Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide
Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide 100
Popular in PSY 100
Popular in Psychlogy
This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Beeson on Tuesday October 28, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at Santa Barbara City College taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 293 views. For similar materials see PSY 100 in Psychlogy at Santa Barbara City College.
Reviews for Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/28/14
Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide This was based off terms concepts from the online quizzes WEEK 5 SUMMARY our awareness of ourselves and our environment Cognitive neuroscience is the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our mental processes the two track mind we are aware of what we are consciously processing but much of our brain39s work occurs subconsciously o Conscious high track 0 Unconscious low track 0 Perception memorythinkinglanguage attitudes operate both on a conscious and unconscious level I Ex vision 0 Unconscious parallel processing is faster than conscious sequen tial processing but both are essential a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it 0 Ex when a ball is thrown at someone with blindsight they will automatically duck without knowing why because they didn39t consciously see the ball the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus we disregard a lot of what our senses take in inattentual blindness failing to see visual object when our attention is directed elsewhere 0 Ex When focusing on the players passing a ball people often failed to notice the man in a gorilla suit walking through the game failing to see change 0 Ex when the man providing directions to a construction worker didn39t notice that the worker was replaced by another after they were rudely interrupted by experimenters passing a door between them the biological clock regular bodily rhythms like temp wakefulness that occur on a 24hour cycle even with no input from the sun 0 Young people become more energized throughout the day 0 Older people lose energy throughout the day Sleep stages studied by EEG patterns of brain waves and muscle movements every 90 min you cycle through 4 distinct sleep stages 0 Alpha waves are relatively slow brain waves caused by a relaxed awake state occurs right before NREM 1 sleep 0 NREM1 sleep you may experience hallucinations sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus ie falling oating weightlessly o NREMZsleep you relax more deeply and fall asleep for the first time after about 20 minutes of NREM 2 sleep periodic occur bursts of rapid rhythmic brain wave activity o NREM3 sleep deep sleep 9 slow wave sleep lasts about 30 min and brain emits large slow delta waves and you are hard to wake o REM sleep rapid eye movement occurs when you are dreaming muscles relaxed but other body systems are active REM Sleep about an hour after you first fall asleep you ascend out of a deep slumber returning through NREM 2 where you spend half of your night 9 you enter REM sleep for about 10 minutes your brain waves are rapid saw toothed close to those of nearly awake NREM 1 sleep heart rate increases and breathing becomes more rapid every 30 sec your eyes dart around in momentary bursts of activity with eyes closed o Eye movements 9 beginning of a dream o Genitals become aroused in REM sleep regardless of whether the dream is sexual o Brain39s motor cortex is active during REM sleep but brainstem blocks its messages 9 muscles relaxed and paralyzed o You cannot be easily awakened o REM sleep occurs more frequently throughout the night Sleep pattern affected by bright light by activating light sensitive retinal proteins 9 signals the brain 9 production is decreased melatonin is a sleep inducing hormone Sleep Theories o Sleep protects o Sleep helps us recuperate o Sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day39s experiences o Sleep feeds creative thinking o Sleep promotes growth Effects of sleep deprivation o Brain diminished attention focus and memory consolidation increased risk of depression o Immune system suppression of immune cell production and increased risk of viral infections ie colds Fat cells increased production 9 greater risk of obesity oints increased in ammation and arthritis Heart increased risk of blood pressure Stomach Increased hunger arousing ghrelin and decreased hunger suppressing leptin o Muscles decreased strength slower reaction time and motor learning the tendency for REM sleep to increase after REM sleep deprivation created by many awakenings during REM sleep Major sleep disorders o recurring problems in falling staying asleep very common it39s worsened by worrying about it OOOO o sudden attacks of overwhelming sleepiness lasts lt 5 min and it can occur at any time in extreme cases the person collapses into a brief period of REM sleep with loss of muscular tension 0 a condition in which people intermittently stop breathing during sleep occur in children and is a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an occurrence of being terrified occurs during NREM 3 23 hrs after falling asleep 0 in the family an NREM 3 disorder is usually a childhood disorder and runs Sleep aids exercise regularly avoid caffeine after the early afternoon relax before bedtime with dimmer light sleep on a regular schedule and avoid naps Hid the clock face so you aren39t tempted to check it regularly reassure yourself that temporary sleep loss causes no great harm avoid stress Summary of why we dream Theory Explanation Freud39s wish fulfillment Dreams provide a psychic safety value expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings contain manifest remembered content and a hidden meaning Info processing Dreams help us sort out the day39s events and consolidated our memories Physiological function Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop preserve natural pathways Neural Activation REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories which our sleeping brain weaves into stories Cognitive development Dream content represents dreamers cognitive development their knowledge and their experiences WEEK 6 SUMMARY toxins viruses drugs that can damage an embryo or fetus o Alcohol can depress activity in the CNS it may cause the offspring to be more at risk for abuse of alcohol and could put fetus at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome FAS 9 small disproportioned head and life long brain abnormalities the orderly sequence of biological growth it sets the basic course of development experience adjusts it Brain development o Frontal lobe development occurs 1 and continues throughout life 0 Association areas are the last to develop I After puberty begins use it or lose it and it shuts down unused links and strengthens others NATURE AND NURTURE SCULPT OUR SYNAPSES Brain maturation 9 an abundance of neural connections experiences strengthen pathways We have a for some skills an optimal period early in life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development 0 Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence 9 inability to master any language same with seeing people normally don39t have conscious memories of when they are younger than 3 years old 0 Hippocampus and frontal lobes memory centers continue to mature into adolescence 0 But forgotten childhood languages can be relearned up to age 40 what the conscious mid doesn39t knowcan39t express in words the nervous system our 2 track mind somehow remembers all the mental activities associated with thinkingknowing remembering communicating 0 Piaget the child39s mind isn39t a mini model of an adult s children reason differently than adults the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived 67 year olds too young to perform mental operations o Ex milk may seem too much if poured in a tall glass vs a short wide glass 0 the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape preschoolers have difficulty perceiving things from another s point of view I Curse of knowledge present in adults adults assume that something will be clear to others people will understand people39s ideas about their ownother s mental states and the behaviors these might predict 0 About their feelings perceptions thoughts Read other people39s intentions 0 Children with 2 have difficulty understanding that another s state of 1 differs from their own the state of cognitive development 711 years old during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events 0 They can grasp conservation and enjoy jokes 2 a disorder marked by social deficiencies o Caused by poor communication among brain regions that normally work together 0 Experience an 9 They have trouble reading facial cues emotions decreased mirror neuron activity 0 a high functioning form of autism normal intelligence and an exceptional skill but deficient social and communication skills 0 More common in males by 12 years old our reasoning expands from the purely concrete to abstract thinking 9 hypothetical situations 0 systematic reasoning logic involving abstract objects ideas people develop a new sense of what is fair and they reason hypothetically Social development around 8 months object permanence emerges 9 infants develop a powerful survival impulse for infants that keeps infants close to their caregivers 0 Body contact important 0 Familiarity important forms during critical period 9 kids are more comfortable when put in strange situations when their parent is with them they approach life with a sense of basic trust I Caused by sensitive responsive mothers 0 9 other infants avoid attachment and they are less likely to explore surroundings and my cling to their mother they may go through life anxious and constantly searching for acceptance or they may exhibit avoidance and avoid close relationships I Caused by insensitiveunresponsive mothers a person39s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity 0 ABUSE BREEDS ABUSE 3 Parenting Styles 0 too hard parents impose rules and expect obedience I Often kids from these families have low self esteem social skills 0 too soft parents submit to their child39s desires they make few demands and use little punishments I Often kids from these families become aggressive and immature o just right parents are both demanding and responsive they exert control by setting rules but especially with older children they encourage open discussion and allow exceptions I Often kids from these families have the highest self esteem social competence self reliance the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong Kohlberg Level approximate age Focus Example Preconventional morality before 9 years old Self interest obeys rules o avoid punishment gain concrete rewards If you save your dying wife you39ll be a hero Conventional morality early adolescence Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval maintain social order If you steal the drugs for her everyone will think you39re a criminal Postconventional morality Actions re ect belief in basic People have a right to live adolescence and beyond rights and self denied ethical principles quick gut feelings the mind makes moral judgments quickly and automatically being able to feel understand others feelings kids who learn this are more socially responsible academically successful productive a consistent comfortable sense of who one is 0 Social identity the we aspect of our self concept o As adolescents develop their own identity they pull away from their parents 9 decrease in parental in uence and increase in peer in uence Adulthood o Early adulthood 20s 30s o Middle adulthood 30s 65 o Late adulthood 65 EXPECTATION INFLUENCE PERCEPTIONS SOME PEOPLE ACCEPT AGING BETTER THAN OTHERS Exercise slows aging WEEK 7 SUMMARY Learning we learn in two ways 1 through experience 2 via association o Learned associations feed our habitual behaviors o Learning happens through classical operant and biopsychosocial inputs we learn to associate 2 stimuli and anticipate events 0 Stimulus any event situation that evokes a response we learn to associate a response our behavior and its consequences 9 we repeat acts that cause good results and we avoid acts followed by bad results we change our behavior in response to consequences CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND OPERANT CONDITIONING ARE BOTH TYPES OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING AND THEY OFTEN OCCUR TOGETHER the acquisition of mental info through watching others it lets us learn from other s experiences Classical conditioning vs Operant conditioning Automatic respondent behavior Involves chosen operant behaviors We learn to form associations between stimuli a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus Organisms associate their own actions with consequences This causes us to become conditioned This type of conditioning is more active it39s based on choice Pavlov observed that his dog drooled when he gave it food a a behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus 9 he developed classical conditioning in which he trained his dog to drool in response to the sounding of a bell NS a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning I Ex ringing a bell UR an unlearned naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus an unlearned automatic association I Ex salivation US a stimulus that unconditionally naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response I Ex food in the mouth CS the stimulus that used to be neutral I Ex ringing a bell CR a response that used to be unconditioned based off expectations I Ex salvation because of ringing a bell CONDITIONED LEARNED UNCONDITIONED UNLEARNED Neutral stimulus 9conditioned stimulus via association 5 Major Conditioning Processes o the initial learning of an association I Smells objects sights associated with sexual pleasure 9 CS for sexual arousal Ex onion breath 9 sexual arousal US passionate kiss 9 UR sexual arousal NS onion breath US passionate kiss 9 UR sexual arousal CS onion breath 9 CR sexual arousal o z the diminishing of a conditioned response occurs when an unconditioned stimulus doesn39t follow a conditioned stimulus I Ex dog stopped reacting to the bell CS when it was rung a ter it had food US the reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response CR I Ex the dog began to salivate again but less after the tone had sounded when a couple of hours had passed 0 the tendency to respond likewise to stimuli similar to the CS I Ex a dog conditioned to the sound of 1 tone also responded to the sound of a new different tone same response to a similar stimuli I Generalized fears can linger o z the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus CS and other irrelevant stimuli no response to different similar stimuli I Ex Pavlov s dogs were taught to distinguish between bell sounds and associate one with the presence of food only 1 tone 9 drooling Skinner His experiments focused on behavior control his work elaborated on Edward Thorndike s rewarded behavior is likely to recur he designed an aka Skinner box o The operant chamber had a lever disk that the animal could learn to manipulate to receive foodwater and a device to record responses Behavior gradually guiding behavior toward closer and closer approximations of desired behavior it works best when you build on existing behaviors o Successive approximations rewarding for better and better behavior while ignoring all other responses 9 gradual shaping of complex behaviors REINFORCEMENT any consequence that strengthens behavior o strengthens a response by adding a pleasurable stimulus after a response 0 strengthens a response by reducing removing something negative I Both increase the rate of operant responding o z innately reinforcing stimulus one that satisfies a biological need foodwater unlearned aka secondary reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce I Ex money good gradespleasant tone of voice etc 9 reward I Ex if a rat in skinner s box learns that a light reliably signals a food delivery the rat will work to turn on the light Light a conditioned reinforce reward occurs immediately after the desired action behavior many animals respond best to this Humans do respond to this well ie paycheck at the end of the week good grade at the end of the semesteretc REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES o reinforces a response after a specific number of responses I Ex getting paid for every 10 boxes you make provides reinforcement after a seemingly unpredictable umber O O of responses I Most effective type of reinforcer I Ex Hitting the jackpot sometimes on the slot machine o reinforce the 1 response after a fixed period of time I Ex getting paid once a week reinforce the 1 response after a varying period of time I Ex winning sometimes on a lottery you play once a day also variable ratio O RESPONSE RATES ARE HIGHER WITH RATIO SCHEDULE RESPONSES ARE MORE CONSISTENT WITH VARIABLEINTERVAL SCHEDULE 0 PUNISHMENT any consequence that decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior 0 adds something unpleasant I Ex spanking a child take something pleasant desired away I Ex no TV time no attention 0 Physical punishment can 1 temporarily negatively reinforce punishing behavior 2 teach discrimination amongst situations ie child may learn to not swear around the house vs not swear at all 3 teach child to associate fear with the undesirable behavior and with the person delivering the punishment 4 increase aggression by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems O REINFORCEMENT TELLS YOU WHAT TO DO PUNISHMENT TELLS YOU WHAT NOT TO DO reinforcement is much more effective than punishment I Koelling and Garcia helped discover the idea that animals capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology and each species predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that enhance its survival by studying rats o Learned that occurs but not sightsound aversion but birds can acquire sight aversion of tainted food o Animals do what is natural for them I A monkey won39t learn to ap its arms to obtain food because that is not a natural thing for a monkey to do I z 9 we acquire mental info that guides out behavior I Rescorla and Wagner showed that animals can learn the predictability of an event o The more predictable the association the stronger the conditioned response I a mental representation of the layout of one s environment 0 Ex a rat memorizing a maze I learning that occurs but isn39t apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it I Motivation 0 z the desire to perform a behavior because you enjoy it I Rewarding kids for reading decreases the time they spend reading behaving a certain way to gain external rewards or avoid threatened punishment O done by higher animals learn without direct experience by watching imitating others 0 the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior I Ex children watching the adult lash out at a Bobo doll were more likely to lash out at it too when upset I Bandura his Bobo doll experiment showed that in the frontal lobe fire when observing another perform certain actions 0 Mirror neurons allow people to empathize with others and infer another s mental state 9 emotions are contagious our brains fire in the same regions when observing as those when experiencing something WEEK 8 SUMMARY I MEMORY learning that39s persisted overtime info that is acquiredstoredmay be retrieved Memory is driven by the HIPPOCAMPUS I tested by 1 recall retrieving info that was learned at an earlier time ex fill in the blank test 2 recognition identifying items previously learned ex multiple choice test 3 relearning learning something more quickly when you learn it again I Information Processing Model o get info into the brain 0 retain that info 0 later get info back out I Atkinson amp Shiffrin s Memory Forming Model 0 We record to be remembered info as eeting 0 We process some info into memory we encode it through rehearsal 0 Info moves to memory for later retrieval Working memory and automatic processing were added to this model as well I focuses on conscious active processing of incoming info and info retrieved from long term memory emphasizes the active processing that occurs in the middle stage aka I factsexperiences we can consciously know declare 0 These memories are encoded through I Other info skips conscious encoding and gets put straight into storage via o aka we don39t choose to remember them we just do ie learning how to ride a bike do something 0 Automatic processing includes procedural memories for automatic skills and classically conditioned associations among stimuli I Ie feeling nervous when going to the dentist because you associate it with pain HAPPENS AUTOMATICALLY I You automatically process the space where you learned something sequence of events in time and the frequency that things occur AUTOMATIC PROCESSING FREES YOUR BRAIN UP TO FOCUS ON OTHER TASKS I s our active working memory 0 a eeting sensory memory of visual stimuli I Sperling s experiment showed that the visual screen clears quickly and new images are superimposed over old ones 0 eeting memory for auditory stimuli I Effortful Processing strategies 0 Info is organized into familiar manageable units 9 easy recall 0 memory aids esp those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices I Chunking mnemonics great memory aids for UNFAMILIAR material 0 a few broad concepts that are divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts 0 the tendency for distributed study time to yield better long term retention 0 repeated self testing 9 enhances memory after retrieving info I Levels of Processing o encoding on a very basic level I Ex word39s letters sounds 0 semantically encoded based on meaning of words I The deepermore meaningful the processing the better our retention I Explicit Memory System Frontal Lobe and Hippocampus process and store the effortful processed explicit memories facts episodes o does working memory processing selects what to pay attention to I Left frontal lobe can recall a password and hold it in working memory I Right frontal lobe can recall a visual scene o a temporal lobe neural center located in the limbic system brain39s equivalent to a save button for explicit memories I Damage to the HIPPOCAMPUS disrupts recall of explicit memories I Left hippocampus damage 9 trouble remembering verbal info but have no trouble recalling visual designs and locations I Right hippocampus damage 9 trouble remembering visual designs and locations but no trouble recalling verbal info surrounding hippocampus support the processing and storage of explicit memories 0 Memory is not permanently stored in the hippocampus it is a loading dock where the brain registers and temporarily holds elements of a remembered episode I Damage to the hippocampusfrontal lobes affects explicit memories only you can still do automatic processing I Implicit Memory System o Automatic processing 9 implicit memories for skills and conditioned associations o plays a major role in forming storing implicit memories created by classical conditioning I Damaged cerebellum 9 people can39t develop conditioned re exes IMPLICIT MEMORY FORMATION NEEDS THE CEREBELLUM o deep brain structures involved in motor movement it facilitates formation of our procedural memories of skills I Ex learn how to ride a bike o controls fearaggression emotion releases stress hormones that initiate a memory trace in frontal lobes and basal ganglia and boosts activity in the brain39s memory forming areas I a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment event 0 The implicit memory system helps explain why reactions and skills we learned during infancy reach far into our future even though we experience infantile amnesia when it comes to our conscious memory I occurs because 1 we index many explicit memories using words that non speaking children haven39t learned 2 hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature I provides a neural basis for learning and remembering associations o After LTP has occurred passing an electrical current through brain won39t disrupt old memories but it will erase recent memories I Retrieval Cues bits of stored info you store that are related to the info you want to remember 0 z memory less memory invisible memory without your conscious awareness it can in uence behaviors o Putting yourself in context where you experienced something can prime your memory retrieval 0 what we learn in one state drunk sober is most easily recalled when we are in that state again I Closely related to context dependent memory 0 our tendency to recall best the last recency effect and first primacy effect items in a list FORGETTING IS NECESSARY FOR NORMAL FUNCTIONING I Recall patient A who remembered everything from her life and was miserable 9 you can recall the past but you can39t form new memories o VERY BAD can39t make new memories because the hippocampus is broken I 9 you can39t recall the past anything from long term memory o More common people can recover from it 0 People with amnesia can still learn nonverbal implicit tasks ie being able to find their way to the bathroom I a lot of what we see we never notice 9 fail to encode it 9 never remember it I Ebbinghaus the course of forgetting is initially rapid then levels off with time I many times forgetting isn39t faded memories but memories not retrieved o Ex tip of the tongue sensation I Interference long term memory is essentially limitless so memories are rarely faded just obstructed o forward acting occurs when prior learning disrupts recall of new info 0 backward acting occurs when new learning disrupts recall of old info I Freud argued that we 2 painful unacceptable memories to protect out self concept and reduce anxiety o Many psychologists don39t believe in repression replacing original memory with a slightly modified version each time it is recalled exposed to misleading info we tend to misremember thinking something you made up to be a real memory aka source misattribution attributing the wrong source to an event we have experienced o Helps explain d ja vu WEEK 9 SUMMARY the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering communicating information mental groupings of similar objects events ideas people they simplify our thinking o Concepts are formed by developing a a mental image best example of a category I Ex Robins most closely resemble our bird prototype vs a penguin I Ex Chair a prototype because there are many different types of chairs that are all a part of the same concept Problem Solving o step by step procedures that guarantee a solution I Con they can be laborious exasperating it39s what a computer does a simple thinking strategy that allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently an educated guess I Con they are speedier but also more prone to errors than algorithms 0 good for perfecting an invention I Con very laborioustedious o 2 abrupttrue seeming and often satisfies a solution Ah ha moment I oke punch lines rely on insight I Frontal lobe focuses attn 9 burst of activity in right temporal lobe Aha o a tendency to search for info that supports preconceptions and to ignore distort contradictory evidence I PEOPLE PREFER BELIEF CONFIRMATION o an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective I Ex our tendency to approach a problem with the mind set of what has worked for us previously operates when we estimate the likelihood of events based on how mentally available they are ex in tuition o Ex casinos entice people to gamble by signaling small wins with bells lights vividmemorable while keeping big losses soundlessinvisible o It can distract our judgments of other people too I Ex 911 9 dramatic shaping of all Middle Eastern people not just the extremists o It can cause us to fear the wrong things I Ex ying vs driving way more car crashes but people fear ying more because plane crashes are more dramatic the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge judgments o Ex we are overconfident in the amount of time it will take to do a school project clinging to one s initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited the way we present an issue 9 sways our decisions judgments 0 Very persuasive o Ex people are less likely to accept a surgery when told they have a 10 chance of dying vs 90 chance of surviving our spoken written signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning 0 smallest distinctive units in a language they aren39t letters but the sounds letters groups of letters make I Ex chat 9 ch a t o the smallest units that carry meaning in a given language some morphemes can be phonemes I Ex I a bat pre ed people39s ability to understand what is said to about them 0 people39s ability to produce words Month approximate Stage O4 Receptive language associate sounds with facial movements and recognize when sounds are broken into words 4 Infant babbles more speech sounds Ah goo Productive language 10 Babbling resembles household language Ma ma 12 Child enters 1word stage kitty 24 Child enters 2wordtelegraphic speech stage get ball 24 I Language develops rapidly into complete sentences the small window of time in which a child is able to master certain aspects of a language o The older a person is when learning a new language the harder it will be to learn the language culture an impairment of language caused by damage to cortical areas o Damage to left frontal lobe 9 trouble speaking words but can still sing familiar songs comprehend speech I Can39t make the mouth muscle work to speak o Damage to left temporal lobe 9 people can only speak meaningless words and it disrupts understanding the ability to master control over one language while using another o Bilingual people feelthink differently depending on the language they use the ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations o It39s a concept 0 Spearman believed we have one the heart of all our intelligent behavior Gardner39s 8 intelligences 1 naturalist 2 linguistic 3 logical mathematical 4 musical 5 spatial 6 bodily kinesthetic 7 intrapersonal 8 interpersonal o a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has exceptional specific skill like a prodigy I Ex computationdrawing I These people are low on intelligence tests even though they can render incredible works of artperformances math etc Sternberg s 3 intelligences 1 analytical intelligence school smarts 2 creative intelligence adaptive abilities 3 practical intelligence street smarts DESPITE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THERE Is sTILL A GENERAL INTELLIGENCE G THAT MATTERS z the know how involved in social situations and managing yourself successfully the ability to perceive understand manage use emotions Perceive emotions recognize them in faces Understand emotions predicting them and how they may change blend Managing emotions knowing how to express them in varied situations Using emotions to enable adaptive creative thinking I Often times people have low emotional intelligence OOOO Summary of theories Theory Summary Strengths Spearman s general A basic intelligence predicts Different abilities ie intelligence g verbal spatial do have some tendency to correlate our abilities in varied academic areas Gardner39s multiple intelligences Intelligence is more than just verbal and math skills other abilities are equally important to our human adaptability Our abilities are best classified into 8 intelligences which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts Sternberg s triarchic theory Our intelligence is best classified into 3 areas that predict real world success analytical creative practical These three domains can be reliably measured assess people39s mental abilities and compare them with others using number scores 0 O Binet developed the first intelligence test he believed intelligence isn39t fixed it can be helped I He developed the concept of the level of performance typically associated with a certain chronological age Terman developed the test widely used in America he believed that intelligence is innate 9 forced sterilization of people with low IQs so they could not reproduce Stern developed the test a ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 I Perfect score for a certain age 100 anything above is above average anything below is below average I Most people fall between 85115 Wechsler developed the and the I for kids the most widely used intelligence test I It is much more versatile than original intelligence tests it tests similarities vocab block designletter number sequencing Good tests are 0 O O uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores that are compared with performance of a pretested group your score vs other s scores CONSISTENT the extent to which a test yields consistent results I Tested by splitting the test in half and making sure the scores correlate 2 CORRECTNESS the extent to which the test actually measures predicts what it promises I Ex measuring people with an un calibrated measuring tape 9 reliable results but not valid results our accumulated knowledge as re ected in vocabulary and analogies tests 0 It INCREASES with age our ability to reason speedily and abstractly as when solving novel large problems o It DECREASES with age beginning in the 20s 30s slowly up to 75 the quickly up to 85 is the substantial and long sustained increase in both uid crystalized intelligence scores measured in many parts of the world from 1930s to today a condition of limited mental ability 0 S 70 on an intelligence test a condition of mild 9 severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 2 a developmental disorder that appears in the firs 3 years of life and affects the brain39s normal development of social communication skills INTELLIGENCE RUNS IN FAMILIES IT IS HIGHLY GENETIC There is no one intelligence gene it is polygenetic Adoption studies show that identical twins who grow up together have very similar intelligence test scores The environment matters too 0 Environment differences amongst children 9 predict intelligence scores 0 Severe deprivation leaves footprints on the brain of young developing children I Ex poorly run orphanages 9 slow development of children 2 a social construction without well defined physical boundaries OUR EXPECTATIONS AND ATTITUDES CAN INFLUENCE OUR PREDICTIONS AND BEHAVIORS a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype 0 Ex if you worry that your gropetype doesn39t do well on tests self doubt and self monitoring may negatively affect your working memory 9 impaired performance The belief that intelligence is changeable 9 focuses on learning and growing
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'