Psychology 111 Study List 1
Psychology 111 Study List 1 PSYCH111-06
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Spohr on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH111-06 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Woolley, Fredrich A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 3 Animal examples of cerebral cortex development ranked from low to high brain development 107 Reptiles and birds have almost no cerebral cortex development Lows frog Medium cat High mammals human Mammals have a highly developed cerebral cortex which develops multiple areas that serve a broad range of higher mental functions MRICT or CAT fMRI PET scan 116117Pet shower cap Cat ex rays MRI magnets Fmri live changing images Most advanced MRI involves applying brief but powerful magnetic pulses to the head and recording how the pulses are absorbed CT takes series of Xray photos around the head from different angles Then through computerization you get a 3D image fMRI detects the twisting of hemoglobin molecules in the blood when they are exposed to magnetic pulses does not require any exposure to a radioactive substances It can localize changes in brain activity across briefer periods than PET PET harmless radioactive substance is injected into a persons bloodstream then the brain is scanned by radiation detectors as the person performs perceptual or cognitive tasks reading or speaking heritability index 109 Heritability index calculated as a proportion O to 100 0 means that genes don39t contribute individual differences in behavioral traits 1 means that genes are the only reason for the individual differences Measure of the variability of behavioral traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetics Nerve cell parts and what they do 7980 Cell body called soma largest part of the neuron that coordinates the informationprocessing tasks and keeps the cell alive Nucleaus contain DNA or genetic blueprints Dendrites receives information from other neurons and replay it to the cell body Axons sends information to muscles neurons glands Axon is covered by Myelin sheath an insulating layer of fatty material MS is composed of glial cells supports cells found in the nervous system Synapses the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous system92 Sympathetic fight or flight set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations Parasympathetic calms the body down helps the body return to a resting state Phineas Gages injury to which part of his brain 112 Frontal lobe messed his emotions Was packing an explosive charge into a crevice in a roc when the powder exploded driving a 3foot 13 pound iron rod through his head Entered through lower left jaw and exited through the middle top of his head He became irritable irresponsible indecisive and given profanity Frontal lobe is involved in emotion regulation planning and decision making Connection between frontal lobe and the subcortical structures of they limbic system were affected scientists knew more about amygdala hippocampus and related brain structures interacted with the cerebral cortex The spinal reflex reflex arc 94 Spinal reflex are simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generates muscle contraptions It sends pain inputs directly to the spinal cord Knee reflexes Doesn39t require the brain input Sends signal to the spinal cord which then issues an immediate command to motor neurons to retract What connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain 100 The corpus callosum a thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communications of information across the hemispheres Meaning that information received can pass across from right to left hemisphere and be registered virtually instantaneously Why it s good to have a wrinkled brain 100 Holds more surface area so you have more brain power The cortex with wrinkles and folds holds a lot of brainpower in relatively small package that fits comfortably inside the human skull Chapter 4 the blind spot of the eye 137 Where the optic nerve goes through the retina Brain puts stuff in location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina The retina ganglion cells axons form the optic nerve which leaves the eye through a hole in the retina Because it contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light this hole in the retina creates a blind spot Absolute threshold 129 Minimum intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus measurement a threshold is a boundary meaning a doorway into another house is a threshold A candle light lit up 30 miles away 5 types of taste receptor cells 169 Sour sweet salty bitter umami high concentration of protein like meat and cheese Binocular disparity 152 The difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depths Binocular disparity closer the object is the difference in how you see things Greater it is the closer the object is Change blindness 155 When people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene Color afterimage afterimage effect 140141 Staring too long of one color fatigues the cones that respond to the color Coloropponent system pairs of visual neurons work in opposition red sensitive cells against green sensitive When viewing a color like green the cone that respond most strongly to green is fatigued after a while The weakened signal from the green responsive cones leads to an overall response that emphasizes red redgreen yellowblue Gestalt principles closure proximity similarity continuity common fate 148149 Simplicity simplest exolanation is the best An arrow looks like an arrow not a house Closure fill in something from our memory tracing the arrowfills in the space Proximity we group things that are close together Similarity if they look the same we group them together Continuity lines edges or contours we group together Common fate elements that move together are perceived to move together as one Just noticeable difference 130 The minimal change in the stimulus that can just barely be detected a certain amount of difference of a stimulus Left and right visual fields and their relationship to the brain 141 Right side of the brain stimulate the left side of the retina Objects in the right visual field stimulate the left half of each retina and objects in the left visual field stimulate the right half of each retina The optic nerve one exiting each eye are formed by axons of retinal ganglion cells emerging from the retina Just before they enter the brain at the optic chasm about half the nerve fibers from each eye cross The left half of each optic nerve representing the right visual field runs through the brains left hemisphere and vise versa Monocular cues proximity relative size linear perspective disparity interposition 152 Monocular cues aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye Proximity objects that are closer to you are lower in your visual field while faraway objects are higher Relative sizes objects get smaller as they move away Linear perspective parallel lines seem to converge father away Railroad Disparity left and right eye view things differently lnterposition one objects partly blocks another The thing that blocks it is closer Motion parallax 154 Motion parallax when objects close appear to move faster than objects far way As we move objects that are closer to us move farther across our field of view than do objects that are in the distance Perception 127 the organization identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation Perceptual constancy 148 After initially seeing something our brain tracts an objects size shape and color even after aspects of sensory signals you still recognize a friend despite changing their hair color or style or jewelry on their face It not like Heres a new and unfamiliar face to perceive its more like Interesting heres a deviation from the way this face usually looks Phi phenomenon 154 Max Wertheimer optical illusion of perceiving continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession Apparent motion caused by a changing static image Properties of Light waves 134 Distance between the waves for color the more closer together it is more purplish the more farther the waves the more red it is Taller it is the brighter it39s gonna be purity as a whole length determines the saturation or richness in color Properties of Sound waves 157 Distance between the waves is frequency low frequency low pitched Amplitude is volume and loudness Selective attention 132 Perceiving only what39s currently relative to youThe capacity for or process of reacting to certain stimuli selectively when several occur simultaneously Sensation 127 stimulation of a sense organt is the basic registrations of light sound pressure odor or taste as parts of your body interact with the physical world Sensory adaptation 133 Whenever an intensity if stimulus goes down over time die to constant stimuli Bad smells in the bathroom goes away eventually because you get used to it Sensitivity to prolonged stimulations tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions The homunculus and which parts of the body have the most area of somatosensory cortex 102 quotLittle manquot Lips tongue and handsTouch sense Figurative representation of the relative sizes of the sensory areas of the brain The form of this model is distorted so we can see the relative sizes of the parts of the brain that correspond to parts of the body Describe the distorted human figure drawn to reflect the relative sensory space our body parts occupy on the cerebral cortex The lips hands feet and sex organs are considerably more sensitive than other parts of the body so the homunculus has grossly large lips hands and genitals Well known in the field of neurology this is also commonly called 39the little man inside the brain39 Transduction 127 The process of turning stimuli into electrical impulses When many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neutral signals sent to the central nervous system Weber s Law 130 The just noticeable differences of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity If you picked up a one ounce envelope and then a two ounce envelope you would notice the difference If you picked up twenty pound packages and then a twenty pound one ounce package you wouldn39t know the difference Why does spinning make you dizzy 161 Fluid in your ear is sloshing around and the hair in our ears can still feel it It has to take awhile before it settles downThe semicircular canals in the inner ear are filled with fluid and the canals contain sensors When you turn around the fluid moves and the sensors pick up the sensation of movement If you spin round and round your brain has trouble processing the information and that39s why you feel dizzy
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