The disease tetanus What are some of the risks associated with the use of anabolic steroids Biology 9 Study Guide Reproductive System Reading I Goodenough et al Biology of Humans Chapters 17 and skim 17a Key Terms gonads spermatozoa sperm mons pubis human chorionic gonadotropin ovary flagellum mammary glands premenstrual syndrome testes acrosome milk secreting glands prostaglandins gametes interstitial cells menstrual cycle menopause sperm gonadotropin releasing hormone uterine and ovarian cycles hormone replacement therapy HRT egg or ova GnRH oogenesis egg production Mifeprex RU486 scrotum luteinizing hormone LH 00 contraception epididymis follicle stimulating hormone F SH follicle pelvic in ammatory disease PID vas deferens ductus deferens testosterone follicular phase miscarriage spontaneous abortion semen or seminal flui secondary sex characteristics luteal phase endom etriosis seminal vesicles oviduct uterine or fallopian tubes corpus luteum assisted reproductive technologies bulbourethral glands uterus womb estrogen artificial insemination prostate gland cervix progesterone fertility enhancing drugs penis vagina ovulation in vitro fertilization erectile dysfunction impotence vulva fertilization gamete intrafallopian transfer Via ra g spermatogenesis sperm production labia ma ora and mmora seminiferous tubu es 39 39 menstrual phase proliferative phase secretory phase intracytoplasmic sperm injection endocrine disrupters sexually transmitted diseases Study Objectives Identify the structure and function of each organ of the male reproductive system testes scrotum vas deferens accessory glands seminal vesicles prostate gland bulbourethral glands urethra and penis How is temperature maintained in the testes Why is temperature control important Describe sperm development and the formation of semen seminal uid Where is the site of sperm production Trace the path of sperm from their site of production to their release from the body naming each tube the sperm pass through Name the male reproductive accessory glands and recognize their secretions Describe the process by which the penis becomes erect What is erectile dysfunction How do drugs like Viagra work Name and describe the functions of the three regions of a sperm cell Describe the male and female secondary sex characteristics and name the hormones responsible List the hormones from the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary gland and the testes that are important in the control of sperm production Understand the interaction between these hormones About how many sperm are contained in each ejaculate How does this compare to the ova produced in the lifetime of a human female Identify the structure and function of each organ of the female reproductive system ovaries oviducts uterus cervix and vagina Name the structures of the female external genitalia vulva Recognize the sequence of events in the development of the follicle and release of the ova follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle Explain the hormonal control of this cycle Describe the uterine cycle and the hormones that control it Explain the coordination and interplay of the ovarian and uterine cycles In what way is menstruation prevented if pregnancy occurs Define menopause At what age does it usually occur What is hormone replacement therapy and its risks Recognize the various types of birth control methods and their relative effectiveness in preventing pregnancy What is Mifeprex and how does it work Define infertility and describe some of the causes in females and males Are males or females more likely to be infertile Describe various assisted reproductive technologies including artificial insemination in vitro fertilization gamete intrafallopian transfer GIFT and fertilityenhancing drugs Define endocrine disruptor and recognize some of their harmful effects on animals and humans Be able to recognize some common sexually transmitted diseases STDs including HIVAIDS genital herpes genital warts chlamydia gonorrhea syphilis Biology 9 Study Guide Cancer Reading Goodenough et al quotBiology of Humansquot Chapter 21a Key Terms tumor telomeres telomerase p53 environmental carcinogen benign cytotoxic Tcells ras colonoscopy malignant hyperplasia apoptosis Pap smear carcinogenesis dysplasia oncology mammogram carcinogen initiation carcinoma tumor marker tests mutation promotion adenocarcinoma genetic tests mutagen progression sarcoma immunotherapy metastasize protooncogenes leukemia radiation therapy cancer in situ oncogenes lymphoma chemotherapy angiogenesis tumorsuppressor genes apoptosis gene therapy Study Objectives De ne cancer carcinogenesis and carcinogen Be able to distinguish between a benign and a malignant tumor What is cancer in situ Explain how cancerous cells are able to spread throughout the body List and discuss the seven characteristics of cancer cells Why is cancer a genetic disease Mutations in what types of genes lead to uncontrollable growth of cells How does the cell respond to damaged DNA Describe the body s immune responses to cancer cells Describe the threestage process in which cancer cells gradually become abnormal Recognize how tumors are classi ed What are the three most common types of cancer in males In females What role does heredity play in the development of cancer What evidence is there that you can inherit genes that lead to cancer Describe common causes of cancer including viruses chemicals and radiation Known the lifestyle habits that reduce the risk of cancer List the seven warning signs of cancer Hint CAUTION Describe the routine methods used to screen for and diagnose cancer Distinguish between tumor marker and genetic tests What three types of therapy are presently the standard ways to treat cancer Recognize forms of immunotherapy for cancer Describe an investigative therapy utilizing the p53 gene Explain the rationale for drugs that inhibit angiogenesis Biology 9 Study Guide Introduction to Human Biology and the Process of Science Readings Goodenough et al Biology of Humans Chapter 1 See handoutsreadings posted at the course website Key Terms anatomy domain organ theory biology epidemiology organ system tissue biosphere experimental group organism variable cell homeostasis physiology vertebrate clinical trial hypothesis primate statistically signi cant control group kingdom science correlation controlled experiment mammal scienti c method con dence interval Study Objectives De ne science biology anatomy and physiology What are the seven characteristics of life What is the basic structural unit of all living things De ne homeostasis and give examples of conditions within the body that are maintained within narrow limits How do we know that we are related to all living things Know the three domains and the four kingdoms of Eukarya In which domain and kingdom are humans placed What are two characteristics of vertebrates What are some characteristics of mammals What characteristics do humans share with other primates What features distinguish humans Describe the levels of organization from the atom to the biosphere De ne science Be able to distinguish between observation or descriptive science and the scienti c method What are the steps of the scienti c method Be able to identify these steps Be able to identify the control group experimental group and variable being tested in an experiment Understand why a hypothesis can only be disproved not proven and how this leads to uncertainty in science Be able to recognize when an individual or group is taking advantage of uncertainty in science How is a theory de ned in science How does this de nition differ from its common usage What are characteristics of quotgoodquot science Describe the peer review process Why is it important What are some questions to ask when evaluating scienti c claims Give recent examples of scienti c misconduct and political interference in science Form a hypothesis based on each of these questions How many hours will I need to study in order to get an A in B109 Who will be the next president of the United States Can lip balm be addictive Do microwaves cause cancer Do cucumbers relieve puffy eyes How many poppy seeds can make you test positive for heroin How many centimeters do ears continue to grow after age 18 Will using a cell phone give you a brain tumor Be able to distinguish which of the above questions are testable using the scienti c method Testable means that you can design an experiment or protocol execute the experiment and collect data and draw a conclusion based on the data How do epidemiological studies look at human health How are these studies different than clinical trials Understand the difference between causation and correlation What is statistics and what is a statistically signi cant result Discuss quotE 39 39 when 39 39 studies using humans 0000000 0 Biology 9 Study Guide Development and Aging Reading Goodenough et al quotBiology of Humansquot Chapters 18 and 19a Key Terms conception polyspermy inner cell mass lacenta venuous duct fertilization acrosome fraternal identical conjoined twins umbilical cord oval opening preembryonic cleavage therapeutic and reproductive cloning ectopic pregnancy teratogen embryonic growth embryonic and adult stem cells implantation fetal alcohol syndrome fetal differentiation hum an chorionic gonadotropin hcg germ layers thalidomide parturition A l I I 9quot a Ll uiatiuu I l l Iquot gestation morula amnion amniotic sac amniotic fluid endoderm endocrine disrupters neonatal blastocyst chorion mesoderm bloody show senescence trophoblast yolk sac ectoderm colostrum zygote embryonic disk allantois arterial duct free radical damage Study Objectives Name the two periods of human development and be able to describe the events within each List the three prenatal periods and describe the major events associated with each Describe the process of fertilization including how the sperm enters the egg and the prevention of polysperrny Explain how identical fraternal and conjoined twins are produced Distinguish between the four processes of development cleavage growth morphogenesis and differentiation Describe the formation of the morula and blastocyst Identify the inner cell mass and trophoblast and know the structures they give rise to Describe the origins of the three primary germ layers and be able to identify the tissues organs and organ systems derived from each layer What is gastrulation De ne and describe the processes involved in the two types of cloning Distinguish between embryonic and adult stem cells Be able to identify the four extraembryonic membranes and recognize their functions Know which tissues give rise to the placenta its functions and the hormones its produces Describe its formation What is the basis of the pregnancy test Explain the process of implantation and de ne an ectopic pregnancy What event de nes pregnancy When during embryonic development is the organism recognizable as a human What is the rst organ system to be Visually apparent and when does it begin to develop When does the circulatory system begin to form Describe fetal circulation and how it differs from postnatal circulation Describe the special structures explain what organs are being bypassed and why Know which vessels carry oxygenated blood to the fetus Which chambers of the fetal heart contain oxygenated blood Describe the development of the sex organs and the processes controlling them During which month can the sex of the fetus generally be determined Recognize various environmental disruptions that can cause major birth defects During which period of development is the organism most susceptible to injury Describe the defects associated with in utero exposure to thalidomide and diethylstilbesterol De ne endocrine disrupter and recognize some of the harmful effects attributed to them in both humans and animals Recognize behaviors harmful to the developing human Describe fetal alcohol syndrome and the harmful effects of cocaine use during gestation Describes the stages of labor and the birthing process Explain control over milk production lactation and letdown and the importance of breastfeeding Discuss the major stages of life after delivery When is adulthood reached Recognize the various theories of why we age and be able to identify agerelated changes in each organ system Understand free radical damage and the macromolecules most sensitive to it Know the extrinsic factors that in uence aging and the ways in which to maintain a high quality of life throughout old age Biology 9 Study Guide Cell Structure and Function Readings 0 Goodenough et al Biology of Humans Chapter 3 Key Terms cell theory agella unicellular cilia multicellular uid mosaic model prokaryotic selective permeability eukaryotic osmosis plasma membrane tonicity cytoplasm hypertonic cytoskeleton hypotonic nucleus isotonic nucleolus diffusion passive chromosome facilitated organelle active transport centriolescentrosomes Study Objectives exocytosis osmosis active transport exocytosis and endocytos1s endomembrane system mitochrondria Golgi complex lysosomes endoplasmic reticulum ER smooth ER rough ER cellular respiration cellular metabolism vesicles vacuoles citric acid cycle Kreb cycle lactic aci fermentation metabolic pathway Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Know which type of cell makes up the human body Recognize that different features of the cell are best observed with different types of microscopes Understand why the surface areatovolume ratio determines cell size and when it will divide Draw and label a plasma membrane and its components List the functions of the plasma membrane including its role in exocytosis and endocytosis Compare movement of materials across the plasma membrane including simple diffusion facilitated diffusion Explain the differences between hypertonic hypotonic and isotonic solutions and predict the movement of water in or out of a cell in each case Identify the function and structure of each of the following organelles nucleus nucleolus cytoplasm smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes Golgi complex lysosomes mitochondria and ves1cles Be able to identify the structure and function of cilia and agella Explain in general terms how the food we eat is turned into cellular energy as ATP Describe the phases of cellular respiration Know which one generates the largest quantity of ATP Compare cellular respiration to fermentation as methods to produce energy for cellular use Know how lactic acid forms and what can happen when its concentration builds up in the body Recognize that ATP is the energy currency of the cell Biology 9 Study Guide Cardiovascular System Heart and Blood Vessels Reading Goodenough et al Biology of Humans Chapter 12 Key Terms I heart I lub dup I hepatic portal system I arteries I systole I hypertension I arterioles I diastole I hypotension I capillaries I heart murmur I artherosclerosis I capillary bed I sinoatrial node SA node I plaque I venules I pacemaker I stroke I veins I atrioventricular node AV node I myocardial infarction MI I valves I atrioventricular bundle AV bundle I angina pectoris I endothelium I Purkinje fibers I aneurysm I lumen I electrocardiogram ECG I varicose veins I pulmonary circuit I P QRS T waves I hemorrhoids I systemic circuit I pulse I phlebitis I endocardium I blood pressure I tissue plasm inogen activator t I myocardium I systolic pressure I per1cardium I diastolic pressure I vascular endothelial growth factor I atria atrium I sphygm om anometer VEGF I ventricles I aorta 39 coronary bypass I atrioventricular valves AV I superior and inferior vena cava 39 angioplasty valves I coronary arteriesveins 39 Stem chordae tendineae I pulmonary trunk arteries veins I lymphatic system semilunar valves I Low Density Lipoprotein LDL 39 lymph I cardiac cycle I High Density Lipoprotein HDL 39 lymph vessels Study Objectives What are the overall functions of the cardiovascular system Describe its three components What are the types of blood vessel Describe their structure and function Which blood vessels always transport blood away from the heart To the heart Describe the structure of the heart naming its layers chambers valves and the arteries and veins attached to it Trace the path of blood through the heart mentioning the vessels attached to and the valves within it Describe the cardiac cycle using the terms systole and diastole and explain the heart sounds What is considered a normal heart rate Describe the intrinsic cardiac conduction system naming both the structures and their functions Why is the SA node called the pacemaker of the heart How can dysfunction of the SA node be treated Describe how the nervous system and endocrine system are involved in extrinsic control of heart rate Describe the role of baroreceptors in the homeostatic control of blood pressure Explain how an electrocardiogram is related to the cardiac cycle What do the P QRS and T waves represent Describe the pulse and where it can be measured Describe how blood pressure is measured What pressures are considered normal for a healthy adult In what vessel is blood pressure highest Lowest Why is slow movement of blood in capillaries bene cial What three factors assist venous return of blood Trace the path of blood in the pulmonary circuit as it travels from and returns to the heart Trace the path of blood to and from the kidneys or other organ in the systemic circuit Describe disordersillnesses of the cardiovascular system including cardiac arrest atherosclerosis myocardial infarct stroke angina pectoris aneurysm varicose veins congestive heart failure hypertension and phlebitis Distinguish between HDL and LDL and discuss their roles in cardiovascular disease Describe the medical treatments tPA VEGA coronary bypass surgery and angioplasty Discuss the ways one can prevent cardiovascular disease What are some of the bene cial effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system List three functions of the lymphatic system How is a lymph vessel similar to a vein Readings Goodenough et al Biology of Huma quotSpare the Airquot httpwww 1 Key Terms ventilation breathing external respiration internal respiration gas transport cellular respiration upper respiratory tract lower respiratory tract respiratory mucosa nasal septum nasal cavity lacrim al tear glands sinus sinusitis ha nx Eustachian or auditory tubes otitis m edia Study Objectives State the primary purpose of the respiratory system Describe and explain the four phases of respiration breathing or ventilation external respiration gas transport internal respiration Distinguish these with cellular respiration Trace the path of air through the respiratory tract beginning at the nares nostrils through to the alveoli Be able to identify the structure and know the functions of the components of the respiratory tract Know what sinuses are their location and functions Why do our noses get stuffy when we cry What are the Eustachian or auditory tubes and their function What is otitis media How are food and drink prevented from entering the lungs Explain how to do the Heimlich maneuver Know the role of the larynx and vocal cords in voice production and what in uences voice pitch and loudness Why are men s voices deeper than women s What is laryngitis and how does it in uence one s ability to speak What is a tracheostomy Biology 9 Study Guide ns Chapters 14 Respiratory System m pfmnya V glottis surfactant epiglottis infant respiratory distress larynx voice box inspiration inhalation vocal cords voice pitch laryngitis trachea cartilaginous rings tracheostomy bronchi bronchus singular bronchioles bronchial tree lung pleura pleural cavi alveoli alveolus alveolar sac expiration exhalation diaphra m atmospheric pressure respiratory volumes tidal v olum e inspiratory reserve volume expiratory reserve volume residual volume vital capacity total capacity carbonic acid bicarbonate ion medulla oblongata respiratory center chemoreceptor pneumonia tuberculosis restrictive pulmonary disorder pulmonary fibrosis fibrous connective tissue obstructive pulmonary disorder COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease asthma emphysema bronchitis air pollution nitrous and sulfur oxides particular In atter photochemical smog ozone secondhand smoke Describe the structure of the alveoli sacs and how its structure facilitates gas exchange What is the role of surfactant Describe infant respiratory distress Explain how inspiration inhalation and expiration exhalation are accomplished include the muscles that are involved and the changes in air pressure Be able to identify tidal volume inspiratory and expiratory reserve volume residual volume Vital capacity and total lung capacity on a graph What is the difference between tidal volume and Vital capacity Of the air we inhale some is not used for gas exchange Why not Understand how oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried in the blood and the role of the bicarbonate ion in buffering Describe neural and chemical control of breathing What area of the brain is involved Understand the role of chemoreceptors and know the chemicals that in uence them Identify various diseases and disorders of the respiratory system including their symptoms and treatment Be able to differentiate between restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease Know that lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and that most of these deaths are preventable Be able to identify the major air pollutants and recognize some of the respiratory diseases they cause Describe various illnesses resulting from cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke passive smoking Reading Biology 9 Study Guide Nervous System 0 Goodenough et a1 quotBiology of Humansquot Chapters 7 and 8 skim 8a Key Terms central nervous system CNS peripheral nervous system PNS somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system ANS sympathetic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system nerve neuroglia or glial cells neuron or nerve cell axon dendrite cell body amyotrophic lateral sclerosis sensory or afferent neurons motor or efferent neurons interneurons myelin sheath salutatory conduction nodes of Ranvier Study Objectives multiple sclerosis resting potential action potential depolarization repolarization refractory perio threshold allornone principle synapse synaptic transmission neuromuscular junction neurotransmitter integration and summation acetylcholine norepinephrine dopamine serotonin Parkinson39s Disease Alzheimer39s Disease Myasthenia gravis gray and white matter nuclei ganglia tracts nerves hindbrain midbrain forebrain cranial nerves spinal nerves meninges dura matter arachnoid pia mater cerebrospinal uid CSF ventricles blood brain barrier ons medulla oblongata hypothalamus thalamus 0 Identify the two main parts of the nervous system and its components 0 Differentiate between a neuron and glial cells in structure and function Label the parts of a generalized neuron o What are the three types of neurons based on function and what is their relationship to the CNS 0 Explain the roles of the myelin sheath and the nodes of Ranvier What is salutatory conduction and how fast can a nerve impulse travel How does myelination in uence the speed Describe multiple sclerosis and its cause changes occur in the membrane upon nerve stimulation 0 Describe an action potential as a wave of activity along an axon and know what is meant by the allornone principle Understand that during the refractory period sodium channels are unable to open and that this ensures that the action potential cannot move backward and instead always moves down an axon cerebrum cerebral cortex corpus callosum reticular activating system limbic system primary motor area primary somatosensory area Wernicke s area Broca s area re ex arc short and longterm memory psychoactive drugs stimulants sedatives opiates hallucino gens tolerance crosstolerance dependence What is the resting potential and describe how a nerve cell maintains it using the sodiumpotassium pump Explain how a nerve impulse is an electrochemical signal including how ions move across the membrane What Draw and label a synapse showing the movement of neurotransmitters What is a neurotransmitter where is it stored how does it function and how can it be removed Name two wellknown neurotransmitters Understand the role of common neurotransmitters in depression and in Parkinson39s and Alzheimer39s disease Understand that neurons quotsum upquot input from excitatory and inhibitory effects on its membrane List the divisions of the peripheral nervous system and be able to identify their components and functions Compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems De ne and distinguish between grey and white matter ganglia and nuclei nerves and tracts List the structures that provide protection for the central nervous system Know the functions of the CSF and the blood brain barrier BBB Recognize which types of substances can and cannot cross the BBB cerebral cortex Describe the structure and functions of the cerebrum and recognize the functional areas of the lobes of the 0 Explain the location and functions of the primary sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex Be able to identify the functions of the medulla oblongata pons cerebellum midbrain and diencephalon thalamus and hypothalamus Realize that tracts from the right side of the forebrain cross over to the other side of the body in the medulla and its implications Recognize the structures of the limbic system and describe its functions Describe two functions of the reticular activating system Recognize the regions of the brain involved in memory and distinguish between the types of memory short term longterm skill semantic episodic What are the functional areas involved in language and speech What happens to someone who experiences damage to Broca s area Wemicke s area Describe the structure and function of the spinal cord Distinguish between the cranial and spinal nerves Describe the re ex arc that occurs when you have stepped on something sharp withdrawal re ex Describe the mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs and differentiate between tolerance and physical dependence addiction Explain why different individuals may experience different levels of intoxication having had the same amount of alcohol Recognize the effects of alcohol on the various body systems nutrition cancer and fetal development What are some effects of marijuana Recognize its medicinal uses Recognize the effects of stimulants sedatives hallucino gens and opiates on the CNS and be able to give examples of each Biology 9 Study Guide Digestive System Readings o Goodenough et a1 Biology of Humans Chapter 15 Key Terms digestive tract plaque small intestine liver cirrhosis alimentary canal gingiva duodenum hepatitis gastrointestinal tract pulp cavity jejunum jaundice lumen incisors ileum large intestine mucosa canines villi microvilli colon submucosa premolars molars lactea cecum muscularis tongue pancreas appendix serous layer bolus amylase appendicitis peristalsis epiglottis sodium bicarbonate rectum segmentation esophagus gall bladder anus sphincter acidre ux bile diarrhea oral cavity stomach gall stones constipation salivary glands gastric glands protease diverticular disease hard and soft palate hydrochloric acid HCl lipase polyps uvula pepsin maltase hernorrh01ds crown ulcer lactose intolerance Escherichia coli root chyme Lactobacillus acidophilus coliform enamel Heliobacter pylori chylomicron colon cancer Study Objectives Describe the passage of food through the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus Be able to recognize each organ and accessory organ of the digestive system and their primary functions Be able to differentiate between mechanical and chemical digestion Be able to identify where and what is absorbed in the various components of the digestive tract Know the layers of the walls of the digestive tract and describe their primary components Describe the two modes of motility observed in the digestive tract and their functions Describe the role of the teeth tongue and salivary glands in the preparation of food for swallowing What form of digestion if any takes place in the mouth Recognize the structure of a tooth and know the factors affecting tooth decay and gum disease How can they be prevented Describe swallowing and the role of the palate and epiglottis Describe the causes of acidre ux or quotheartburnquot and gastric ulcers Explain how the structure of the stomach lining protects it from high acid concentrations What digestion or absorption takes place in the stomach Describe the digestive activities of the small intestine including the secretion of intestinal and pancreatic enzymes and bile Describe the structure of the villi and how they function in the absorption of food molecules in the small intestine Recognize the types of digestive enzymes involved in the chemical breakdown of different types of food carbohydrates proteins and fats and where the breakdown products are absorbed Recognize the various functions of the liver Understand its importance in the regulation of blood glucose levels Describe various disordersdiseases of the digestive system including liver cirrhosis hepatitis gall stones appendicitis lactose intolerance diarrhea constipation hemorrhoids diverticular disease polyps and colon cancer What factors may play a role in their prevention Describe the role of bacteria in the large intestine Know the signi cance of a high coliform count in water Recognize that digestion is under neural and hormonal control Be able to give some examples Biology 9 Study Guide Endocrine System Readings Goodenough et a1 quotBiology of Humansquot Chapter 10 quotMale sweat boosts women s hormone levelsquot at httpwwwberkeleyedunewsmediareleases200702067sweatshtrnl see link at instructor s website Key Terms endocrine thyroid oxytocin thyroxine T4 insulin autocrine parathyroid hypothalarnic releasing hormones hyperglycemia paracrine thymus hypothalarnic inhibiting hormones Grave39s disease hypoglycemia neurocrme pancreas diabetes insipidus simple goiter glucagon o adrenal cortex thyroid stimulating hormone T SH calcitonin androgens neurohorrnone adrenal medulla adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH parathyroid hormone testosterone local regulators gonads gonadotropic hormones FSH LH gonadocorticoids trogens chemical si ovaries prolactin PRL mineralocorticoids progesterone target cell tissue or organ testes melanocyte stimulating hormone aldosterone anabolic steroids placenta M SH glucocorticoids thymosins steroid hormone 2nd messenger growth or somatotropic hormone cortisone cortisol melatonin peptide or protein hormone cyclic AMP tropic hormones Cushing39s syndrome seasonal affective disorder feedback loops cascade effect pituitary dwar sm stress response SAD pheromone mitosis cell division 39 39 adrenalin epinephrine circadian rhythm ant and post pituitary antagonistic hormone pairs acromegaly norepinephrine 1e ti hypo arnus humor cre 39nism diabetes mellrtus growth factors pineal antidiuretic hormone ADH tri and tetraiodothyronine pancreatic islet cells prostaglandins Study Objectives Know the types of intercellular communication and chemical messengers that exist in the body De ne pheromone Know that an identi ed compound of male sweat has been shown to in uence certain hormone levels mood and physiological and sexual arousal in females Compare and contrast the actions of the endocrine and nervous systems Know what organs and tissues comprise the endocrine system and its basic characteristics as discussed in class Know the general functions of the endocrine system Be able to differentiate between an exocrine and endocrine gland Give an example of a gland with both functions De ne hormone and target organ or cell Know the major chemical classes of hormones both in terms of their structures and water solubility as well as their general mechanisms of action Recognize the types of cellular responses to hormones Recognize the three main ways that endocrine glands are stimulated to release their hormonal products How is hormonal secretion controlled De ne negative feedback and describe its role in regulating blood levels of various hormones Understand what is meant by antagonistic hormone pairs Be able to give examples De ne positive feedback and give examples of hormones that operate Via this mechanism Be able to identify the target representative actions and secretory control of the hormones of the hypothalamus anterior and posterior pituitary gland thyroid gland parathyroid glands adrenal cortex and medulla pineal gland pancreas thymus ovaries and testes see handout Understand and describe the feedback mechanisms of each hormone under study see previous study objective Explain and compare the body s shortterm and longterm responses to stress Be able to recognize the general functions of hormones from other hormone producing tissues and organs discussed in class These include the kidneys heart and adipose tissue De ne local regulator and give an example What are prostaglandins What are they made of and what are some of their effects Recognize the causes of pituitary dwar sm giantism acromegaly diabetes insipidus diabetes mellitus Type 1 and Type 2 cretinism myxedema Grave s disease simple goiter and Cushing s syndrome Biology 9 Study Guide Chromosomes and Cell Division Reading Goodenough et a1 Biology of Humans Chapter 19 and Chapter 20 pages 443 to 445 Key Terms cell cycle interkinesis homologous chromosomes mutation chromosomal inheritance G1 G2 S and M stages meiosis I and II amniocentesis apoptosis cytokinesis synapsis chorionic villi sampling chromatin mitosis crossingover nondisjunction histones nuclear division independent alignment Down syndrome trisomy 21 chromosomes interphase gametogenesis Turner syndrome XO sister chromatids prophase spermatogenesis Klinefelter syndrome XXY centromere metaphase oogenesis deletion centrosome centrioles anaphase polar body duplication spindle bers telophase autosome translocation karyotype diploid 2n haploid n syndrome inversion Study Objectives Draw a diagram describing the human life cycle What are the functions of mitosis and meiosis in the life cycle of humans Describe the interplay of cell division and apoptosis in humans Describe the structural organization of chromosomes using the terms DNA histones and chromatin De ne karyotype How many chromosomes are present in the normal somatic cell De ne homologous chromosomes diploid and haploid What are the stages of the cell cycle and the major events that occur in each stage Describe how DNA is replicated before cell division What is the point of attachment for two sister chromatids called Name the four phases of mitosis and describe what is happening to the chromosomes during each phase What is the function of the mitotic spindle Name the phases of meiosis I and II and describe what is happening to the chromosomes during each phase How do the terms diploid 2n and haploid n pertain to meiosis What is the signi cance of meiosis Describe crossingover prophase I and independent alignment metaphase I What is the signi cance of these processes Do they occur during mitosis Contrast meiosis I with meiosis II Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis How does spermatogenesis in males compare with oogenesis in females What two processes are said to regulate the cell cycle Be able to give examples of cells that continually divide through adulthood those that do not generally divide but can be stimulated to do so and those believed not to divide Describe what is meant by selective gene expression and why it is important to how a cell functions When and how is karyotyping of fetal cells done Describe the two most common procedures used in the US What is nondisjunction and how does it occur What is the result Describe Down syndrome trisomy 21 the most common autosomal chromosome abnormality in humans Recognize syndromes caused by changes in seX chromosome number including Turner syndrome X0 and Klinefelter syndrome XXY De ne mutation and describe four changes that can occur in chromosome structure


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