SOC 325 Reading Notes for Exam 1, Study Guide pt. 1
SOC 325 Reading Notes for Exam 1, Study Guide pt. 1 SOC 325
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 325 at Michigan State University taught by Toby A. Ten Eyck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Play, Games, and Sports in Sociology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
SOC 325 Play Games and Sports EXAM 1 Allowed to bring an 8quotx11quot piece of paper with notes for the test can be written on both sides typed ect Neither Toby or Madeline plan to collect or look at the note paper 0 22 multiple choice questions from the readings 23 multiple choice questions from the lectures 3 short answer essay questions in which students will be required to answer 1 Essay is worth 10 points grading below 5 points if you say you have no idea how to answer any of the questions points are given for being honest though 510 is still failing 6 points if you mention something from lectures that relates to the question 7 points if you mention something from the readings that relates to the question 8 points if you mention something from both lectures and readings that relates to the question 9 points if you can tie materials from readings and lectures together in your answer 10 points if you can tie materials from readings and lectures together and say something creative that relates to the question READING NOTES Complete class notes to be submitted 106 1 The Oasis of Happiness Toward an Ontology of Play Eugen Fink Ute Saine Thomas Saine written in 1957 Play A break in monotony of life In play there isn t an end goal opposite to life Play spontaneous and impulsive Manifest human freedom Play is an existential phenomenon a central part of existence Humans didn t create it over time it just is and of its self It is and it is real Expressions and emotions Play is a strange oasis play is activity and creativity Rest spot and never ending fight to release stress Character of symbolic representation requiring the use of imagination symbolic imagination 9 requires meaning Play requires ambiguous examples when is basketball play and when is basketball game Creative act producing something by yourself re ects your existential being avoiding structure Leisure Opposite of leisure is work Leisure and play are not the same 9 play is spontaneous leisure is planned scheduled Leisure requires effort Leisure is not productive not creative necessarily Leisure end goal 9 relaxation Leisure turns into work Work Sleep existential phenomena Payoff required exchange or benefit Motivation Production Get out of work work is not enjoyable Con ict Function Not always enjoyable Physical benefits Hierarchy Identity benefits self identification Who controls the benefits and the status Creation POWER Income status Games Sports Strategy Hierarchy structure Score sometimes Rankings of performance End goal win more than once person playing doing amp Not an existential phenomena supervising more competitive ALWAYS an end goal Organized 9 Rules Consequences of winning and loosing Often spectators More complex and types of rules 2 What Is a Game by Bernard Suits 1967 To play a game is to engage in activity directed toward bringing about a specific state of affairs using only means permitted by specific rules where the means permitted by the rules are more limited in scope than they would be in the absense of the rules and where the sole reason for accepting such limiatation is to make possible such activity GamePlaying as the Selection of Inefficient Means The goal of the game is winning the game Winning is limited to but not determined by rules The Inseparability of Rules and Ends in Games Rules in games seem to be in some sense inseparable from ends to break the rule is to render impossible the attainment of an end Techical activity possible to gain an end by breaking a rule ex Gaining a trophy by lying about golf score Moral rules are perhaps generally regarded as figuring in human conduct Mortality says if something can be done only immorally it ought not to be done at all Game Rules as Not Ultimately Binding Foregoing criticism requires only a partical rejection of the proposal at issue all games correspond to the forumla Means Rather than Rules as NonUltimate Crucial limiatation general contention that in games there is something which is si gnificanly nonultimate Behavior is unaccountable and simply arbitary The decision to be arbirary may have a purpose and the purpose may be to play a game Games are activites in which rules are inseperable from ends but with the added qualificaion that the means permitted by the rules are smaller in scope than they would be in the absense of rules Rules are Accepted for the Sake of the Activity They Make Possible The function of rules in games is to restrict the permissable means to an end In games I obey the rules just because such obedience is necessary condition for my engaging in the activity such obedience makes possible In other activities there is another reason reffered to as an external reason for confroming to the rule that is binding itself Rules can be directives to attain a given end or they can be restrictions on the means to be chosen to given end Morals appear as limiting conditions in a technical activity obeying the ruled lines in a sheet of paper writing to remain straight Games consist in acting in accordance with rules which limit the permissible means to sought end rules are obeyed so an activity can take place Winning Is Not the End with Respect to Which Rules Limit Means There must be an end distinct from winning because it is the restriction of means to this other end which makes winning possible and also defines in any given game what it means to win In some cases it is possible to pursue one of these ends without pursing the others and that in some cases it is not It is possible to pursue the end of winning since you may seek the goal and also achieve it by cheating But it is impossible to seek to win without seeking to take a certain number of tricks The Definition To play a game is to engage in activity directed toward bringing about a specific state of affairs using only means permitted by rules 3 Not it More schools ban games at recess USA Today Bans on recess were passed in the name of safety but some children s health advocates say limiting excersise and free play can inhibit a child s development Dodgeball has been out of some schools for years banning games such as tag and soccer is a newer development Freedom Elementary School in Cheyenne banned tag at recess because it progresses easily into slapping and hitting and pushing instead of just touching 4 Sport and Society by Robert E Washington and David Karen Social Class and Sport Sport is a readily accessible avenue to upward social mobility is a myth that continues to fuel the American Dream Hegeomy interpreted by Raymond Williams has become an important concept in sport studies especially in relation to discussions of social class A Sports must be considered a field which has its own dynamics history and chronology and is relatively autoomous from the society of which it is a part B Sport like any other practice is an object of sturggles between the fractions of the dominant class and between the social classes C We must understand both what led to the shift whereby sport as an elite practice reserved for amateurs became sport as a spectacle produced by professionals for consumption by the masses D The relationship between a social class and its sports participation will depend on spare time economics and cultural capital and the meanings and functions attributed to the sports practices by the various social classes Bodily contact inbetween competitors A general law that a sport is most likely to be adopted by a social class if it does not contradict that social class s relation to the body at its deepest and most unconcious level Race and Sport Effects of sport participation for racial and ethic minorities on social mobility self esteem and group identity Key issues addressed are racial disparity in the payment of professional athletes stacking discrimination in allocating players positions in team sports retention barriers discriination in retaining sub star minority athletes and continuing practicces of racial exclusion or tokenism Studies suggest that NBA black players are paid from 17000 to 26000 less than white players Another study indicates that whites are paid 18 more than blacks Stacking allocating minorities to playing positions that have less control has dominated college sports and professional football basketball and women s volleyball 1998 National Football League NFL season demonstrates stacking evident in the following positions quarterback 91 white center 83 white wide receiver 92 black running back 87 black cornerback 99 black and safety 91 black John Hoberman aruges in Darwins Athletes the cultural fixation on black athletes has negatively impacted black intellectual achievement book inslted black intellectuals and black athletes but also exhibited white intellectual arrocance by suggesting that the alleged black fixation on sport had resulted in the underdevelopment of the black intellectual community Gender and Sport Scholars begin asking questions about how gender articulates with race class and sexulaity in determing patterns of sports participation and experience In 1998 1999 women made up 42 of Division I athletes rcieved 42 schoalrship monies 31 of recruiting budgets 34 of coaching salary budgets and 33 of total operating expenses Carrington 1998 argues the assertion of a masculie identity through sports allows black men to assert their racial identity in a more unified way oen that protects them from the ideologies and practices of white racism Male atheltes are seen as well muscled strong unemotional and oriented to a win at all costs code of atheltics while women appear uninterested in sports If a women engates athletically they try to spot a husband walk softely and carry big lipstick Media and Sports Relations of various media to sports have fundamentlaly altered sports Critical approaches stress the negative and ideological effects of mediated sports on political conciousness and political mobilization Transactional model presents a more complex approach that consists primarily of a research agenda on mediated sports Focuses on the audience experience amp how it differs from the stadium experince socialization effects the nature of mediated sports content the different anguages presented value motifs the links to dominant Amerian values dynamics of the mediated sports production complex comprised of sports and media organizations Circuit of capital model based on adaption of Marxian theory that focues on four moments the production of cultural products the tets that are produced how these texts are read by ordianry people the lived cultures and social relations Commerical sports had greated in uence over the daily press than did noncommercial sports because sports writers under the pressure of deadlines dpend on routine news sources Social identity The identites forged in sport which may be multiple or overlapping include gendered local ethnic national or supernational 5 Madoff s Curveball Will Fred Wilpon be forced to sell the Mets The New Yorker Coach Wilpon has ran the Mets since 1980 became a family business run by Wilpon and brother in law Saul Katz Team President Bernard L Madoff 2 years yonger than Wilpon owned and operated Bernard L Madoff Investment Securities LLC and developed a pioneering electronic stock trading operation Wilpon and Madoff met and instantly became friends Wilpon and friends began sending money to Madoff to manage The Wilpon stake with Madoff grew to be enormous eventually rose to 480 Sterling related accounts with the firm 300 or so belonged to Wilpon his partners in Sterling family members charities trusts ect one of the largest groups of Madoff investors Dec 11 2008 Wilpon and partners stake was listed at 550 million dollars and it all vanished Irving Picard lawyer at firm Baker amp Hostetler filed a lawsuit against Wilpon and partners accusing Wilpon of being an accomplice of the whole scheme We certainly wouldn t have had five hundred and fifty million dollars invested in something that s a Ponzi scheme when you know it can only evaporate at some point We didn t know Wilpon The Mets troubles have also taken a financial toll In 2009 the year Citi Field opened the Mets drew about 32 million fans 2010 attendance fell to 26 million 2011 with another poor team the Mets are on track to draw perhaps 24 million though their payroll remains a hundred and forty million dollars one of the highest in the major leagues Last year the Mets were forced into the embarrassing position of having to borrow twenty five million from Major League Baseball to tide them over for the year Wilpon pledges that the money from new outside investors will go directly into the Mets rather than be shared with other Sterling ventures An increase of just two hundred thousand fans would also add about twenty five million to the team s coffers 6 Perceptions of the appropriateness of sport fan physical and verbal aggression potential in uences of team identification and fan dysfunction Study researches quotany form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatmentquot Fan agression is linked to team identificiation when a fan feels a psycological connection to a team and need for self esteeem Fan dysfunction concerns the extent to which fans complain about various components of the fan experience eg stadium amenities and the degree to which they are confrontational eg enjoy arguing with rival fans high identified fans with low levels of dysfunction those with high levels of dysfunction were more likely to perceive alcohol consumption as an integral part of game attendance call in to sport talk radio stations although the two groups were equally likely to attend home games those in the high dysfunction group were more likely to attend away games where opportunities to confront opposing fans was greater Results of study identification was a significant predictor of perceptions of the appropriateness of verbal aggression but not physical aggression Wakefield and Warm found that highly identified dysfunctional fans tended to be more likely to be verbally aggressive towards officials than low dysfunctional but high identified fans Yeam identification was a significant negative predictor of the appropriateness of physical aggression as team identification increased the less likely participants were to be accepting of physical aggression 7 Negotiating Masculinities via the Moral Problematization of Sport Masculinity defined as the socially constructed gender ascribed to male bodies masculinity can be understood as a gendered story line or theme that shapes an individual s narrative of self and views of others Study details All of the interviewees revealed that they had been highly competitive and dedicated athletes and accepted pain and injury as somewhat normal They also detailed that alcohol had played a significant aspect in after match socializing in typically male dominated contexts Alcohol as an Ethical Sport Problem Negative feelings tension disappointment fear embarrassment worry are induced by the binge drink sport cultures encouraged by athletes and teammates The telos mode of being characteristic of the ethical subject more specifically is the type of being to which one aspires 8 Their Bottoms Are the Wrong Shape Female jockeys and the theory of established outsider relations 9 unable to find online plans to ask professor about assigned reading during class on Tuesday 106
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