Bio 1306 Exam 2 Study Guide
Bio 1306 Exam 2 Study Guide Bio 1306
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GEOL 1313 - 002
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Exam 2 Dr. Carl S. Lieb Exam II Study Guide Starting with Chapter 20: Eukaryotes 1) Eukaryotes have less metabolic diversity than Prokaryotes. Includes Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia. 2) Symbiosis: two different species that live in close association. a. Mutualism- both species benefit b. Commensalism- one benefits, one doesn’t benefit or get harmed c. Parasitism- one species benefits, the other is harmed 3)Protista Phytoplankton- photoautotrophs in aquatic systems Zooplankton- heterotrophs in aquatic systems Algae- plant-like protists Protozoa- animal-like protists Slime Molds- fungi-like protists Thallus- the body of a multicellular protest Reproduction by binary fission or sexual conjugation. Gametophyte: produces gametes that fuse to create zygotes (1n) Sporophyte: produces haploid spores by meiosis (2n) Syngamy: identical gametes Fertilization: different gametes Lineages Alveolates: Have alveoli under the cell membrane a) Dinoflagellates: phosphorescent, create red tides, aquatic b) Apicomplexans: endoparasites. Ex: Plasmodium causes malaria. c) Ciliates: have cilia. Contain a macronucleus (multiple copies) & micronucleus (diploid, divides by binary fission). Reproduce by conjugation. Ex: Paramecium Stramenopiles: aka brown plant kingdom a) Diatoms: marine, photosynthetic, lack flagella, have a shell outside of cell membrane (a test) b) Brown algae: Multicellular, marine, photosynthetic. Ex: kelp c) Water molds: Non-photosynthetic, heterotrophic, fungi-like. Ex: potato blight fungus, ick on fish Rhizaria: Amoeba-like, chemotrophic. Use pseudopods for movement & food capturing. a) Cercozoans: many habitats, chloroplasts are derived from green alga. b) Foraminiferans: aquatic, must have a test of calcium carbonate except those on deep ocean. c) Radiolarians: radial symmetry & glassy exoskeleton Exam 2 Dr. Carl S. Lieb Excavates a) Diplomonads: lack mitochondria, multiple flagella, two haploid nuclei. Ex: hiker’s diarrhea b) Parabasalids: includes all parasites. Ex: Trichomonas Vaginalis (Std) c) Heteroloboseans: 2 life cycle stages. 1-Amoeboid cells. 2-Flagellated cells. Non- parasitic. Ex: brain eating amoeba. d) Euglenids: photoautotrophic, can become heterotrophic, aquatic. e) Kinetoplastids: parasitic, kinetoplast-containing mitochondria. Ex: Tryponosomes- blood parasites Amoebozoa: move by pseudopods, eat by phagocytosis a) Typical amoebas: free-living, single celled b) Parasites: Dysentery c) Slime molds: fungus-like. Plasmodial or cellular. Ophisthokonts: Fungi and animals in their derived forms 4) Fungi Coenocytic: cells within filaments have holes that allow cytoplasm to flow between cells Mycelium: the body of a fungus Hyphae: filaments that make up the mycelium Haustoria: hyphae specialized to penetrate the cells of other organisms Heterokaryon: cells have to haploid nuclei Karyogamy: produces a zygote that reproduces by meiosis Yeasts: unicellular fungi. Not a taxon. Lineages Microsporidians: unicellular parasites, infect insects and vertebraes. Chytrids: aquatic, cause chytridiomycosis (frogs) Zygomycetes: haploid mycelium. Reproduce my fusing gametangia. Glomeromycetes: have mycorrhizae, sugars moved by phloem. Ascomycetes: have a sac in which karyogamy occurs. Includes penicillium, pathogens and lichens. Basidiomycetes: long dikaryotic stage, includes edible and deadly mushrooms. 5) Plantae Red algae: marine, red color caused by phycoerythrin, enhance coral reefs by secreting calcium carbonate Chlorophytes: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, Ex: sea lettuce Embyophyta: land plants a) Liveworts: liver- shaped gametophyte b) Mosses: swimming sperm, homosporous, can happen in polar regions c) Hornwarts: similar to liverworts but horn-shaped d) Lycophytes: vascular, swimming sperm, can be homo/heterosporous Exam 2 Dr. Carl S. Lieb e) Horsetails: homosporous, vascular f) True Ferns: homosporous, vascular, swimming sperm, primary growth. -sori: clusters of sporangia. -prothallus- what grows from a spore g) Seed plants: Gymnosperms (cones) Angiosperms (flowering plants) 6) Angiosperm Vocabulary Sepals: enclose and protect floral plants Petals: inside sepals. Stamens: inside petals. Consists of stalk (filament) and a sac with microsporangia (anther) Carpels: fused into a pistil. The base has an ovary that contains ovules. The top has a sticky pat (stigmata) that makes pollen stick. Complete flower: if a species has all four floral organs (sepals, petals, stamens, carpels) Incomplete flower: if something is missing. Ex: grass is missing petals Perfect flower: if a species has flowers with stamens and carpels Imperfect flower (dioecious): if a species only has pistil and not stamens (or vice versa) Monoecious: have male and female flowers. Ex: corn 7) Angiosperm Lineage Amborella: small group Water lilies: aquatic Star Anise: small group Magnoliids: trees in southeastern US characterized by white flowers Monocots: have one seed leaf (monocotyledonous). Include grasses, lilies, yuccas, etc. Eudicots: two seed leaves (dicotyledonous). True dicot. 8) Double fertilization in Angiosperms. Formation of female gametophyte: 1-Meiosis occurs in each ovule (megasporangium) forming four haploid megaspores 2- 3 of the 4 megaspores die 3-Remaining megaspore divides and produces a 7 cell, 8 nucleate gametophyte (embryo sac) 4-One of the cells is larger and has 2 nuclei (polar nuclei) 5-One of the cells is exposed to a part of the embryo sac (the microphyle). This one acts as an egg cell. Formation of male gametopyte: 1-Wall of microspore thickens 2-Divides to produce a 2 cell, 2 nucleus stage called pollen grain. One nucleus is the generative and the other is the tube nucleus. 3-Pollen grains are released to be transported by wind or animals Chapter 24: The Plant Body Meristems: Areas on the plant that constantly grow. Apical Meristems- tips of stems or roots Exam 2 Dr. Carl S. Lieb Indeterminate growth- continuous growth Pluripotent :Able to develop into any type of plant cell if damage occurs Toripotent: A cell from anywhere can be used to generate a new clone. 9) The Root System • Organs: roots • Functions: Absorbs water & minerals, and converts sugar into starch and stores it. The Shoot System • Organs: stems and leaves • Functions: leaves form sporophylls for reproduction, stems support plant against gravity, orient it towards the sunlight, connect leaves and roots, may be photosynthetic. 10)The Dermal Tissue System Forms epidermis. • Stomata- holes that allow gas exchange • Trichomes- leaf hairs, protect against UV rays, and used for mechanical defenses from herbivory insects • Root hairs- cylindrical projections off the roots that increase absorptive surface • Cuticle- waxy layer covering the surface of the plant body to reduce evaporative water loss 11)The Ground Tissue System Parenchyma- abundant. In leaves/stems they perform photosynthesis. In roots they store starch, in seeds it stores proteins. • Collenchyma- elongated cells with cell walls that are thick and thin. Provide structural support to stems. • Sclerenchyma- elongated cells (fibers) or short/stubby cells (sclerids) with thick cell walls that contain lignin. • Lignin- gives rigidity to stems 12)The Vascular Tissue System Transports substances within plant. • Xylem- transports water and nutrients to the plant from the roots (most cells are dead but they still function) • Phloem- composed of living cells, transports sugars to where they will be used for energy or storage (sinks). Can carry substances in different directions. Arranged into vascular bundle Exam 2 Dr. Carl S. Lieb 13)Primary/Secondary Growth Dicots and conifers can have secondary growth by the vascular cambium which is between the xylem and the phloem. • Cork cambium- cork cells that waterproof and produce bark. • Tree rings- produced because xylem cells during the summer are longer than during the spring/winter which creates growth layers. • Girdling- severs the phloem and destroys the ability to pick up water. Carving is hurtful but repairable by pluripotent cells.
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