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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vartan Badalian on Monday October 27, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.
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Date Created: 10/27/14
Review Sheet Acquisition Disposal Retention I Acquisitions o Colonial Land Grants I Why did colonial powers make land grants I The colonies wanted to spread Christianity and increase economic development and mercantilism I How the system worked 0 Colony Exported raw materials 0 Mother County Bought materials and manufactured it and made a good 0 Colony Bought finished goods I Under these Acquisitions what was occurring between 1776 1867 I United States was gaining more and more land through the Louisiana Purchase I Louisiana Purchase was the largest acquisition I Disposals 0 Military Land Bounties I Was taking war debt and giving it to soldiers through Federal and State land grants to these soldiers I The size and type of land offered to the soldiers was based on ranking in service I There were huge amounts of corruption involved in dealing the land out 0 General Ordinance of 1785 I What did the General Ordinance of 1785 establish I General land office Northwest Territory more importantly how the states would enter to union I Also the general land ordinance was responsible for establishing the Rectangular Land Survey System 0 This system divided the lands into 36 sections The townships distributed the lands into these squares o By dividing the land into squares it made it easy for the states to conduct surveys of these lands I General land ordinance also established the Public Education Tract o This was the first articulation of US education policy 0 Within each township Section 16 was donated to the state for support of public education 0 The Federal Government handles all 36 sections and the State government handles section 16 As time moved on more land was offered for education purposes and the distribution grew I Under the General Land Ordinance the Land was for sale but very expensive 0 Land needed to be surveyed first but not much money was allowed for surveying This caused the surveys to be slow and long process I This and among other things such as squatters caused I Preemption All you needed to do was clear the forest and live on the land after the public survey was done and the land was yours 0 Problem was that there was too much land and it was all being cleared I Railroad Land Grants 0 Began in 18509 Congress enacted a policy stating that both sides of the railroad 40 miles out were under their control 0 The ability to transport goods and resources was important and allowed for the price of land near the railroads to be very expensive Congress knew this and is why they purchased the land with the intention of selling it o The Oregon O amp C Lands controversy caused problems for Congress I The US Government originally gave the land to Oregon and California Railroad Company Huge amounts of corruption though caused the railroad grants to not function correctly I As a result of this Congress took back the land on both sides of the railroads and posted them as Environmentally protected lands and have since then been under government protection Are now the most valuable lands in the US I Homestead Act 0 Would give any white male who cleared the land improved it and held a family there for 5 years 160 acres 0 The problem was that this didn t account for the 100 Meridian line I Anything to the right of the line was too wet and anything to the left was too dry I Along with this failure this lead to more corruption and the rich buying Annual Average Precipitation Unite States of America the land I Other Important Disp0sal E P 7 o Timber Culture Act 160 acres to anyone 0 5 ff jffquotTf Sltrge3Ta orS eclimatologist who would plant 40 acres with trees 0 Desert land Act 640 acres to anyone who would irrigate it in 3 years 0 Timber and Stone Act Land for logging and mining not to be used for farming I Great Divide New Thoughts and Ideas 0 George Perkins Marsh Ambassador for Lincoln and Congressman for Vermont I Stated a view regarding Man and Nature I When man neglects the conditions of the land That man and his civilization will crumble eventually 0 Progressive Movement The progressive philosophy was that if you advocated for regulation of monopolies through laws and advocated for public health laws you were rewarded off of the Spoil System I Spoil System States was how people got jobs in the Civil Service I To the winner of the election went the spoils If you supported the party you got a civil service job 0 Retention I Land can be either conducted as I Withdrawals Land withdrawn form homesteading and other acquisition mechanisms I Reservations land reserved for a specific purpose EXample Yosemite grant to Cal I Reserved lands History 0 National Forests and Grasslands I 1891 Creative Act CA9 allowed the presidents the freedom to create federal forests I 1905 Forest Reserves FR I 1911 Weeks Act WA9 Allowed purchase of eastern national forests I 1960 National Grasslands I Currently o 155 National Forests 192 Million acres 0 20 National Grasslands 3 Million acres 0 National Parks I 1872 Yellowstone was reserved I 1906 Antiquities Act Gave president power to reserve National Monuments I 1916 National Park Service started 0 With the help of other factors such as reliable cars 40 hr work week vacations I 1970 Natural historic and recreational lands reserved as National Parks I Currently 388 units on 79 million acres 0 National Wildlife Refuges I 1903 First NWR was established in Florida I 1940 Fish amp Wildlife service created I Currently 520 NWRs on 95 Million acres I Current Reserved Lands9 o 261 Million Acres Mostly used for grazing and desert lands 0 700 Million Acres of subsurface mineral estate which is divided between federal state and private lands 0 Land ownership extends from underground the ground the air I You could for example sell you land underground and still retain ownership of air and land but if you don t like what the person is doing underground and its harming your owned land you cant do anything about it o Other Reserved lands I BOR9 Bureau of Reclamation I DOD9 Department of Defense I DIA9 Department of Indian Affairs I Natural Resource Agencies 0 Natural resource agencies are bureaucratic systems that are hierarchical Have clear job specialization and formalized rules 0 The Types of Agencies9 I Cabinet Agencies Are agencies such as BLM FWS9 in departments such as DOI DOA DOD I Independent Agencies9 Are agencies such as NASA CIA I Regulatory Agencies Are agencies such as EPA FERC I FERC9 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission I Government Corporations Postal Service I People and their Positions to Remember 0 Dept of Agriculture DOA9 Secretary Tom Villsack I Forest Service FS9 Chief Tom Tidwell I Natural Resource Conservation Service NRCS9 Chief Jason Weller 0 Dept of Defense DOD9 Secretary Chuck Hagel I Acquisition Center of Excellence ACE9 Lieutenant General Bostick 0 Department of Commerce DOC9 Secretary Penny Pritzker I NOAA9 National Oceanic and Aquatic Association Environmental Protection Agency EPA9 Administrator Gina McCarthy Department of Interior 9 Secretary Sally Jewel I Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA9 Secretary Washborn I Bureau of Land Management BLM9 Director Kornze I Fish and Wildlife Service FWS9 Director Dan Ashe I National Park Service NPS9 Director Jonathan Jarvis I Management Mandates for FS NPS FWS BLM 0 FS Management Mandates9 I 1897 Organic Act I 1960 Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act I 1976 National Forest Management Act I FS has managed the 5 w s 0 Wood water wildlife range recreation o NPS Management Mandates I 1970 General Authorities Act I NPS manages as such Preservation first then comes recreation o FWS Management Mandates9 I 1997 National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act I FWS manages both recreation and preservation equally o BLM Management Mandates I 1934 Taylor Grazing Act 0 O I 1976 Federal Land Policy and Management Act I BLM has managed the 5 W s 0 Wood water wildlife recreation range Land Managed Area for FS NPS FWS BLM 0 FS Land Managed9 All over US but mostly in the west 0 NPS Land Managed9 Most of the lands are in the Alaska but also partially over the United States 0 FWS Land Managed Most of the lands are in Alaska 0 BLM Lands Managed All in the west and in Alaska Agency Planning In General 0 Long term assessment which takes 50 Years into future Evaluate the supply and demand for systems resources 50 years into the future based on historic trends and predictions 0 Then every unit does a unit plan 15 years9 by units I mean National Parks Forests Refuges 0 Then these 15 year plans each get projects The Foundations of National Environmental Policy Act NEPA o NEPA requires an agency to just consider environmental effects of their actions It does not actually require them to act more environmentally o NEPA is a procedural statue which essentially means that if you follow the exact steps needed to follow you could do anything you want But if you don t follow all the steps you have to start the whole process over again 0 Environmental Impact Statement EIS Process 5 Steps9 I Notice of Intent Scoping I Draft EIS DEIS I Look at the range of alternatives 58 I Must pick the preferred alt I Must analyze the environmental consequences of each alt I Comment Period where you accept written comments I Final EIS I Where you respond to category of comments and name the preferred alt I Final decision is recorded ROD I If needed a Procedural Statue needs to be done New York States Public Land9 State Environmental Natural Resource Agencies 0 All states have an environmental protection department established I Protects waste air and water land wildlife parks 0 Department of Conservation DEC I State Forests I 780000 acres of acquired abandoned lands I also manages multiple use areas and abandoned lands 0 Wildlife Management Unit and Areas I Wildlife Management Units WMU s9 these are lands that are determined from mostly highways and water bodies Used to set hunting and trapping seasons I Wildlife Management Areas W MA s9 different from WMU WMA are listed under WMU These are acquired lands for the production and use of wildlife Used extensively for hunting and fishing and trapping OPRHP9 Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation o 178 state parks and 35 historic sites across 325 acres
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