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Chapter 1 Test Guide

by: Emily Miller

Chapter 1 Test Guide PSY-P155

Marketplace > Indiana University > Psychlogy > PSY-P155 > Chapter 1 Test Guide
Emily Miller
Introduction to Psychological and Brain Sciences
Preston Garraughty

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Introduction to Psychological and Brain Sciences
Preston Garraughty
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Miller on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P155 at Indiana University taught by Preston Garraughty in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychological and Brain Sciences in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Psychology Science of behavior and the mind Science because a particular set of methodological procedures are employed in the collection analysis and interpretation of data Objectivity Scientist s daytoday job systematic collection of data In everyday language these datafacts What is a fact Facts have the following properties 1 social consensus all or most people believe the fact to be true It is a fact that abortion is wrong opinion versus fact something may be a fact but not be true something may be true but not a fact eg solar system 2 relativity in time and place time the world is flat place animistic beliefs 3 facts do not require direct sensory data cf seeing is believing subatomic particles gravity mind Facts are rather tenuous but they are the raw material of science and the building blocks with which theories are constructed How does one get from facts to theories Induction The logical process that involves making general statements ie generalizing from a set of observations Having observed a few mean professors you arrive at the generalization by induction that all professors are mean Having observed a few lazy students I arrive at the generalization that all students are lazy Why would one reason like this cognitive economy rules of thumb What can go wrong stereotypic thinking prejudice The validity of an induction is only probable based on the weight of the evidence As the number of observations increases one s confidence in an inductive generalization increases Deduction The logical process that permits one to infer conclusions from a set of premises Some premises are assumptions eg behavior is lawful Others are inductive generalizations If one s premises are valid deduced conclusions are certain P 2 Q P Q Always If on even 1 occasion P Q then P 2 Q cannot be true associationism 9 law of contiguity sun rises 9 rooster crows relation of rewards or punishers to behavior If a response is followed by a punisher is it less likely to recur Having observed an instance of response weakening when followed by a punisher you use inductive reasoning to assert that any response will be weakened if followed by a punisher Law of Effect What if there is a large temporal separation between the response and the punisher Assume law of contiguity it has become part of your premise and then test predictions arrived at via deduction P premise 3 Q deduced consequence of premise conditioned taste aversion THEORY EVALUATON 1 Testability 2 Falsi ability 3 Responsiveness 4 Parsimony 5 Heuristic GOALS OF SCIENCE 1 Description operational de nitions 2 Explanation understanding 3 Prediction 4 Control DETERMINISM Philosophical position that asserts that Universal order exists and thus that all events are in principle predictable All events Free will vs Determinism No Free will vs Compulsion Determinism vs Indeterminism Predictability vs Nonpredictability Is behavior predictable MIND BODY PROBLEM Descartes Dualism of Descartes BODY SOUL Physical Nonphysical Automatic Free will Natural law Random Science No science Monism Hobbes Materialism British empirieism Locke Hume Mill Human mind Set of Elementary Ideas derived from sensory experience tabula rasa These were the rst explicit associationists Wundt Leipzig 1879 Reaction time atoms of the mind Titchener Introspection Structuralism What are its parts quality intensity duration clarity texture color etc William James Funetionalism Darwin How does it workwhat is it used for Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov John Watson BF Skinner Gestalt organized whole Wertheimer phi phenomenon Physiological psychology AKA Behavioral neuroscience Cognitive S O R vs SR FREUD 1 Developmental Psychology 2 Abnormal 3 Personality 4 Clinical 5 Unconscious 6 Psychopharmacology


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