Non-Destructive Testing of Paper Lab
Non-Destructive Testing of Paper Lab 42488
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brenna Roti on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 42488 at Western Michigan University taught by Margaret Joyce in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro Pulp/Papr Mfg in Paper Engr at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
NonDestructive Testing of Paper PAPR 1000 Brenna Roti William Hettel and Dylan Felt September 21 2015 Abstract By studying the nondestructive properties one is able to compare the distinctions in the properties of different types of paper The properties measured included optical properties such as brightness smoothness gloss and opacity Physical properties were tested as well such as caliper and basis weight Other orientations include the paper s machine and cross direction in addition to the wire and felt side of the paper Determining these properties will assist in determining the capabilities of the paper for its end use Tests were conducted on two different types of paper copy paper and recycled paper Recycled paper was found to have the highest basis weight thickest caliper greatest bulk highest moisture content highest porosity and greatest opacity Meanwhile the copy paper had the greatest density greatest brightness highest gloss and was the smoothest Introduction Paper is not just used to be written on There are many different types of paper that are used for many different purposes Some papers are used for printing or like in notebooks are used for pencil or pen Companies use packing paper so their products will not get damaged through the shipping process Packing paper has to be thicker and stronger to make sure the product is sturdy while notebook paper can be thinner because it just has to support the pencil writing on it Copy paper needs to be thick enough that it will not rip when going through a printer but it also needs to be nice and smooth so professional documents can be printed on this type of paper All papers have different property requirements which decide their suitability in the market place The reason different papers are so diverse is because of all the different properties that can be modi ed to make a certain type of paper capable of meeting its demands There are many different nondestructive tests to determine the differences between papers These tests include basis weight caliper bulkdensity machinecross direction moisture content opacity brightness gloss smoothnessroughness and porosity Each of these tests yield different results for each type of paper and through these results it is possible to understand the best use for each paper Caliper how thick a piece of paper is uses a micrometer and is measured in 11000 inch or 1 mil Gloss is measured by the observer at a seventy ve degree angle and the units are a percent It may be measured by observation at a seventy ve degree angle but within the machine the light that is re ected is either on a seventy ve or twenty degree angle and that is how it is calculated The machine direction and cross direction have to be taken into account because the machine and cross directions of paper vary in both strength and gloss If all of the bers were the same way the paper would just fall apart and if they were crossed but not close enough there would be holes Without knowing the machine and cross direction different paper grades would have inaccurate results when compared Roughness helps determine the wire and felt sides It measures the surface atness of a given sheet of paper They are measured by the air ow occurring across a metal annulus in contact with the paper according to the Handbook F or Pulp amp Paper Technologists by Gary A Smook Porosity is measured by the amount of time in seconds it takes for one hundred milliliters of air to ow through the paper in seconds100mL Opacity is measured in the percentage of light that transmits through a piece of paper Opacity is the difference in transmittance of light through a black background over a white background Brightness just like opacity deals with re ected light and has percent as its units The light is re ected from the blue region which to humans makes something look brighter at a wavelength of 457 nanometers into a photo tube so it can be recorded Moisture like opacity and brightness is measured as a percent Moisture level is measured from an oven by calculating the change in weight of the paper sample before it is dried and after it is dried Basis weight is measured by taking the mass in grams and dividing it by the area in meters squared Basis weight massgaream2 Density is measured by dividing mass by volume or gramscm3 Bulk is the inverse of density or cm3 grams Procedures This experiment was almost identical to the TAPPI standard The TAPPI standard stated to collect ten samples of each test which was done except for moisture content in which only four samples were collected All tests were conducted in a room set to TAPPI standard conditions twentythree degrees Celsius and fty percent humidity TAPPI Standard Test Units T410 Basis Weight gm2 T41 1 Caliper um T220 Bulk cm3 g T220 Density gcm3 T409 MDCD T412 Moisture T425 Opacity T452 Brightness T480 Gloss T555 Smoothness Shef eld Units T555 Porosity s100mL DiscussionResults Table 1 Averages and Standard Deviations of Copier Paper Type of Test Average Standard Deviation Caliper 986 824 Gloss 686 1684 MD 744 1924 CD 626 1584 Roughness 16797 1066 Smoothness 15207 891 Porosity 1519 303 Opacity 908 1029 Brightness 93 1 06 Moisture 4575 172 Basis Weight 757 122 Density 7686 786E4 Bulk 1303 212E3 Table 2 Averages and Standard Deviations of Recycled Paper Type of Test Average Standard Deviation Caliper 1138 256 Gloss 554 34 MD 58 39 CD 525 30 Roughness 2293 2467 Smoothness 20629 1584 Porosity 746 443 Opacity 9299 245 Brightness 723 016 Moisture 54 05 Basis Weight 774 189 Density 6805 147E4 Bulk 147 688E4 As the tables above show the recycled paper had the highest basis weight and the largest caliper therefore it is stronger than the copy paper The recycled paper also had a greater opacity meaning less light was able to pass through it than copy paper This could be explained because recycled paper had a greater caliper meaning it is thicker as seen in the tables In addition the recycled paper had greater bulk opacity and porosity The copy paper tested highest in smoothness and brightness Since the recycled paper had greater bulk and density is the inverse of bulk copy paper had greater density A main source of error occurred while measuring smoothnessroughness The felt and wire sides were not marked on each sheet meaning the same side of a sheet could have been measured twice tampering with the smoothnessroughness average and standard deviation as seen in the tables above and Figures 1 and 2 on page 7 Conclusions Recycled paper had a greater basis weight and caliper than copy paper meaning the recycled paper is stronger The recycled paper also had greater bulk moisture content opacity and porosity Meanwhile copy paper had greater gloss and smoothness than the recycled paper due to the recycled paper being coated The copy paper also had greater brightness and density FIGURE 1 quotI 39 151 Unit l i l 55 FIGURE 2 E l l 2543 l l 15 U its 39 If 555 ing Averagea an Sam Paper I 5 g E r 1 Lia r A if A E v13 hi 611 r1 7quot 391 if 3 31 39 3 135 Ti a nquot A 395 L3 3 mi quot g J T5 ll aa 4355 quot 3quot 13942quot W51 izr T4351 Averages Elf HEWEIEH Paper hr pie Ei THEEI Reference Smook G A 2002 Handbook for Pulp amp Paper Technologists 3rd rd ed pp 342343 Vancouver Canada Angus Wilde Publications Inc
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