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Cole White IV
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cole White IV on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM101A at City College of San Francisco taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/219531/chem101a-city-college-of-san-francisco in Chemistry at City College of San Francisco.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Study Guide Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Campbell et al Biology 8th ed Chapter 2 Study hint While working through this study guide make a list of key terms in the right margin Usually these terms are boldfaced in the study guides or they appear in the referenced gures Consult one of the glossaries if you are not sure of de nitions Do all concept checks 0 Application 1 Read the interview with Deborah M Gordon pp 2829 In this interview Dr Gordon draws an analogy between an ant colony and human development one ofthe topics in our class Ants communicate with each other through chemical signals which as we have seen in chapter 7 also govern communication between and within cells Location concentration and specificity give meaning to the chemical signals in an ant colony just as they do in a cell key strategy 4 What is a complex system and can cells be considered such How does exposure to UV light promote skin cancer Why are most drugs manufactured as salts Why does a human brain react to the chemical message delivered by heroin What are free radicals Why are they dangerous And why can you minimize their negative effects with antioxidants hook 01 Note usually it is not enough to write down the answers to the following questions You also need to understand and learn them For help memorizing these concepts check out the interactive quotstudy drillsquot on your CD ROM or the worksheet at the Biology Place I The big picture Cells are lipidbound droplets of water in which various ions and molecules are dissolved The properties oflife are based on chemical interactions 6 Chemical interactions are important on every level of biological organization see DNA transmembrane protein channels and ant colonies Whether atoms and molecules interact with each other and to which effect depends on their location concentration and specific Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 1 structure key concept 4 Illustrate this concept with examples from different levels I Some ofthe bonds that hold molecules together need to be strong others need to be weak Why Give examples II Elements and atomic structure As Chemistry 101A is a prerequisite for Biology 101A I assume that you are familiar with the following terms If not please review nucleus number number weight isotope level shell electron shell formula formula covalent reactions G How many of the 92 naturally occurring elements are essential to life 0 Name the six elements that make up more than 98 ofhuman body weight and are constituents of proteins carbohydrates lipids andor nucleic acids mnemonic CHNOPS and list their valences Figure 29 and 10 Define the terms energy and potential energy Explain why electrons in the rst electron shell have less potential energy than electrons in higher electron shells Figure 28 III Chemical bonds Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101 A page 2 Organisms are composed of matter Atoms need to be held together in molecules and compounds to create the order necessary to make life possible remember order was one of the properties de ning life 11 From what does the reactivity of atoms arise Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 3 12 Compare and contrast the chemical bonds most important for life know 13Why is the relevance of the following information The 00 bond in DNA has a bond energy of 83 kcalmole while a mole of photons 500 nm contains 57 kcal UV light 300 nm on the other hand contains 953 kcal Refer to application question 1 14 Distinguish between single and double covalent bonds 15 Under what circumstances do polar covalent bonds occur 16 Explain how the electronegativity of atoms determines which kind of bonds they most likely form with each other 17 Compare and contrast hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions 18 How do electron orbitals affect the size and shape of molecules Figure 217 19 Give an example that illustrates how a molecule s shape can determine its biological function eg Figure 218 20 Name one factor that affects the rate of a chemical reaction 21 Explain what is meant by a chemical equilibrium Essay question 1 Compare and contrast hydrogen ionic covalent bonds and van der Waals interactions Include a definition of each bond explain between which kinds of atoms each bond forms and compare the strength ofthe different bonds Give examples where applicable Crima Pogge CCSF for Bio 101A page 4
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